Breath Nina and the Neurons: Brilliant Bodies


Breath

Scientist Nina and her young experimenters investigate the human body. Experimenters Freya, Laura and Wannie visit Nina in her lab and learn about how people breathe.


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# If you've got a question And you don't know where to go

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# Ask Nina for some help Cos she's got a science show

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# She makes sense of her senses While helping all her fans

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# By doing her experiments With potions and with bangs

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-# Touch your tongue.

-Tongue!

-# Fingers.

-Fingers!

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-# Eyes.

-Eyes!

-Ears.

-Ears!

-Nose.

-Nose!

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# Nina and the Neurons find out what you need to know

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# Nina and the Neurons find out what you need to know

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# Luke, he helps us with our eyes and Felix with our touch

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# Ollie sniffs out smells and scents And Belle, she hears so much

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# Bud is Ollie's brother He helps us with our taste

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# They're Nina's little Neurons And they're coming to your place!

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-# Touch your tongue

-Tongue!

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-# Fingers

-Fingers!

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-# Eyes.

-Eyes!

-Ears.

-Ears!

-Nose.

-Nose!

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# Nina and the Neurons find out what you need to know

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# Nina and the Neurons find out what you need to know

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# Oh yeah! #

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Oh, hello! I've been blowing this balloon up for ages,

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and I'm nearly finished.

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BEEPING

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I hear a beep, I see a flash. I wonder what they're going to ask.

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ALL: Hi, Nina!

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Hi, guys!

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-We've got a question for you.

-How do we breathe?

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That's a great question. "How do we breathe?"

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It's something we do all the time.

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We should find out how it works.

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Why don't you come down to my lab and we'll investigate?

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-ALL: See you soon, Nina. Bye!

-Bye!

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I'll need some help to answer this one. I know just who to ask.

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OK, Neurons. Time to get to work!

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ALL: Neurons at the ready, Nina!

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Today's question is, "How do we breathe?"

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Which Neuron will be most useful to help us find the answer?

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ALL: Me! Me! Me! Oh, me!

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Will it be fabulous Felix?

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I can help so very much, if you need the sense of touch.

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-Will it be beautiful Belle?

-I send messages to brain from ear.

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If there's a sound, I help you hear.

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-Will it be lovely Luke?

-For looking and seeing, day or night,

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I'll help you with your sense of sight.

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Will it be awesome Ollie?

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If it's pongy or whiffy but you can't tell,

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I help your sense of smell.

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-Or will it be baby Bud?

-Sour, salty, bitter, sweet,

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I'm your taste buddy whenever you eat!

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-It's Ollie AND Bud.

-CHEERS

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ALL: Go, Ollie! Go, Bud! Go, Ollie! Go, Bud! Go, Ollie! Go, Bud!

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-ALL: Go, Ollie!

-Yippee! It's you and me, Sis!

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The question is, "How do we breathe?"

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We breathe through our nose and mouth, so Ollie and Bud will help.

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I better get the lab ready before the Experimenters arrive.

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Freya likes rollercoasters, Wannie likes hummus and bread

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and Laura loves art. They want to know how we breathe.

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Today, Freya, Wannie and Laura become the Experimenters.

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-Hi, guys!

-ALL: Hi, Nina!

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Welcome to my science lab. Come in! You asked, "How do we breathe?"

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A great question. Why do you want to know?

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We know we have to breathe.

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But we want to know how we do it.

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Breathing is one of the most important things our bodies do,

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so we should do some investigating.

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Let's start by using our senses.

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ALL: Whoop-woo!

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A senses experiment! We're ready, Nina!

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So, Experimenters, how often do we breathe?

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ALL: All the time.

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That's right. Our bodies are always breathing. Even when we're asleep.

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-Do you know what it is we're breathing in?

-ALL: Air!

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That's right. Air is a type of gas that's all around us.

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Air comes in through our nose, or our mouth,

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then travels down this tube called our windpipe,

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till it reaches something called our lungs.

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Let's put our hands on our chests, and take a big breath in and out.

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What could you feel happening?

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It got bigger, and smaller again.

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It sure did, because the lungs inside our chests

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filled up with air.

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Our lungs are a bit like these balloons.

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-If we pull on a balloon, what happens?

-Stretchy.

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Yes, balloons are stretchy. And our lungs are stretchy, too.

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As our lung model will show us.

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Imagine these two balloons are our lungs inside our chest.

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-Do the balloons look big or small?

-Small.

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They look small right now, as they don't have air in them.

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But if you pull the rubber part at the bottom down, Laura,

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something very interesting might happen.

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What do you see happening?

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Getting bigger and smaller, then bigger.

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Yeah, they're getting bigger and smaller.

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The balloons get bigger, because air is forced into them

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as the rubber is pulled down. This happens in our bodies, too.

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We have a stretchy muscle, just below our lungs,

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called our diaphragm.

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Ooh, that's a tricky word, Nina!

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It is a tricky word, Belle, but important to how we breathe.

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It's the diaphragm that pulls in the air through our nose and mouth,

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down into our lungs.

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Wannie, would you like a go?

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Because our lungs are stretchy,

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they get bigger when they fill up with air.

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-I think it's time for another experiment.

-ALL: Yay!

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Our stretchy diaphragm pulls air down into our even stretchier lungs

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through a tube called our windpipe.

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What happens at the bottom of our windpipe?

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It splits in two.

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Yes, it splits in two.

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Then, these two tubes split into more and more little tubes.

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Air we breathe in travels through lots of little tubes in our lungs.

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You each have a balloon filled with air joined onto a tube.

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But the tubes are different sizes. Freya, you have a narrow tube.

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Laura, you have one a bit wider.

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Wannie, you have an even wider tube.

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Air is held in your balloons by these clips.

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You'll release your clips at the same time to let the air out.

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-What will happen?

-The balloons will go smaller.

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Yes. When a balloon loses air, it gets smaller, or shrinks.

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Watch carefully to see which balloon shrinks fastest.

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Hands onto the balloons.

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One, two, three, GO!

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-Go!

-A-ha!

-I knew it!

-NINA LAUGHS

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I knew mine was going to be the slowest.

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-Why d'you think that was?

-Because the tube is smaller.

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Air didn't move through the narrow tube as easily

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as through the wider tubes.

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This is like what happens if someone has asthma.

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I have asthma, Nina.

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-What does it feel like?

-Sometimes it's hard to breathe.

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If someone has asthma,

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the tubes in their lungs can get narrower sometimes.

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This makes it harder to breathe, as air doesn't move

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through the narrowed tubes so well.

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We can use something to help them.

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Do you have your inhaler with you, Wannie?

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-Yes, Nina.

-Can I see?

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Brilliant! The inhaler has a special medicine inside it.

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If Wannie pushes on the top, the medicine comes out as a mist

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that she breathes in.

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Never use someone else's inhaler, Nina. That would be dangerous.

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The doctor will give you one, if you need it.

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What happens when you use your inhaler?

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It makes me breathe better.

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Yes, because the special medicine helps widen any narrow air tubes.

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But why do we do all this breathing?

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To find out what happens to the air in our lungs,

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-we need to go somewhere to take our breath away. Let's go!

-ALL: Yeah!

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Here we go! I can't wait to see where we'll end up today.

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Nina said it would take our breath away.

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I do hope it doesn't take MY breath away. I don't think I'd like that.

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It's just an expression, Felix. Nina means it'll be exciting.

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Aw! I LOVE being excited! And I think we're here!

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You asked, "How do we breathe?"

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We need to know the answer, after climbing all those stairs.

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We've discovered a breath begins when we breathe air in

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through our nose and mouth. The air then travels down the windpipe

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and splits off into our two lungs.

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Inside our lungs, are lots of little air tubes.

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At the end of the air tubes are some little round things.

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-What do they look like?

-Grapes.

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They're actually called air sacs.

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Inside the air we breathe is a gas called oxygen.

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Our body needs oxygen to do lots of different jobs.

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The air sacs take the oxygen out of the air we breathe in

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and give it to our body.

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And we're going to pretend that these blue balloons are oxygen.

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-So, let's get experimenting!

-All: Yeah!

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Imagine this lift is our windpipe and we're at the top.

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The lift has a big breath of air inside it

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and your blue balloons are oxygen.

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Our breath will travel down the windpipe, into the lungs. Let's go!

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LIFT: Floor one, doors closing.

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Ooh! I can feel us going down. It's making my tummy feel strange.

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Imagine the big breath is down in the lungs, in one of the air sacs.

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What do the air sacs do?

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They give oxygen to the body.

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That's right! You'll leave your blue oxygen balloons down here

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and swap them for these red balloons.

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Air sacs don't just give the body oxygen it needs,

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they help get rid of something the body doesn't need.

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A gas called carbon dioxide. Get swapping, guys!

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Come on, let's get rid of that carbon dioxide.

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LIFT: Doors closing.

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First floor.

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What a fantastic job you did,

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taking the oxygen down into the lungs

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and bringing the carbon dioxide back up again.

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-Let's go back to the lab.

-ALL: Yes!

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# Nina and the Neurons! #

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Your question was, "How do we breathe?"

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I think we've answered it.

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The diaphragm pulls in air through our nose or mouth,

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down our windpipe into our even stretchier lungs.

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Air then passes through little tubes in the lungs,

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until it reaches the tiny air sacs at the end.

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The air sacs take oxygen from the air, and give it to our body,

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then the air sacs get rid of carbon dioxide our body doesn't need

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by sending it back up our windpipe when we breathe out.

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-I hope that's answered your question.

-ALL: Thanks, Nina! Bye!

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Bye!

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Find out more about the science that's all around us,

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and go to the Nina section on the CBeebies website. Have fun!

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-Hearts beating.

-Lungs breathing.

-Fingers feeling.

-Mouths eating.

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And don't forget your brain.

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# Brilliant bodies, brilliant bodies

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# Inside and ou-ou-out

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# Brilliant bodies, brilliant bodies

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# Come on, let's find out about

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# Our happy hands and bendy knees

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# Stretchy backs And noses that sneeze

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-# We all have brilliant bodies

-Brilliant bodies!

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# Every part has a job to do

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# Even scabs and ear wax, too

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-# We all have brilliant bodies

-Brilliant bodies!

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# Brilliant bodies, brilliant bodies

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# Lashes to protect our eyes

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# Brilliant bodies, brilliant bodies

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# And don't forget to exercise. #

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I've had a brilliant day.

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The balloons got bigger when they filled up with air.

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I've had a fabbie day!

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Taking the oxygen balloons down in the lift was amazing! Ha-ha!

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Ah, it's been such a great day, man.

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Lungs are so cool.

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Everyone's body is different, but they're all brilliant.

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-See you again soon. Bye!

-ALL: Bye!

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Scientist Nina and her young experimenters investigate the human body and find out why it is brilliant.

Nina investigates how people breathe, with the help of sense neurons Bud and Ollie. Experimenters Freya, Laura and Wannie visit Nina in her lab and discover that people have two stretchy lungs inside their chests that fill up with air when they breathe in. Using a model of the chest, they find out how a stretchy muscle called the diaphragm pulls the air down into the lungs and then pushes it back out again.

Next they discover that air travels though little tubes inside the lungs. If someone has asthma, the little air tubes can get narrower some of the time and this can make it harder to breathe. But a special medicine from the doctor can be used to make the air tubes wider again.

In their final experiment, they pretend a glass lift is the windpipe and discover that little air sacs inside the lungs take oxygen from the air that is breathed in and give it to the body. The oxygen is used for lots of important jobs.


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