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-Will Brexit destroy
-the organic sector?
-I trust this sector
-more than the conventional sector.
-Also on the programme,
-a bad year for sheep farmers...
-..as fluke spreads
-through their flocks.
-Once a sheep gets fluke,
-there's no recovery.
-Work experience for two students.
-Huw and Wil have benefited
-from an exciting opportunity...
-..with a Swedish company.
-It's been exceptionally wet since
-last summer and generally mild.
-Perfect conditions for the mud
-snail, the key host for liver fluke.
-The end result
-is infection in sheep.
-Liver fluke in sheep
-is an increasing problem.
-Scientific models suggest
-that Wales is a region...
-..with one of the highest risks in
-the European Union for liver fluke.
-One Welsh abattoir has noted...
-..that the number of infected sheep
-has risen almost 3% since last year.
-There's no simple answer
-to the problem.
-Many flocks have developed
-resistance to fluke treatments.
-Vet Dafydd Jones visits farms
-to give advice on this matter.
-He works at the Ystwyth Vet Practice
-It affects sheep in one of two ways.
-The most severe form which causes
-fatalities happens in the autumn.
-You'll find dead sheep
-on the farm...
-..because of the effect the fluke
-has on the liver.
-What can also happen,
-which is a more long-term problem...
-..is sheep losing form.
-That tends to happen over
-the winter months and into spring.
-Has this year been challenging
-in terms of liver fluke?
-We're aware of some heavy losses
-as a result of fluke.
-The losses are continuing now.
-If we've looked for it, it's there.
-That's becoming a lot more common.
-This is the worst year
-I can remember.
-Hefin Hughes, Tynohir,
-Derwenlas, near Aberystwyth...
-..has had to change his farming
-methods because of this parasite.
-We've had to treat sheep
-for fluke every year...
-..but we've kept on top of it.
-Three years ago, we felt
-the losses were mounting up.
-The scanning percentage
-..and the condition
-of the sheep was falling.
-We felt that we were dosing
-for fluke more often...
-..over the last year and two years,
-especially after the wet winters.
-Was this a problem
-on a particular part of land...
-..or just a general problem
-on the low lying areas?
-We had problem on some rented land.
-Crossbred sheep were grazing there
-and they had the fluke problem.
-It was at its worst
-in November, December and January.
-That's one of the reasons
-we built this tunnel...
-..to store the crossbred sheep.
-We wanted to get them off the land
-at the time of year fluke hit them.
-The sheep we were losing
-were the sheep carrying twins...
-..and under most stress.
-The losses were getting worse
-We've stopped renting
-that piece of land now.
-The losses had become too much.
-We were losing sheep...
-..but we were also losing sheep
-who were carrying twins.
-Is there something farmers can do
-to target infected land?
-Yes, and that's always
-It's easier said than done sometimes
-It makes sense to try
-and avoid land with the most risk...
-..wetlands and bog land.
-If it's possible not to graze
-sheep there in the autumn...
-..that will help,
-but it's not always possible.
-The choices for treatment.
-Do we have to be careful
-what products we use?
-Yes and no.
-The main treatment, triclabendazole,
-is found in different products.
-That's one of the old doses,
-it's been on the market for years.
-Unfortunately, it's become
-less effective than it was...
-..to the extent that on some farms,
-it doesn't work at all.
-The problem is that's the only one
-that kills the small fluke...
-..during the autumn and that's
-the fluke that causes fatalities.
-To treat the older fluke in spring,
-there are half a dozen treatments.
-By checking which treatments
-farmers have used over the years...
-..you can use different treatments
-to make sure they're effective.
-The problem we're seeing right now
-is the triclabendazole...
-..and we're seeing cases where
-it hasn't worked during the autumn.
-You can use it at the right time
-and only when you need to use it.
-Once it stops working,
-it stops working.
-With all these challenges facing
-him, how will Hefin arm himself...
-..to reduce the risk of liver fluke
-in his flock?
-We've had some medical advice
-but every farm is different.
-At the end of the day,
-you have to do what suits your farm.
-We felt that we were dosing
-..and we'd changed
-from one dose to a dose...
-..that only treated
-the adult stage of the fluke...
-..and because it only treated
-the adult stage...
-..we were dosing more often.
-We felt that if something
-..we were dosing so often, we'd
-create problems for ourselves...
-..in the long term.
-With any other illness,
-sheep tend to recover.
-With sheep scab,
-sheep will get over it.
-Once a sheep has fluke,
-it never recovers.
-I can imagine that it causes a lot
-of stress on top of everything else.
-It's added pressure for farmers.
-There's nothing worse than
-looking after the sheep all year...
-..you've given them a ram and you've
-looked after them all winter...
-..and when you're about a month
-to six weeks before lambing...
-..you start to lose lambs
-because of the fluke.
-You've looked after them all year
-and then the fluke hits them.
-The agricultural market
-has been very unsettled recently.
-It's been a different story
-for the organic sector.
-It's developed and grown
-and for the sixth successive year...
-..there's been an increase in sales.
-The organic market is worth 2.2bn
-a year to the United Kingdom.
-The number of organic farms in Wales
-has remained settled for years.
-There are just over 500 of them
-at the moment.
-Dafydd Owen is an organic farmer
-and secretary of the Organic Forum.
-What we've seen
-over the last 3-4 years...
-..is the value
-of the British organic market...
-..returning to the level
-it was at in 2008.
-That's interesting for two reasons.
-If you look at the organic market
-in the context of ethical food...
-..such as Fair Trade
-or RSPCA Freedom Foods...
-..the ethical food market
-as a whole has continued to grow.
-It shows that customers
-are happy to pay for something...
-..beyond the food itself.
-Something else that's interesting is
-events in other parts of the world.
-The British market
-grew 6-7% last year...
-..but in Europe,
-it's growing twice as fast.
-In America it's 10% and in China,
-it's half as much again.
-What do you think is the reason
-behind this growth?
-We've had numerous food scares
-to focus our minds.
-Attention is being given to how food
-is produced and its traceability.
-The link between food and health
-is more important to people.
-This is behind the rise
-in the market as a whole.
-Great news for the organic sector.
-The produce is selling well
-but is this reflected...
-..in the farmer's pocket?
-I produce organic lamb myself
-and I do get a premium.
-If I could produce
-the lamb earlier...
-..I could fetch another 25p/kilo.
-There have been benefits
-in the milk sector...
-..but the milk sector as a whole has
-struggled over the past two years.
-What's helped organic producers...
-..is the commitment from customers
-to organic food and produce.
-For that reason, milk prices
-for farmers have been stable.
-Dai Miles from Haverfordwest...
-..is an organic farmer and director
-of Calon Wen dairy company.
-We've been very fortunate.
-There's less volatility
-in the organic sector.
-The price has dropped a little
-like everything else in the market.
-The key is supply and demand.
-When I started, the price was
-about 28p. It went down to 23/24p.
-It's back up today to 38-40p.
-That makes business easier,
-you can plan better.
-Our costs are different,
-our stocking rate is different.
-It's not always great but we're
-fortunate in the organic sector...
-..that supply and demand
-is a lot more even...
-..than it is
-in the conventional sector.
-The organic market dipped
-between 2006 and 2008.
-Since then, we've regained
-the ground we lost...
-..and it's still growing.
-As a business, Calon Wen has seen
-an increase of 18% in our produce...
-..on the branded side.
-Gerald Miles grows vegetables
-and keeps cattle, sheep and pigs.
-In St David's
-he has set up a community...
-..for local organic farmers.
-We have five acres
-and two polytunnels.
-We have 60 families on board.
-They receive vegetables every week.
-People buying from us do so because
-they are concerned about health...
-..and what creates good health.
-is published every year...
-..about the effects of chemicals
-in our food.
-One thing I want to create
-on this farm...
-..is CSA out of the beef cattle
-we rear here.
-I've seen it done in France.
-buy the calves together.
-They help by paying the
-maintenance costs of the animal...
-..until it's served on a plate.
-Then they share the meat afterwards.
-The French respect their food
-a lot more.
-We need to bring respect
-back to farming...
-..and bring respect back to food.
-Now is the time.
-That's the success of the organic
-sector but what of the future...
-..and the Brexit effect?
-This, and two students learning
-about farming methods in Europe...
-..coming up after the break.
-In Part 1, we heard about the growth
-of the organic sector in Wales.
-It's worth 2.2bn
-to the British economy.
-In European countries,
-the sector is even larger.
-It's worth 33.5bn Euros.
-With a year left before we leave
-the European Union...
-..how do farmers feel
-about the future?
-Can they see opportunities?
-Here's dairy farmer Dai Miles.
-How do you foresee the organic
-sector working after Brexit?
-I don't have a crystal ball,
-I don't know the answer.
-I don't think anyone knows.
-From what I can see
-and what I read...
-..the dairy sector as a whole
-will come out of this the best.
-Dafydd Owen is more cautious.
-Looking forward, what are
-your concerns for the sector?
-There are two elements,
-one is the market.
-I think we have to work on the basis
-that agreement will be made...
-..and we'll continue
-to trade with Europe.
-The other element is support.
-If there's no support
-or a rise in the market price...
-..I'll have to think hard
-about what I'll do in 2020.
-I'll remain organic for at least
-a year in 2020 to see what happens.
-we'll need to see some light.
-Gerald Miles, an organic farmer
-for the past 20 years...
-..has a very different vision.
-I trust this sector more than
-the conventional sector.
-The conventional sector
-is increasingly standing still.
-It's killing itself.
-It's producing far too much
-for the market...
-..and supermarkets have a free rein
-to do as they wish.
-On the other hand, organic farming
-won't progress in the same way.
-It's going to progress differently.
-Smaller farms will appear,
-younger farmers will appear.
-That will create more of a local
-market and that's the way forward.
-The organic sector will be reliant
-on the country's economy.
-They'll hope for a strong economy.
-We don't import
-much organic produce.
-I'm going to continue and grow.
-Many Welsh agriculture students are
-on work experience across Britain.
-Two from Glynllifon have ventured
-a little further.
-They've gone all the way to Sweden.
-Huw Owen and Wil Ifan Parry
-are the two lucky students.
-They'll spend a month
-on dairy farms in Sweden.
-Sweden is one
-of the Scandinavian countries...
-..that joined the European Union
-..even though it's not part
-of the European currency system.
-In terms of agriculture,
-forestry claims 69% of the land.
-Crop growing and cattle
-are also important.
-Similar to Wales,
-there are many family farms.
-The number of farms is falling
-but the size of farms is increasing.
-The dairy industry has shrunk
-over the last decade...
-..and there are concerns
-about its future.
-In terms of the economy,
-milking remains important.
-Huw is 18 years old and lives on Is
-Helen farm near Caernarfon Castle.
-Tell me more about Is Helen farm,
-We have a herd of 30 suckler cows.
-Half of them calve in the spring
-and the other half in the autumn.
-We sell about a thousand bales
-for horses throughout the year.
-We also run a caravan park here.
-Ten miles away,
-Pengelli Isaf dairy farm...
-..is home to Huw's friend
-and the second lucky student...
-..Wil Ifan Parry.
-Tell me more about Pengelli Isaf,
-We're predominantly a dairy farm but
-we also have sheep and beef cattle.
-A little of everything.
-What's your role on the farm
-when you're not in college?
-I milk throughout the year.
-I help out with the calving.
-At this time of year,
-I'm lambing too.
-This is the first link between
-the college and the Swedish farms.
-Nia Lloyd Davies from Glynllifon
-tells me more.
-The college farm has worked closely
-with Viking Genetics UK.
-It's an international company.
-That's where the link with
-two dairy farms in Sweden started.
-It will be a great experience for
-the brave souls heading to Sweden.
-Huw and Wil have benefited
-from an exciting opportunity.
-We dearly hope we can continue
-this working relationship...
-..with the company
-and with the farms in Sweden.
-This is an unique opportunity
-for any young farmer.
-How were they chosen
-in the first place?
-We had interviews with Rhodri,
-the farm manager.
-He chose the best students
-and I'm fortunate to be one of them.
-You're experienced with cattle.
-Do you have any experience
-of the dairy sector?
-I work on a dairy farm up the road.
-That's a good experience.
-I hope to be able
-to extend that experience.
-It's a busy time in Pengelli Isaf.
-What can Wil Ifan expect
-out in Sweden?
-Do you know what to expect
-I think most of the work
-will involve milking.
-270 dairy cattle.
-What do Wil Ifan's parents think
-about this opportunity?
-It gives us a sense of pride
-to see him going.
-I never took the opportunity
-to gain this experience.
-It might have been a lack
-of confidence on my part.
-He has enough confidence
-to give it a go.
-Young people look
-at these opportunities differently.
-The horizons are getting further
-away and it's easier to go.
-They see things on Facebook
-and they see these opportunities...
-..beyond the farm.
-They're making the most of it.
-A time will come when they'll face
-the pressures of life.
-What do you hope he gets
-from this opportunity?
-I hope he'll see some new ideas
-and different methods of farming.
-We might be too narrow-minded
-..and not open to new ideas.
-We don't really know what kind
-of a place Sweden is for farming.
-Is it hot or cold?
-What is the land like?
-Are the cattle in or out? It'll be
-interesting when he comes home.
-Looking forward to it?
-Looking forward to it?
-Oh, yes, looking forward to it.
-Then I can get him home to work!
-He'll have some new gear
-when he comes home.
-Tudur, Wil Ifan's father,
-can see the benefits.
-How will the boys benefit?
-It's an excellent opportunity
-for students to build confidence...
-..and put the knowledge they gain
-to work back here...
-..and use it practically
-in the world of work.
-It's also a chance for them
-to grow up.
-You've already been
-on work experience.
-Did that change you as a student?
-Yes, I went to Glan Conwy last year,
-to a dairy farm with 500 cattle.
-It was a huge change
-compared to here.
-The scale of the stock, and
-everything else, was much greater.
-I had to live with different people.
-What do you hope to gain
-from this Swedish trip?
-Do you have any targets in mind?
-I want to see if there are things
-we can do better here.
-Do they do something differently
-I want to see how they work.
-You want to gain experience.
-You want to gain experience.
-I want to see everything.
-Wil Ifan is looking to the future.
-What are the possible challenges
-They have 350 dairy cattle there
-and 700 animals in all.
-It'll be a great experience
-to see how they do it.
-You'll be a changed man
-when you come home.
-Good luck to the boys on their month
-of work experience in Sweden.
-That's all for this programme.
-Thanks for your company.
-Goodbye to you all.
-S4C Subtitles by Adnod Cyf.