Cawn ymweld ag Aberdaugleddau, Ynys Sgomer, Penrhyn Marloes a Niwgwl wrth ddilyn y llwybr. The Pembrokeshire Coastal Path takes us to Milford Haven, Skomer, Marloes Peninsula an...
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-Pembrokeshire's coastal path
-stretches for more than 186 miles.
-Beginning in Amroth in the south,
-it will guide us to St Dogmaels.
-Joining me on my journey
-is naturalist Elinor Gwynn...
-..and poet and lecturer
-Damian Walford Davies.
-Today, we head from Milford Haven
-harbour to Newgale beach.
-This stretch displays
-the path's rich diversity...
-..of landscape, wildlife
-history and industry.
-Damian traces the history of one of
-the county's most interesting towns.
-At the end of the 18th century...
-..Milford Haven was no more than
-two farms, one medieval chapel...
-..and a collection
-of fisherman's cottages.
-Things have changed.
-Here's a list for you -
-Texaco, Esso, BP, LNG.
-Giants of the energy industry,
-but a world far removed...
-..from the one in which Milford's
-first inhabitants lived.
-But there is something that links
-those contrasting worlds.
-Milford Haven was founded in 1792...
-..when the families of whale hunters
-from the island of Nantucket...
-..on the Massachusetts coast...
-to establish a colony here.
-There were several reasons
-why the people of Nantucket...
-..were so willing to settle here.
-Firstly, they wanted to avoid paying
-the high taxes on whale oil imports.
-They wanted to be closer to London,
-the focal point of the industry.
-As Quakers and faithful servants
-of the British state...
-..they wanted to flee
-..following the seven-year
-War of Independence.
-But what were their feelings
-when they landed here...
-..and when Milford Haven evolved
-in the years that followed?
-Street after street and building
-after building were erected.
-At the centre of it all
-was the Quakers' meeting house.
-It's hard to imagine
-the families of whale hunters...
-to come to Milford Haven...
-a brand-new colony.
-The only thing here was the sea
-and safe mooring for ships nearby.
-It was then up to them,
-along with a man named Greville...
-..who was responsible for looking
-after Lord Hamilton's land...
-..to develop the town.
-That's precisely what they did.
-Whaling was a global industry.
-Yes, it was,
-and by 1850 or thereabouts...
-..the Americans alone...
-..had a whaling fleet
-of over 750 ships.
-It was an adventure for them to come
-from Nantucket to Milford Haven.
-But they were whale hunters...
-..and would have been
-accustomed to danger.
-Yes, indeed, and they were
-thousands of miles from home.
-The whale is the largest mammal
-in the world...
-..and they hunted it.
-We're all familiar with Moby Dick.
-In that novel,
-there's a character called Starbuck.
-were the first people to land here.
-One of them came over
-to look at the place.
-He decided it was suitable
-to live and work here.
-The town is littered
-with names from history.
-It's full of names
-like Nantucket Avenue...
-..and Priory Road.
-Hamilton Terrace, Charles Street
-and Robert Street...
-after the town's founders.
-Unfortunately, the success of the
-Milford Americans was short-lived.
-The world turned
-to another form of fuel...
-..oil derived from coal
-rather than whale oil.
-Many of the Quakers left,
-some of them moving to London...
-..others moving back to Nantucket.
-Charles Greville, whose plan it was
-to attract the Quakers, died.
-No other industry
-came to fill the gap.
-Milford Haven had to wait
-until the late Victorian era...
-..to enjoy another period
-of industrial prosperity.
-So while you're sipping
-your next Starbucks coffee...
-..spare a thought
-for the other brand.
-The Starbuck family
-from Nantucket and Milford Haven!
-Wildlife behaves differently
-in a nature reserve...
-..maybe because man
-doesn't pose a threat.
-Skomer is home
-to over 300,000 birds...
-..including my favourite bird
-in the whole world.
-Skomer is an old Scandinavian name
-meaning cleft island.
-From afar, the island looks
-as if it has been split in two.
-I was 14 years old when I first
-came to Skomer to study birds.
-Something happened then
-that has stayed with me.
-It was the first time I fell in love
-with the idea of islands.
-There is something very strange
-Here, I'm a prisoner,
-surrounded by the sea...
-..yet I feel completely free.
-Over time, people have come here
-in search of various things.
-The Vikings searched for bounty
-along the Pembrokeshire coastline.
-Rabbits were farmed here
-in Norman times and later.
-Nowadays, people come here
-to observe wildlife.
-It's all around.
-Although there are many species
-of birds on Skomer...
-..people throng here
-to see the puffin.
-There is something
-very special about it.
-It's like a seaside clown
-with its mischievous and sad eyes.
-Then there's the triangular beak,
-which is fantastic...
-and attracting a mate...
-..but mostly for catching fish.
-Rabbits and puffins have left
-their mark on the landscape.
-One particular type of bird
-has taken full advantage of this.
-Manx shearwaters nest
-in old rabbit burrows.
-In order to see this bird...
-..we have to wait until nightfall.
-Manx shearwaters return to shore
-They return to the island to rest...
-..and to feed their mate
-in the underground nest.
-But it wouldn't be safe
-to return by moonlight...
-wait outside the hole...
-..ready to pounce and ravage them.
-When the Vikings landed
-on the Isle of Man...
-..this is the noise they heard.
-They thought it was the cry
-of dead sailors.
-But it's the noise
-of the colony...
-"Come in from the open sea.
-"There are plenty of us here,
-so it's safe."
-The birds on Skomer
-are happy to fly to Ireland...
-..to forage for food every day.
-As summertime ends...
-..they migrate across the South
-Atlantic to Argentina and Brazil.
-They are real pilgrims.
-This isn't their natural habitat.
-They are seabirds
-of the great ocean.
-along the coastal path continues.
-visits the Marloes Peninsula.
-Visitors tend to hurry
-across the Marloes Peninsula...
-..to catch a boat across to Skomer.
-But it's a fascinating peninsula.
-If you have time
-before catching the boat...
-..the Deer Park is worth a visit.
-that deer have ever lived here...
-..but the stone wall
-that runs along the headland...
-by Lord Kensington in 1847.
-But for 20 years, ponies, sheep
-and cattle have grazed here...
-..as part of a project
-to restore coastal habitats.
-It's been years since I was
-last here, and it's changed a lot.
-My first job after college was with
-the National Trust in Pembrokeshire.
-My main task was to restore habitats
-along the coastline.
-This was one of the first places
-I was assigned to.
-The middle of the plateau
-was choked by brambles, ferns...
-..and thick vegetation.
-We set about cutting down
-the dense overgrowth...
-..with a small tractor
-and chains swirling about behind it.
-I came back year after year
-to check the plateau...
-..and it was a success.
-to see heather and gorse...
-..providing a habitat
-for a better diversity of wildlife.
-The marked difference today
-compared with when I left...
-..is the carpet of bluebells
-on the heathland.
-Although I left a long time ago...
-..it's nice to know
-that the work we did has paid off.
-Tell us about what's been happening
-over the past twelve years.
-The work you began made us realize
-how important it was to continue...
-..and build on that work.
-We want to reintroduce
-is incredibly important.
-Since World War II...
-..all the energy,
-enthusiasm and resources...
-..have been ploughed
-into agricultural land.
-To a large extent, this type of land
-has been neglected...
-..to the detriment of wildlife.
-The farming community has lost the
-skills required to control the land.
-It's down to a combination
-of financial help...
-..practical help with stock...
-..and the creation
-of a grazing network...
-..to enable landowners to keep
-suitable stock on the land.
-Over time, farmers became
-more comfortable with the idea.
-They bought their own stock...
-..in order to make it
-a sustainable venture.
-A unique experiment is taking place
-on the Marloes Peninsula.
-It's being carried out
-on Trehill Farm.
-Trehill is a National Trust farm.
-It was decided
-that there was scope here...
-..to create a new habitat,
-but not quite from scratch.
-Before the coastal path opened...
-..there would have been heathlands
-along the cliffs.
-The ultimate aim
-was to recreate old habitats.
-In order to fulfil
-this incredibly ambitious goal...
-..various techniques were used
-on different parts of the headland.
-This area has received
-the full treatment.
-It was once just vegetation
-with fertile soil.
-In order to change
-the composition of the soil...
-..and enable heathland
-and coastal grasses to grow...
-..the topsoil was removed.
-Sulphuric waste from the Texaco
-oil refinery was dispersed.
-Bright yellow remnants
-can still be found here today.
-Heather cuttings were taken
-from mountains near Treffgarne.
-Plants such as the sea campion
-are beginning to take hold.
-There are both heathlands
-..on this part of the coastline.
-This experiment shows how important
-it is to show initiative...
-..and develop new ideas
-to learn from the experience...
-..so that we are better placed
-to preserve wildlife in future.
-There are many tales of land
-being swallowed by the sea.
-The most famous is Cantre'r Gwaelod.
-But it may be an ancient memory
-rather than a legend...
-..about a time when the tide
-created the coastline.
-places are still disappearing today.
-When Gerald of Wales came here
-on his travels in 1188...
-..he recalled a storm
-that had occurred 20 years earlier.
-The powerful wind covered the land
-in a blanket of sand.
-It also uncovered a primitive forest
-underneath the waves.
-The sea was so ferocious
-that fish landed in hedgerows.
-People were able to catch them
-from the branches.
-You moved here in 1965, Roy.
-You've seen some changes
-in the landscape.
-Do you think
-there will come a time...
-..when the village behind us
-The low-lying land
-will be the first to go.
-The sea has already caused them
-a few problems.
-You wouldn't believe the force
-of the sea in the 1989 storm.
-The sea came up through the river.
-There used to be a garage there.
-I saw it being lifted and carried
-over the bridge to the other side.
-It was totally destroyed.
-Another wave came and crashed
-through the cafe's window.
-As the centuries go by...
-..this natural embankment
-of gravel and pebbles...
-..is gradually disappearing.
-Thousands and thousands
-of pebbles down here...
-..protect us from the sea.
-But they're shifting.
-When there's a high tide...
-They rebuild it,
-but it's never the same as it was.
-It's impossible to do that.
-The level of the water drops...
-..but the stones
-are shifting inland.
-Will we eventually lose the road?
-You should never, ever,
-take the sea for granted.
-On a sunny day...
-..people go swimming
-and surfers come here.
-There could be 50 of them here...
-..but in the blink of an eye,
-someone can get into difficulties.
-You can't describe
-the force of the sea.
-It will always win in the end.
-Far north of here in the Arctic,
-the ice caps are melting.
-Sea levels are rising
-and swallowing land.
-It's happening here gradually
-- around a centimetre a year.
-Ultimately, the sea will claim
-around 300 metres of the mainland.
-The shop, the cafe
-and the pub will disappear.
-A modern take on Cantre'r Gwaelod.
-Next week, Damian finds artists...
-..who have been captivated
-and enchanted by the county.
-Elinor visits St David's Head...
-..and I trace the history
-of the region's ports.
-S4C Subtitles by Adnod Cyf.
Cawn ymweld ag Aberdaugleddau, Ynys Sgomer, Penrhyn Marloes a Niwgwl wrth ddilyn y llwybr. The Pembrokeshire Coastal Path takes us to Milford Haven, Skomer, Marloes Peninsula and Newgale.