Pennod 3 Llwybr yr Arfordir


Pennod 3

Cawn ymweld ag Aberdaugleddau, Ynys Sgomer, Penrhyn Marloes a Niwgwl wrth ddilyn y llwybr. The Pembrokeshire Coastal Path takes us to Milford Haven, Skomer, Marloes Peninsula an...


Similar Content

Browse content similar to Pennod 3. Check below for episodes and series from the same categories and more!

Transcript


LineFromTo

-888

0:00:000:00:00

-888

-

-888

0:00:000:00:02

-888

0:00:070:00:09

-888

0:00:140:00:16

-888

0:00:210:00:23

-Pembrokeshire's coastal path

-stretches for more than 186 miles.

0:00:360:00:41

-Beginning in Amroth in the south,

-it will guide us to St Dogmaels.

0:00:410:00:46

-Joining me on my journey

-is naturalist Elinor Gwynn...

0:00:490:00:52

-..and poet and lecturer

-Damian Walford Davies.

0:00:530:00:56

-Today, we head from Milford Haven

-harbour to Newgale beach.

0:01:020:01:07

-This stretch displays

-the path's rich diversity...

0:01:100:01:14

-..of landscape, wildlife

-history and industry.

0:01:140:01:18

-Damian traces the history of one of

-the county's most interesting towns.

0:01:220:01:28

-At the end of the 18th century...

0:01:320:01:34

-..Milford Haven was no more than

-two farms, one medieval chapel...

0:01:350:01:39

-..and a collection

-of fisherman's cottages.

0:01:400:01:43

-Things have changed.

0:01:430:01:45

-Here's a list for you -

-Texaco, Esso, BP, LNG.

0:01:580:02:03

-Giants of the energy industry,

-but a world far removed...

0:02:040:02:08

-..from the one in which Milford's

-first inhabitants lived.

0:02:080:02:13

-But there is something that links

-those contrasting worlds.

0:02:130:02:17

-Oil.

0:02:180:02:19

-Milford Haven was founded in 1792...

0:02:200:02:22

-..when the families of whale hunters

-from the island of Nantucket...

0:02:230:02:27

-..on the Massachusetts coast...

0:02:280:02:30

-..were invited

-to establish a colony here.

0:02:300:02:33

-There were several reasons

-why the people of Nantucket...

0:02:500:02:54

-..were so willing to settle here.

0:02:540:02:57

-Firstly, they wanted to avoid paying

-the high taxes on whale oil imports.

0:02:570:03:03

-They wanted to be closer to London,

-the focal point of the industry.

0:03:040:03:08

-As Quakers and faithful servants

-of the British state...

0:03:080:03:12

-..they wanted to flee

-their country...

0:03:130:03:16

-..following the seven-year

-War of Independence.

0:03:160:03:19

-But what were their feelings

-when they landed here...

0:03:190:03:23

-..and when Milford Haven evolved

-in the years that followed?

0:03:240:03:28

-Street after street and building

-after building were erected.

0:03:280:03:33

-At the centre of it all

-was the Quakers' meeting house.

0:03:330:03:37

-It's hard to imagine

-the families of whale hunters...

0:03:430:03:47

-..leaving Nantucket

-to come to Milford Haven...

0:03:470:03:51

-..and establishing

-a brand-new colony.

0:03:510:03:54

-The only thing here was the sea

-and safe mooring for ships nearby.

0:03:540:04:00

-It was then up to them,

-along with a man named Greville...

0:04:010:04:06

-..who was responsible for looking

-after Lord Hamilton's land...

0:04:070:04:11

-..to develop the town.

0:04:110:04:13

-That's precisely what they did.

0:04:130:04:16

-Whaling was a global industry.

0:04:160:04:18

-Yes, it was,

-and by 1850 or thereabouts...

0:04:180:04:23

-..the Americans alone...

0:04:230:04:26

-..had a whaling fleet

-of over 750 ships.

0:04:260:04:30

-It was an adventure for them to come

-from Nantucket to Milford Haven.

0:04:300:04:36

-But they were whale hunters...

0:04:360:04:39

-..and would have been

-accustomed to danger.

0:04:390:04:43

-Yes, indeed, and they were

-thousands of miles from home.

0:04:430:04:47

-The whale is the largest mammal

-in the world...

0:04:480:04:51

-..and they hunted it.

0:04:510:04:53

-We're all familiar with Moby Dick.

0:04:530:04:56

-In that novel,

-there's a character called Starbuck.

0:04:560:05:00

-The Starbucks

-were the first people to land here.

0:05:000:05:04

-One of them came over

-to look at the place.

0:05:040:05:08

-He decided it was suitable

-to live and work here.

0:05:080:05:12

-The town is littered

-with names from history.

0:05:120:05:16

-It's full of names

-like Nantucket Avenue...

0:05:160:05:20

-..and Priory Road.

0:05:210:05:24

-Hamilton Terrace, Charles Street

-and Robert Street...

0:05:240:05:28

-..are named

-after the town's founders.

0:05:280:05:31

-Unfortunately, the success of the

-Milford Americans was short-lived.

0:05:460:05:51

-The world turned

-to another form of fuel...

0:05:510:05:54

-..oil derived from coal

-rather than whale oil.

0:05:540:05:57

-Many of the Quakers left,

-some of them moving to London...

0:05:570:06:01

-..others moving back to Nantucket.

0:06:010:06:04

-Charles Greville, whose plan it was

-to attract the Quakers, died.

0:06:040:06:09

-No other industry

-came to fill the gap.

0:06:100:06:13

-Milford Haven had to wait

-until the late Victorian era...

0:06:130:06:18

-..to enjoy another period

-of industrial prosperity.

0:06:180:06:22

-So while you're sipping

-your next Starbucks coffee...

0:06:250:06:29

-..spare a thought

-for the other brand.

0:06:290:06:32

-The Starbuck family

-from Nantucket and Milford Haven!

0:06:320:06:36

-Wildlife behaves differently

-in a nature reserve...

0:07:150:07:18

-..maybe because man

-doesn't pose a threat.

0:07:190:07:23

-Skomer is home

-to over 300,000 birds...

0:07:240:07:28

-..including my favourite bird

-in the whole world.

0:07:280:07:32

-Skomer is an old Scandinavian name

-meaning cleft island.

0:07:320:07:36

-From afar, the island looks

-as if it has been split in two.

0:07:370:07:41

-I was 14 years old when I first

-came to Skomer to study birds.

0:07:430:07:48

-Something happened then

-that has stayed with me.

0:07:490:07:52

-It was the first time I fell in love

-with the idea of islands.

0:07:520:07:56

-There is something very strange

-about islands.

0:07:590:08:03

-Here, I'm a prisoner,

-surrounded by the sea...

0:08:030:08:07

-..yet I feel completely free.

0:08:070:08:10

-Over time, people have come here

-in search of various things.

0:08:120:08:16

-The Vikings searched for bounty

-along the Pembrokeshire coastline.

0:08:160:08:21

-Rabbits were farmed here

-in Norman times and later.

0:08:210:08:25

-Nowadays, people come here

-to observe wildlife.

0:08:250:08:29

-It's all around.

0:08:290:08:30

-Although there are many species

-of birds on Skomer...

0:08:440:08:48

-..people throng here

-to see the puffin.

0:08:480:08:51

-There is something

-very special about it.

0:08:520:08:54

-It's like a seaside clown

-with its mischievous and sad eyes.

0:08:550:09:00

-Then there's the triangular beak,

-which is fantastic...

0:09:000:09:05

-..for burrowing

-and attracting a mate...

0:09:050:09:08

-..but mostly for catching fish.

0:09:090:09:11

-Rabbits and puffins have left

-their mark on the landscape.

0:09:260:09:31

-One particular type of bird

-has taken full advantage of this.

0:09:310:09:36

-Manx shearwaters nest

-in old rabbit burrows.

0:09:360:09:40

-In order to see this bird...

0:09:400:09:43

-..we have to wait until nightfall.

0:09:440:09:47

-LOUD SQUAWKING

0:09:530:09:55

-Manx shearwaters return to shore

-around midnight.

0:10:020:10:07

-They return to the island to rest...

0:10:130:10:15

-..and to feed their mate

-in the underground nest.

0:10:160:10:19

-But it wouldn't be safe

-to return by moonlight...

0:10:220:10:25

-..because seagulls

-wait outside the hole...

0:10:260:10:29

-..ready to pounce and ravage them.

0:10:290:10:32

-When the Vikings landed

-on the Isle of Man...

0:10:440:10:48

-..this is the noise they heard.

0:10:480:10:50

-LOUD SQUAWKING

0:10:510:10:53

-They thought it was the cry

-of dead sailors.

0:10:550:10:59

-But it's the noise

-of the colony...

0:10:590:11:03

-..saying,

-"Come in from the open sea.

0:11:040:11:07

-"There are plenty of us here,

-so it's safe."

0:11:070:11:11

-The birds on Skomer

-are happy to fly to Ireland...

0:11:160:11:21

-..to forage for food every day.

0:11:210:11:23

-As summertime ends...

0:11:230:11:26

-..they migrate across the South

-Atlantic to Argentina and Brazil.

0:11:260:11:31

-They are real pilgrims.

0:11:310:11:33

-This isn't their natural habitat.

0:11:330:11:36

-They are seabirds

-of the great ocean.

0:11:360:11:39

-.

0:11:470:11:47

-888

0:11:550:11:55

-888

-

-888

0:11:550:11:57

-Our journey

-along the coastal path continues.

0:12:000:12:04

-Elinor Gwynn

-visits the Marloes Peninsula.

0:12:040:12:08

-Visitors tend to hurry

-across the Marloes Peninsula...

0:12:130:12:17

-..to catch a boat across to Skomer.

0:12:170:12:20

-But it's a fascinating peninsula.

0:12:210:12:24

-If you have time

-before catching the boat...

0:12:240:12:27

-..the Deer Park is worth a visit.

0:12:270:12:30

-It's unlikely

-that deer have ever lived here...

0:12:300:12:34

-..but the stone wall

-that runs along the headland...

0:12:340:12:37

-..was built

-by Lord Kensington in 1847.

0:12:380:12:40

-But for 20 years, ponies, sheep

-and cattle have grazed here...

0:12:410:12:45

-..as part of a project

-to restore coastal habitats.

0:12:450:12:48

-It's been years since I was

-last here, and it's changed a lot.

0:12:580:13:03

-My first job after college was with

-the National Trust in Pembrokeshire.

0:13:030:13:08

-My main task was to restore habitats

-along the coastline.

0:13:080:13:13

-This was one of the first places

-I was assigned to.

0:13:130:13:17

-The middle of the plateau

-was choked by brambles, ferns...

0:13:170:13:22

-..and thick vegetation.

0:13:220:13:24

-We set about cutting down

-the dense overgrowth...

0:13:240:13:29

-..with a small tractor

-and chains swirling about behind it.

0:13:290:13:33

-I came back year after year

-to check the plateau...

0:13:330:13:37

-..and it was a success.

0:13:370:13:40

-It's wonderful

-to see heather and gorse...

0:13:400:13:44

-..providing a habitat

-for a better diversity of wildlife.

0:13:440:13:49

-The marked difference today

-compared with when I left...

0:13:490:13:53

-..is the carpet of bluebells

-on the heathland.

0:13:540:13:58

-Although I left a long time ago...

0:14:050:14:07

-..it's nice to know

-that the work we did has paid off.

0:14:070:14:12

-Tell us about what's been happening

-over the past twelve years.

0:14:120:14:17

-The work you began made us realize

-how important it was to continue...

0:14:170:14:22

-..and build on that work.

0:14:220:14:24

-We want to reintroduce

-grazing control.

0:14:240:14:28

-Grazing pasture

-is incredibly important.

0:14:280:14:31

-Since World War II...

0:14:310:14:33

-..all the energy,

-enthusiasm and resources...

0:14:330:14:38

-..have been ploughed

-into agricultural land.

0:14:380:14:41

-To a large extent, this type of land

-has been neglected...

0:14:420:14:45

-..to the detriment of wildlife.

0:14:460:14:49

-The farming community has lost the

-skills required to control the land.

0:14:490:14:54

-It's down to a combination

-of financial help...

0:14:540:14:58

-..practical help with stock...

0:14:580:15:01

-..and the creation

-of a grazing network...

0:15:010:15:04

-..to enable landowners to keep

-suitable stock on the land.

0:15:040:15:10

-Over time, farmers became

-more comfortable with the idea.

0:15:160:15:22

-They bought their own stock...

0:15:220:15:25

-..in order to make it

-a sustainable venture.

0:15:250:15:28

-A unique experiment is taking place

-on the Marloes Peninsula.

0:15:330:15:38

-It's being carried out

-on Trehill Farm.

0:15:380:15:41

-Trehill is a National Trust farm.

0:15:430:15:46

-It was decided

-that there was scope here...

0:15:460:15:49

-..to create a new habitat,

-but not quite from scratch.

0:15:490:15:53

-Before the coastal path opened...

0:15:540:15:56

-..there would have been heathlands

-along the cliffs.

0:15:570:16:01

-The ultimate aim

-was to recreate old habitats.

0:16:010:16:05

-In order to fulfil

-this incredibly ambitious goal...

0:16:090:16:13

-..various techniques were used

-on different parts of the headland.

0:16:130:16:18

-This area has received

-the full treatment.

0:16:200:16:23

-It was once just vegetation

-with fertile soil.

0:16:240:16:27

-In order to change

-the composition of the soil...

0:16:280:16:31

-..and enable heathland

-and coastal grasses to grow...

0:16:310:16:35

-..the topsoil was removed.

0:16:350:16:37

-Sulphuric waste from the Texaco

-oil refinery was dispersed.

0:16:370:16:43

-Bright yellow remnants

-can still be found here today.

0:16:430:16:48

-Heather cuttings were taken

-from mountains near Treffgarne.

0:16:480:16:53

-Plants such as the sea campion

-are beginning to take hold.

0:16:550:17:00

-There are both heathlands

-and grasslands...

0:17:000:17:04

-..on this part of the coastline.

0:17:040:17:07

-This experiment shows how important

-it is to show initiative...

0:17:070:17:13

-..and develop new ideas

-to learn from the experience...

0:17:140:17:18

-..so that we are better placed

-to preserve wildlife in future.

0:17:180:17:23

-There are many tales of land

-being swallowed by the sea.

0:17:500:17:55

-The most famous is Cantre'r Gwaelod.

0:17:550:17:58

-But it may be an ancient memory

-rather than a legend...

0:17:580:18:02

-..about a time when the tide

-created the coastline.

0:18:020:18:06

-Interestingly,

-places are still disappearing today.

0:18:070:18:11

-When Gerald of Wales came here

-on his travels in 1188...

0:18:460:18:51

-..he recalled a storm

-that had occurred 20 years earlier.

0:18:520:18:55

-The powerful wind covered the land

-in a blanket of sand.

0:18:560:18:59

-It also uncovered a primitive forest

-underneath the waves.

0:19:000:19:04

-The sea was so ferocious

-that fish landed in hedgerows.

0:19:050:19:10

-People were able to catch them

-from the branches.

0:19:110:19:14

-You moved here in 1965, Roy.

0:19:190:19:22

-You've seen some changes

-in the landscape.

0:19:230:19:26

-Do you think

-there will come a time...

0:19:260:19:29

-..when the village behind us

-will disappear?

0:19:300:19:34

-The low-lying land

-will be the first to go.

0:19:340:19:37

-The sea has already caused them

-a few problems.

0:19:380:19:43

-You wouldn't believe the force

-of the sea in the 1989 storm.

0:19:500:19:55

-The sea came up through the river.

0:19:550:19:59

-There used to be a garage there.

0:19:590:20:02

-I saw it being lifted and carried

-over the bridge to the other side.

0:20:020:20:08

-It was totally destroyed.

0:20:080:20:10

-Another wave came and crashed

-through the cafe's window.

0:20:100:20:15

-As the centuries go by...

0:20:220:20:25

-..this natural embankment

-of gravel and pebbles...

0:20:260:20:30

-..is gradually disappearing.

0:20:300:20:32

-Thousands and thousands

-of pebbles down here...

0:20:330:20:38

-..protect us from the sea.

0:20:390:20:41

-But they're shifting.

0:20:410:20:43

-When there's a high tide...

0:20:440:20:47

-..they disappear.

0:20:470:20:50

-They rebuild it,

-but it's never the same as it was.

0:20:500:20:55

-It's impossible to do that.

0:20:550:20:57

-The level of the water drops...

0:20:570:21:01

-..but the stones

-are shifting inland.

0:21:020:21:04

-Will we eventually lose the road?

0:21:060:21:10

-You should never, ever,

-take the sea for granted.

0:21:140:21:19

-On a sunny day...

0:21:190:21:22

-..people go swimming

-and surfers come here.

0:21:220:21:26

-There could be 50 of them here...

0:21:260:21:29

-..but in the blink of an eye,

-someone can get into difficulties.

0:21:290:21:34

-You can't describe

-the force of the sea.

0:21:380:21:41

-It will always win in the end.

0:21:410:21:44

-Far north of here in the Arctic,

-the ice caps are melting.

0:22:070:22:13

-Sea levels are rising

-and swallowing land.

0:22:140:22:18

-It's happening here gradually

-- around a centimetre a year.

0:22:180:22:23

-Ultimately, the sea will claim

-around 300 metres of the mainland.

0:22:230:22:27

-The shop, the cafe

-and the pub will disappear.

0:22:280:22:31

-A modern take on Cantre'r Gwaelod.

0:22:310:22:34

-Next week, Damian finds artists...

0:22:490:22:51

-..who have been captivated

-and enchanted by the county.

0:22:510:22:55

-Elinor visits St David's Head...

0:22:550:22:57

-..and I trace the history

-of the region's ports.

0:22:580:23:02

-S4C Subtitles by Adnod Cyf.

0:23:310:23:33

-.

0:23:330:23:33

Cawn ymweld ag Aberdaugleddau, Ynys Sgomer, Penrhyn Marloes a Niwgwl wrth ddilyn y llwybr. The Pembrokeshire Coastal Path takes us to Milford Haven, Skomer, Marloes Peninsula and Newgale.