Episode 1 University Challenge


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Episode 1

In the opening match, the students of the University of Warwick do battle with the team representing the University of Edinburgh. Jeremy Paxman asks the questions.


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University Challenge.

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Asking the questions, Jeremy Paxman.

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Hello and welcome to the first match of the 2011 to 2012 University Challenge Championship.

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The team who win won't necessarily be the most intelligent people in Britain,

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but they will know a lot, lot more than most of us, irritating.

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But it won't be enough for them to tell us the simple things like the square root of minus 1

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or whether Picasso's blue period came before or after his rose one.

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They will also have to demonstrate the occasional passing acquaintance with real life,

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like what a washing machine looks like. The University of Warwick came into being in 1965.

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It's a campus university notably located much nearer to Coventry than Warwick

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and is known for its close relationship with the business community

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which earned it the warm embrace of New Labour in the 1990s.

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Alumni include the singer Sting and the comedy writer Stephen Merchant

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and Germaine Greer is Professor Emeritus of English.

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This is Warwick's 13th appearance since this series relaunched in 1994

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and they were series champions in 2007.

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Representing around 21,000 students and with an average age of 23,

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let's meet the Warwick team.

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Hi, I'm Martin, I'm from Sheffield and I study Mathematics.

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Hi, I'm Celia and I'm from Canada and I'm reading for a PhD in Film.

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-And their captain.

-Hi, I'm Tom, I'm from Shepperton in Surrey

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and I'm studying for a PhD in Physics.

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Hi, I'm Sumac, I'm from Oxford,

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I'm studying for a degree in politics, philosophy and economics.

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APPLAUSE

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The University of Edinburgh's foundation is attributed to Bishop Robert Reid of Orkney

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who on his death in 1558 left the money for its foundation.

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It got its royal charter from James VI in 1582.

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Since then, alumni have included the philosopher David Hume,

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Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Gordon Brown and the former CEO of BP Tony Hayward.

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This is Edinburgh's 15 appearance on University Challenge since the series returned,

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more than any other non-collegiate institution.

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But the series championship has so far eluded them.

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Representing around 29,000 students

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and with an average age of 22, let's meet the team.

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Hi, I'm Ben Wynne, originally for Witley in Surrey

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and I'm studying for a PhD in Particle Physics.

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Hi, I'm Mark Allen, originally from north Cheshire

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-and I'm reading History.

-And their captain.

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Hi, I'm Tim MacDonald,

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originally from Canterbury in Kent and I'm studying Law.

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Hi, I'm Tom Facer, I'm from Leeds and I'm studying Mathematics.

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APPLAUSE

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OK, the rules are the same as they always are. Ten points for starters, 15 for bonuses,

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five-point fines for interruptions to starter questions. Here's your first starter for ten.

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Meanings of what five-letter word include, in law, children or progeny, in commerce...

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-Issue.

-Issue is right, yes.

-APPLAUSE

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The first set of bonuses tonight are on the European Alps.

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The Hohe Tauern, a mountain range in the eastern Alps,

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includes the Grossglockner, the highest mountain in which country?

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-Slovenia.

-No, it's Austria.

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The mountain called Mont Cervin in French and Monte Cervino in Italian, both meaning deer-like mountain,

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referring to its curved peak, is known in the UK by what German name meaning meadow peak?

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-Sorry, we don't know.

-That's the Matterhorn.

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Lying on the border between Italy and Austria, which is the lowest of the main Alpine passes

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and was the site of meetings between Hitler and Mussolini during the Second World War?

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-Tyrell?

-No, it's the Brenner Pass. Ten points for this.

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"I see no good reason why the views given in this volume should shock the religious feelings of anyone."

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These words appeared in a later edition of which work, first published in 1859?

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-The Origin Of Species.

-Indeed.

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APPLAUSE

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Your first set of bonuses, Warwick, are on bacteria.

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From the Greek for "to eat," what name is given to a virus that infects bacteria?

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-Phage?

-Phage is right. What name is given to the cycle in which phages

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incorporate their nucleic acid into the chromosome of the host cell

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and replicate with it as a unit without destroying the cell?

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-Symbiosis?

-No, it's the lysogenic cycle or lysogeny.

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And finally for five points, a lysogenic strain of the streptococcus pyogenes bacteria

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produces an erythrogenic toxin that leads to which illness

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similar to strep throat but with a characteristic red rash?

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-Meningitis?

-No, it's scarlet fever or scarlatina. Ten points for this.

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"Quite the most complimentary meaning of the adjective from his name

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"is the terrible descriptive style of writing.

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"The more general meaning is licentious and coarsely erotic."

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These words from an 1898 reference work refer to which French novelist

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whose works include The Debacle and Germinal?

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-Zola.

-Zola is right, or Zolaesque.

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APPLAUSE

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Your bonuses, Warwick, are on innovations is Greek drama.

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What term for an actor is derived from the name of the man often said to have been the first performer

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in Greek drama to stand apart from the chorus.

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-Thespian.

-Thespian from Thespis is correct.

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The Persians, written in about 472BC, in one of the earliest works

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by which dramatist, credited with introducing a second actor alongside the existing protagonist and chorus?

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-Aristophanes?

-No, it's Aeschylus.

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Which dramatist from the fifth century BC, of whose many tragedies only seven complete plays survive,

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is credited with introducing painted scenery and a third actor into the performance?

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-Sophocles.

-Sophocles is correct. Ten points for this. Listen carefully.

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Deep resonant sound and sculpture, for example, of Nefertiti or the Tusculum portrait of Caesar,

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are alternative definitions of what pair of words used colloquially of economic cycles?

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-Boom and bust?

-Yes.

-APPLAUSE

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Right, Edinburgh, this set of bonuses are on a shared place name.

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Suffering extensive fire damage during the American Civil War

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during the occupation led by General Sherman, which city is the state capital of South Carolina?

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-Is it Charlottesville or something?

-Charlotte?

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-Charlotte?

-No, it's Columbia.

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The Canadian province of British Columbia is bordered by Alaska to the northwest

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and by three other American states to the south. Washington is one. What are the other two?

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-Montana and Idaho.

-Correct. The District of Columbia,

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with which the city of Washington is coextensive,

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lies on the bank of which river forming the border between Maryland and West Virginia?

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-The Potomac.

-Correct.

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We're going to take a picture round now. For your starter, I want you to give me

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the alpha-numeric designation of what you see illustrated.

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-AK-47?

-It is an AK-47, yes.

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APPLAUSE

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Most widely manufactured and sold weapon in the world, apparently.

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Following the AK-47, three more diagrams of assault rifles.

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So any long night misspent on the computer game Call Of Duty tremendously useful.

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Identify the rifle in each case. First for five, the name of this rifle.

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-An M-4.

-Oh, no, that's an M-16. Secondly, this one.

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-Nominate Wynne.

-An MP5?

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No, that's a SCAR, the Special Forces' weapon.

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And finally, this French-designed assault rifle, adopted by the French army in 1978.

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-We don't know, sorry.

-That's a... You should've spent more time playing this game, you know?

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That's a FAMAS. OK, ten points for this. Being the plane of the Earth's orbit

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projected onto the celestial sphere and therefore inclined at 23.5 degrees to the celestial equator,

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what astronomical line traces out...

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-Ecliptic.

-The ecliptic is correct, yes.

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APPLAUSE

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These bonuses, Warwick, are on rodents. What is the alternative name for the nutria,

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a large aquatic South American rodent with webbed hind feet

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found in the wild but also bred for its fur?

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-Vermin?

-No, it's a coypu. Which rodent is the biggest in the world,

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a close relative of the guinea pig, it's regarded as a delicacy and is eaten in Venezuela during Lent?

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-Capybara?

-Correct.

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Brevicaudata and lanigera are the two species of which small rodent, native to the Andes?

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It's been hunted almost to extinction in the wild for its thick silver-grey fur.

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-Chinchilla?

-Chinchilla.

-Chinchilla is correct.

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Ten points for this. Quote, "Remember, all men would be tyrants if they could,

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"we women won't hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice or representation."

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From a letter of 1776, these are the words of which future first lady of the United States?

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-Abigail Adams.

-Correct.

-APPLAUSE

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Your bonuses are on George Orwell's essay on Charles Dickens. I want you to name the novel by Dickens

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that Orwell is describing. Firstly, "The mental atmosphere of the opening chapters

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"was so immediately intelligible to me that I vaguely imagined they'd been written by a child.

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"And yet, when one re-reads the book

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"and sees the Murdstones dwindle from gigantic figures of doom

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"into semi-comic monsters, these passages lose nothing."

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-David Copperfield.

-Correct.

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"In the chapters dealing with the riots, Dickens shows a most profound horror of mob violence.

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"He delights in describing scenes in which the dregs of the population behave with atrocious bestiality."

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-The Tale Of Two Cities?

-No, that's Barnaby Rudge.

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And finally for five, "His greatest success is not a story at all, merely a series of sketches.

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"There's little attempt at development. The characters simply go on and on

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"behaving like idiots in a kind of eternity."

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-Is it The Pickwick Papers.

-It is! That gives you the lead. Well done.

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Ten points for this. Answer as soon as you buzz. How many years separate the defeat of the Spanish Armada

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from the Battle of Britain?

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-352.

-Correct.

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You retake the lead.

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Your bonuses are on a shared prefix.

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In ancient belief systems, including Hinduism and Greek and Egyptian mythology,

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what is the object of veneration in ophiolatry?

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-Entrails of animals?

-No, it's snakes.

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Derived from the Greek for snake rock, ophiolite was the name once given to igneous rocks

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composed of which group of minerals, sometimes called green marble?

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-Jade?

-No, it's serpentine.

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Ophioglossum, or adder's tongue, characterised by a sterile green leaf blade

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and a fertile spore-producing spike, is the genus of which plant group, thought to have over 9,000 species?

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-Erm, nettle.

-No, it's the fern. Ten points for this.

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What four-letter Greek prefix may be added to the name of a subject or discipline

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to denote another that raises questions about...

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-Meta.

-Meta is correct.

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-APPLAUSE

-Your bonuses this time are on physics.

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After a 19th century Austrian physicist, what name is given to the shift in the frequency of a wave

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due to relative motion of an observer and the source of the wave?

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-Doppler shift.

-Correct.

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After an American engineer born 1911, what name is given to the device that uses the Doppler Effect

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caused by a rotating speaker to create characteristic vibrato or tremolo sounds?

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-Leslie rotating speaker.

-Correct.

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To what end of the visible spectrum is the light from receiving stars Doppler shifted?

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-Red.

-Correct. Another starter question.

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A major influence on medical science in the Middle Ages,

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which Persian physician's works include accounts of small pox and measles,

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a textbook called Almansor...

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-Avicenna?

-No. You lose five points.

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..and an encyclopaedia known in the western world as Liber Continens?

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You may not confer, one of your many buzz.

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It's Rhazes. Ten points for this. In a speech of July 1984,

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Margaret Thatcher described the Argentinean junta that ordered the invasion of the Falkland Islands

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as "the enemy without". Who specifically, according to her, were the enemy within, quote,

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"more difficult to fight and more dangerous to liberty"?

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Er, the cabinet?

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-LAUGHTER

-Very witty but wrong.

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Warwick, anyone want to buzz?

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-The miners?

-Specifically?

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-The mining unions?

-Er...

-Arthur Scargill?

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Yeah, you've got it. The National Union of Mine Workers.

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APPLAUSE

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Your bonuses are on a devil. What name for a demon, later sometimes applied to the devil himself,

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was from a German legend about a scholar who gives his soul to the devil for unlimited knowledge?

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-Mephistopheles?

-Correct. Noted for his 1956 screen portrayal of Mephistopheles,

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the German actor Gustav Grundgens

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was the inspiration for the novel Mephisto by which German author

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who questioned his actions during the Nazi era?

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-Gunter Grass?

-No, it was Klaus Mann.

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Also based on the Faust legend, the Mephisto Waltzes were written between 1859 and 1885

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by which Hungarian composer?

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-Liszt.

-Correct.

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Another starter question. Submitted for the Royal Academy exhibition of 1856,

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which painting by William Holman Hunt depicts an eponymous animal

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who in the Book of Leviticus is said to bear the iniquities...

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-Scapegoat?

-The Scapegoat is correct. Your bonuses are on mirrors for princes.

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The English poet and scholar John Skelton wrote a speculum principis,

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or treatise of advice and instruction

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addressed to which future monarch of whom he was then tutor?

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-Henry VIII.

-Correct. The Education Of A Christian Prince is a treatise of 1516

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dedicated to the future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V by which humanist and theologian?

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-Erasmus.

-Correct. Basilikon Doron meaning royal gift was a treatise on government

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written for his son, the Duke of Rothesay, by which monarch?

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-George II?

-No, it was James I, or as you know him, James VI.

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We're going to take a music round now. For your music starter, you'll hear an instrumental version

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of a song associated with a specific period of history. Ten points if you can name the war

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with which it's primarily associated.

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-The American Civil War.

-The American Civil War is correct.

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APPLAUSE

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OK, so we're going to hear music bonuses now. Three more instrumental versions of songs

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popular during that period of American history. I want the title of the song in each case.

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Firstly for five...

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-I Wish I Was In Dixie?

-I Wish I Was In Dixie's Land, that's right. Secondly...

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-Pass.

-That's Battle Cry Of Freedom. And finally...

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-Nominate Nicholls.

-When Johnny Comes Marching Home Again?

-Correct.

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Another starter question now. What enduring term was introduced by the US sociologist Edwin Sutherland

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in the 1940s to draw attention to felonies

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committed by both individuals and organisations in the business world?

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-White-collar crime?

-White-collar crime is correct, yes.

-APPLAUSE

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These bonuses are on an element.

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Which chemical element has as its symbol the only letter with the value of five

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in an English Scrabble set?

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-Tungsten.

-No, it's potassium, K.

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Potassium metal was discovered in 1807 by which chemist who gives his name to a miner's safety lamp?

0:18:290:18:36

-Nominate Allen.

-Davy?

-Sir Humphry Davy is correct.

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Which potassium salt has the formula KMNO4

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and is used in solution as an oxidising agent and disinfectant?

0:18:460:18:51

-Potassium manganate?

-No, it's potassium permanganate. Ten points for this.

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Ilmenite and rutile are ores of which metallic element, discovered by Cornish clergyman...

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-Titanium.

-Titanium is correct. Your bonuses are on birds in poetry.

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To which bird does Wordsworth address the lines,

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"There is madness about thee and joy divine in that song of thine?"

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-Nightingale.

-No, it's the skylark.

0:19:180:19:21

Which bird is the title and subject of a collection of poems by Ted Hughes

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and is described at one point as being,

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"Spraddled head down in the beach garbage guzzling a dropped ice cream"?

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Pigeons?

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-Seagull.

-Yeah. Seagull.

-No, it's a crow.

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What birds are being described by WB Yeats in the lines,

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"All suddenly mount and scatter wheeling in great broken rings upon their clamorous wings"?

0:19:400:19:45

-Swans.

-Wild Swans At Coole, yes. Ten points for this.

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"Mr Attlee had three old Etonians in his cabinet, I have six.

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"Things are twice as good under the Conservatives."

0:19:530:19:56

These are the words of which prime minister, speaking in 1959?

0:19:560:20:00

-Harold Macmillan.

-It was, of course.

-APPLAUSE

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Your bonuses are on homophones. In each case,

0:20:050:20:08

give the town whose name is the homophone of the word defined.

0:20:080:20:11

For example, historic Cheshire town and part of a yacht is Sale, OK?

0:20:110:20:15

First for five points, a town in west Cornwall and a variety of precipitation.

0:20:150:20:22

-Let's have an answer, please.

-Hayle?

-Hayle is correct, yes.

0:20:310:20:34

Second, a river port in east Yorkshire and a demon that preys on corpses

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or a person who delights in the macabre.

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-Goole.

-Goole is correct. And finally for five, a town on the River Thames near Slough

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and the past participle of a verb meaning destroy by corrosion, devour or consume.

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-Come on.

-Sorry.

-It's Eton.

0:21:100:21:14

Second picture round now. For your starter, you'll see a photograph of an international opera house.

0:21:140:21:19

Ten points if you can give me both the name of the opera house and the city in which it's located.

0:21:190:21:25

-La Scala, Milan.

-Correct.

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APPLAUSE

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Following La Scala, your bonuses. Three more photographs of opera houses.

0:21:340:21:39

Give me the name of the opera house and the city in which it's located. Firstly for five...

0:21:390:21:45

-We have no idea.

-That's the Bolshoi in Moscow. Secondly...

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It's not Austria, is it?

0:21:590:22:02

THEY WHISPER

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-I don't know what it's called, though.

-Nor do I.

0:22:080:22:12

-Erm, Rome Opera House?

-No, that's the Teatro Colon is Buenos Aires. And finally...

0:22:120:22:17

That's Covent Garden. Royal Opera House.

0:22:190:22:22

-The Royal Opera House in Covent Garden in London.

-Correct, in London. Well done.

0:22:220:22:26

Ten points for this. Developed in the 15th century into a complex urban centre

0:22:260:22:30

with five distinct religious and administrative functions, which city in the Peruvian Andes

0:22:300:22:35

was the historic capital of the Incas?

0:22:350:22:38

-Cusco.

-Cusco is correct, yes.

-APPLAUSE

0:22:380:22:42

Your bonuses are on paintings. Rediscovered in the Scottish borders in 2009,

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a painting of 1837 by Paul Delaroche depicts which 17th century figure

0:22:470:22:52

being insulted by his captors?

0:22:520:22:54

-Let's have an answer, please.

-No idea.

-Charles I.

0:23:000:23:04

In a painting of 1836 by Delaroche, which advocate of absolutism and advisor to Charles I

0:23:040:23:09

is depicted shortly before his execution in 1641 being blessed by Archbishop Laud?

0:23:090:23:15

No?

0:23:220:23:23

-No idea.

-It's the First Earl of Strafford.

0:23:250:23:27

And finally, the execution of which figure in 1554

0:23:270:23:30

is the subject of a large work by Delaroche in the National Gallery?

0:23:300:23:35

-Thomas Cranmer?

-No, it's Lady Jane Grey. Ten points for this.

0:23:410:23:45

Who in 1975 became the first comic-strip artist to be awarded a Pulitzer Prize...

0:23:450:23:50

-Begelman.

-No, you lose five points.

0:23:500:23:53

..for editorial cartoons and is known particularly as the creator of Doonesbury?

0:23:530:23:57

-One of you may buzz.

-Gerald Scarfe?

-No, it's Garry Trudeau. Ten points for this. Listen carefully.

0:23:590:24:06

If no line may be retraced, which is the only sans-serif uppercase letter

0:24:060:24:10

that cannot be written without three separate strokes of the pen?

0:24:110:24:15

-E?

-No. Warwick?

0:24:170:24:20

-T?

-No, it's H. Another starter question. Listen carefully.

0:24:210:24:26

The study of birds' eggs, the Dutch name of a seaport in West Flanders

0:24:260:24:30

and the Chinese tea whose name means black dragon

0:24:300:24:34

all begin with what double letter?

0:24:340:24:37

-O.

-Double-O is correct, yes.

-APPLAUSE

0:24:380:24:42

Your bonuses are on geophysics. What terms describes the crust and brittle part of the upper mantle

0:24:420:24:48

of a rocky planet when considered together?

0:24:480:24:51

-Lithosphere.

-Correct. What name is given to the region of the mantle directly beneath the lithosphere?

0:24:510:24:56

Mesosphere?

0:24:590:25:01

-Come on.

-Mesosphere?

-No, it's the asthenosphere.

0:25:020:25:05

And what theory developed by Wegener

0:25:050:25:07

describes the dynamics of the lithosphere?

0:25:070:25:11

-Plate tectonics?

-Correct.

0:25:120:25:14

Another starter question. Primary open angle and acute are two types of which eye condition

0:25:140:25:21

in which a rise in the pressure of the eye causes internal damage and can affect vision?

0:25:210:25:26

-Glaucoma.

-Correct. Another set of bonuses for you.

0:25:270:25:30

They're on cities in Wales.

0:25:300:25:32

Kingsley Amis's novel The Old Devils is usually thought to be set in which Welsh city

0:25:320:25:38

where the author was a lecturer during the 1950s?

0:25:380:25:41

-Cardiff?

-No, it's Swansea.

0:25:430:25:45

In which Welsh city is John Frost Square, named after the leader of a Chartist uprising of 1839

0:25:450:25:51

in which around 20 people were killed by armed soldiers?

0:25:510:25:54

Cardiff again.

0:25:570:25:59

No, it's Newport. In addition to Cardiff, Swansea and Newport,

0:25:590:26:02

two other communities in Wales have city status. For five points, name either.

0:26:020:26:06

-St David's.

-St David's. The other is Bangor.

0:26:090:26:12

Ten points for this. The UK's first aerial postal delivery was made from which airfield?

0:26:120:26:16

Now in the London borough of Barnet, in 1972 it became the site of an RAF museum.

0:26:160:26:21

-Biggin Hill?

-No. Warwick, one of you buzz, quickly.

0:26:230:26:27

-Tranmere.

-No, it's Hendon. Ten points for this.

0:26:280:26:30

In physics, which two sub-atomic particles have masses

0:26:300:26:33

1,836 and 1,839 times that of the electron?

0:26:330:26:39

-Neutron and proton.

-Correct. A set of bonuses now on Oxford in English history.

0:26:390:26:46

The Provisions of Oxford set up a council

0:26:460:26:48

to control the king and supervise government and were imposed on which monarch by Simon de Montford?

0:26:480:26:53

-Quickly.

-Henry III.

-Correct.

0:26:540:26:57

The Oxford Parliament saw the defeat of attempts to exclude James Duke of York from succession.

0:26:570:27:02

Which monarch summoned this parliament?

0:27:020:27:06

-Charles II.

-Correct. Which leading figure of the 19th century Oxford Movement

0:27:060:27:10

was beatified by the Pope on his visit to the UK in 2010?

0:27:100:27:15

-John Henry Newman?

-Correct.

0:27:150:27:17

With more than four million people in an area slightly smaller than Anglesey,

0:27:170:27:21

what is the most densely-populated country in Asia?

0:27:210:27:24

-Taiwan.

-No. Anyone like to buzz?

-Bangladesh?

-No, it's Singapore. Another starter question.

0:27:240:27:30

Which common tree with the scientific name fraxinus

0:27:300:27:33

shares its name was the non-volatile residue remaining after the ignition of an organic material?

0:27:330:27:38

-Ash.

-Correct. Your bonuses are on titles of rulers.

0:27:390:27:43

-What Hindi term meaning great king was the title...

-GONG

0:27:430:27:47

And at the gong, Edinburgh University have 125,

0:27:470:27:51

-Warwick University have 220.

-APPLAUSE

0:27:510:27:55

Well, I think we're going to have to say goodbye to you, Edinburgh,

0:27:580:28:02

but you go with your heads held high. Thank you very much for coming.

0:28:020:28:06

Warwick, 220 is pretty impressive. We'll look forward to seeing you in round two.

0:28:060:28:10

-I hope you can join us next time. Until then, it's goodbye from Edinburgh University.

-ALL: Goodbye.

0:28:100:28:16

-Goodbye from Warwick University.

-ALL: Goodbye.

-And it's goodbye from me. Goodbye.

0:28:160:28:21

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0:28:230:28:27

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0:28:270:28:31

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0:28:310:28:31