Ciwba Yr Ynys


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Ciwba

Heddiw bydd Cerys Matthews yn teithio i Giwba. Cerys Matthews travels to Cuba and meets people living the socialist reality on the world's only communist island.


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-Every island

-transports you to another world.

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-Where natural life and the nature

-of life have evolved...

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-..in their own unique way.

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-But due to the pressures of the

-modern world, the tide is turning.

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-For better...

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-..and for worse.

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-In this series, we meet islanders

-all over the world.

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-Those who are proud of their

-history, who cling to their customs.

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-Those who are patriotic.

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-But the globalization

-of the world...

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-..has made it impossible

-for islanders to stand alone.

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-In many ways, these shores...

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-..are leading the battle

-to save the planet.

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-The island's fate

-is critical to us all.

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-The unique Caribbean island of Cuba

-has always enchanted me.

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-Cuba is the country of Castro...

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-..communism, cocktails,

-cigars and Cadillacs.

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-It has an interesting history,

-and the past can be seen everywhere.

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-But time doesn't stand still -

-not even in Cuba.

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-Vamos.

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-I've always wanted to come here.

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-I love its history

-and I speak Spanish.

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-I've long been a fan of its music.

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-Muy bien! Muy bien!

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-The dream of an equal, socialist

-society has always interested me.

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-But I've heard

-that Cuba is changing.

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-Is the old way of life disappearing?

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-Are the old heroes less popular

-these days?

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-Over there on that hill

-is where Che Guevara lived in Cuba.

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-Che Guevara, Fidel...

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-..Raul.

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-The men who brought communism

-to Cuba are still familiar.

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-But more than half a century

-has passed since their heyday.

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-Fidel Castro

-led a socialist revolt in Cuba...

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-..in 1959...

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-..turning it into the world's

-only communist island.

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-Since gaining power, Fidel

-has withstood the world's efforts...

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-..to overthrow him.

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-Many Cubans

-are still faithful to him...

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-..and his vision.

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-I've come to meet the people

-who are products of that vision.

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-People who, despite every

-difficulty, are trying to excel.

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-Those who are true to their faith,

-even in adversity.

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-Although Fidel

-is still regarded as a hero...

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-..his brother, Raul,

-now leads Cuba into the future.

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-He promises to reform the regime...

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-..and improve living standards.

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-But could the compromise

-destroy communism in Cuba?

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-These days, the island

-welcomes overseas tourists.

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-Our money revives the economy.

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-But our presence here

-is also a problem.

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-Capitalism, which has been

-a dirty word for decades...

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-..is starting to emerge.

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-Rather than being stuck in the past,

-is Cuba about to change for good?

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-And in haste?

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-Havana is one of the liveliest

-cities in the world.

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-It's hot here, and pretty,

-and it's full of surprises.

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-There is culture and history

-on every street corner.

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-But in my opinion, the best thing

-about Havana is its people.

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-They love their country...

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-..and make the most of their lives.

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-Sometimes they smile

-and often they dance.

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-During the past half a century...

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-..they've also had to be inventive

-to overcome difficulties.

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-While some have praised Fidel

-for introducing communism...

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-..and stability to Cuba...

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-..others have shunned him.

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-The campaign against him is led

-by the United States of America.

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-Florida is only 100 miles away

-in that direction.

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-But the politics of America and Cuba

-are poles apart.

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-For half a century,

-America has tried to destroy Castro.

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-But despite their efforts,

-they have failed up to now.

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-America imposed an embargo

-on Cuba...

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-..and tried to thwart

-international trade links.

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-In the beginning, Fidel found

-a way around the embargo problem.

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-He established links with the USSR,

-America's arch-rival...

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-..relying on the Soviets to supply

-fuel, food and medical supplies.

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-Everything the islanders needed.

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-Then their lives changed.

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-In 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed.

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-A black cloud

-descended over Cuba's economy.

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-It was the dawning of a new era

-referred to as "Periodo Especial".

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-A special period

-in the island's history.

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-Without basic necessities from

-Russia, goods were in short supply.

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-The economy collapsed

-and the islanders faced a famine.

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-Fidel acknowledged he would have

-to veer in a new direction.

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-He invited tourists into Cuba

-to spend their wealth.

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-For the first time in centuries...

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-..islanders came face to face

-with people from the mainland.

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-But how could Cuba cater

-for tourists and their foreign ways?

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-There was a shortage of restaurants

-in Havana.

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-So Fidel gave people special

-permission to open restaurants...

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-..known as paladares

-in their own homes.

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-Elizabeth Mantero

-and her son, Lazaro...

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-..took advantage

-of the opportunity.

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-In 1995, they transformed

-their front room...

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-..and opened a restaurant

-called Los Amigos.

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-THEY SPEAK SPANISH

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-Elizabeth says that the menu

-offers traditional Cuban food.

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-Chicken, beans and rice.

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-But when Los Amigos first opened...

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-..Cuba was still reeling

-from the Special Period.

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-It was difficult for Elizabeth

-and Lazaro to feed themselves...

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-..let alone customers.

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-During this time,

-Lazaro lost four stone in weight.

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-Today, the situation

-has improved greatly.

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-But there are still restrictions

-when buying ingredients.

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-The government dictates that

-she shops in state-owned markets...

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-..although vegetables

-are far more expensive here.

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-Elizabeth

-also has to buy meat wisely.

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-She's only allowed pork and chicken.

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-Every cow in Cuba

-belongs to the government.

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-Steak is only served

-in state-run restaurants.

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-If Elizabeth were to serve beef

-at Los Amigos...

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-..she could be sent to prison.

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-But at least nowadays she can buy

-a variety of fresh ingredients...

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-..and cook a wide range of dishes.

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-Chicken soup

-is today's dish of the day...

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-..along with the biggest avocado

-I've ever seen.

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-Es muy grande!

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-To make things

-even more difficult...

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-..the government prohibits paladares

-from advertising.

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-It is only by word of mouth that the

-restaurant attracts its customers.

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-The service and the kitchen

-must always be at their best.

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-Luckily, I'm not cooking.

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-There's always a queue

-waiting for a table at Los Amigos.

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-People who are keen to taste

-authentic home-cooked food.

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-But not every business on the island

-is restricted by the government.

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-A few hours from Havana by car,

-a different kind of Cuba awaits me.

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-The rules are different here...

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-..and it's a different world.

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-The coastal resort of Varadero

-lies 130 kilometres east of Havana.

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-Every year, over a million people

-visit its wonderful beaches.

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-Though I'm not a fan

-of sunbathing...

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-..I can see the appeal.

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-If you like beach holidays,

-then Varadero would be paradise.

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-Beyond the beaches,

-you'll find another reason...

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-..for Varadero's popularity.

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-This is where Cuba's

-grandest hotels are situated.

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-The all-inclusive hotels

-are owned by foreign companies.

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-But Cuba's government

-owns the land...

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-..and charges the hoteliers

-a high price.

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-Capitalist schemes such as this

-help to sustain communism in Cuba.

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-Without the revenue from tourism...

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-..the island's economy

-would collapse.

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-Beyond the luxury hotels...

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-..is a very different community.

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-In the old town, the residents

-go about their everyday lives.

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-They receive all kinds of benefits

-from the government.

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-Ration shops provide the essentials.

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-Bread, sugar and fresh eggs.

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-Supplies to keep the wolf

-from the door.

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-Tourists rarely see this side

-of Castro's paradise.

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-The ordinary townspeople aren't

-allowed into the grand hotels.

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-Security guards patrol the gates...

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-..and keep the rich and poor apart.

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-But some people have found a way

-around the rules.

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-One man who's building a new future

-for himself is Rafael Calderon.

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-He has been granted a special

-licence to sell crafts to tourists.

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-Rafael comes to the beach daily

-to make money selling souvenirs.

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-Or, in this case, to show me...

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-..how to make a hat

-from palm leaves.

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-It's not easy.

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-SHE SPEAKS SPANISH

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-Rafael has practised his craft

-since he was five years old.

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-A native of Varadero, he remembers

-it as a fishing village.

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-He tells me

-the place has changed significantly.

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-Varadero is now Cuba's

-prime destination for tourists.

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-THEY SPEAK SPANISH

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-People come here from Europe, South

-America, Italy, Britain, Germany.

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-From all over.

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-Despite the change, Rafael is glad

-that he's able to earn a living.

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-People like him

-keep the tourists happy...

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-..and keep Cuba's economy afloat.

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-But I'm looking for something other

-than the luxury of Varadero.

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-MAN SINGS IN SPANISH

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-I want to experience the cultured

-Cuba I've heard so much about.

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-Back in the capital, Havana,

-I find it...

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-..around every corner.

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-Cuba has a unique

-musical tradition.

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-The city echoes to songs and rhythms

-from Africa and Spain.

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-In Cuba, people dance

-with incredible vigour.

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-They can also move gracefully...

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-..and with discipline.

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-GENTLE PIANO MUSIC

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-Classical ballet is

-an important part of Cuban culture.

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-As with many other things,

-ballet came from the Soviet Union.

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-Ordinary folk

-have embraced the dance.

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-Alberto Lorenzo is a teacher

-at the Cuban National Ballet School.

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-It's the largest academy of its kind

-in the world.

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-The standard is exceptionally high.

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-Alberto tells me that Cuban people

-are proud of their ballet tradition.

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-This is the island's

-most important art.

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-It's one of the few things in Cuba

-that can be exported.

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-Alberto is a former pupil.

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-He started training at the age

-of 21, which is old in ballet terms.

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-Nowadays, most children begin

-at nine years of age.

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-The academy is special because the

-girls and boys start at a young age.

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-Dance isn't the only subject taught.

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-Pupils also receive

-academic tuition.

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-SHE SPEAKS SPANISH

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-They look so lovely.

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-There's a contented atmosphere here.

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-It's a pleasant environment.

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-I think we'd better go.

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-With dedication,

-these children will go far.

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-One boy who's reaching for the stars

-is Victor Estevez.

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-The 17-year-old is a gifted pupil.

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-Originally from Camaguey

-in the south...

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-..his family persuaded him

-to move 500km to Havana to study.

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-He tells me that the idea came

-from his uncle, a former dancer.

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-He recognized Victor's potential.

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-Victor is just one of the hundreds

-of boys studying at the academy.

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-In Cuba, there is no stigma attached

-to male ballet dancers.

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-It's even considered macho here.

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-It's little wonder when pain

-is an integral part of the process.

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-As I find out for myself.

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-Alberto has persuaded me

-to have a ballet lesson with Victor.

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-I had ballet lessons as a child

-but I've never worn pointes.

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-It's a shock to the system.

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-Ouch!

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-SHE SPEAKS SPANISH

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-It's a real sacrifice!

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-Ouch!

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-Sore feet are just one thing Victor

-has to suffer if he is to succeed.

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-The academy's halls of residence

-are located five miles away.

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-This is Victor's home

-for the time being.

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-It looks more like an army barracks.

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-After being woken at 5.00am...

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-..a nurse takes the temperature

-of every pupil...

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-..to make sure

-they're all fit and healthy.

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-The state pays for the pupils' food,

-clothes and accommodation...

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-..but it's inevitable

-that Victor misses his parents.

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-They are only able to visit him...

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-..during the ballet festival,

-but he returns home...

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-..whenever he gets the chance.

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-After travelling across the city...

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-..Victor usually starts his lessons

-at 6.00am...

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-..six days a week.

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-Today, he faces

-a different challenge.

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-He's giving me a ballet lesson.

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-PIANO MUSIC

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-Very good.

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-SHE SPEAKS SPANISH

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-I'm as red as a beetroot

-after only a few minutes...

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-..in the sweltering heat

-of the studio.

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-But Victor dances

-up to eight hours a day.

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-SHE SPEAKS SPANISH

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-He says he enjoys every minute,

-and that he loves ballet.

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-For him, it doesn't feel like work.

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-He has another reason

-for persevering.

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-If he succeeds

-as a professional dancer...

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-..he'll get to travel the world.

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-There's no doubt

-that Cubans lack material wealth...

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-..but there are advantages

-to living in a communist state.

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-In those areas,

-Cuba leads by example.

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-.

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-For 50 years, the world has punished

-Cubans for daring to live...

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-..under a communist regime.

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-The USA's strict sanctions

-have restricted Cuba's economy.

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-People can scarcely afford imported

-goods we take for granted...

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-..from shampoo...

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-..to toilet paper.

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-But there's one service

-on which Cubans can truly rely.

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-Although there is sometimes

-a shortage of goods...

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-..there is never a shortage

-of doctors.

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-There are more doctors per capita

-in Cuba than in any other country.

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-Cuba can be very proud

-of its health service.

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-Fidel is to thank for that.

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-Before the revolt in 1959...

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-..very few islanders

-received any form of health care.

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-Fidel established a health service

-that was free to everyone.

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-In Cuba today, the infant

-mortality rate is lower...

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-..and life expectancy higher...

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-..than in the USA.

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-Kania Ramos is a doctor

-at Abel Santamaria...

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-..a hospital located

-in the Pinar del Rio province.

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-Though she earns less money

-than a taxi driver in Cuba...

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-..Kania is pleased to work here.

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-SHE SPEAKS SPANISH

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-She tells me that many

-family members are doctors too.

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-Being able to treat patients is what

-gives her the greatest satisfaction.

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-She says it's wonderful

-to see them recover.

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-The hospital also offers...

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-..alternatives

-to conventional medicine.

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-In the consulting rooms...

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-..unusual practices

-are being performed.

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-Kania has given me

-special permission to watch.

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-Buenos dias.

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-The patient

-who's come to see Kania...

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-..has been suffering

-with stomach pains.

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-Kania is choosing to treat her...

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-..with a herbal remedy

-rather than conventional drugs.

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-The nurse has lit

-what looks like a giant cigar...

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-..and is holding it

-above the patient's stomach.

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-SHE SPEAKS SPANISH

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-According to Kania,

-the cigar has special herbs...

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-..that when held

-above certain parts of the body...

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-..have the same sort of effect

-as acupuncture.

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-SHE SPEAKS SPANISH

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-Many of these treatments

-originally come from China.

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-Traditional Cuban medicine

-is also becoming more popular...

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-..due to the adverse effects

-of the Periodo Especial...

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-..the Special Period.

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-Up until 20 years ago...

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-..the Soviet Union supplied Cuba

-with all its drugs.

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-In return,

-the island exported sugar to Russia.

0:28:180:28:21

-But when the USSR collapsed in 1991,

-Cuba's drugs supplies disappeared.

0:28:230:28:29

-The islanders had to heal themselves

-with traditional methods.

0:28:330:28:38

-These days, the province

-of Pinar del Rio...

0:28:430:28:46

-..is famous for growing tobacco.

0:28:470:28:49

-But medicinal plants

-are also grown here.

0:28:500:28:53

-The government

-has established farms here...

0:28:570:29:01

-..to supply drugs

-to the health service.

0:29:010:29:05

-This organic farm

-stretches over 200 acres...

0:29:100:29:14

-..and grows all kinds

-of medicinal crops...

0:29:150:29:19

-..to supply

-the Abel Santamaria hospital.

0:29:190:29:22

-These plants

-sustain the health service...

0:29:230:29:26

-..and heal patients throughout Cuba.

0:29:260:29:30

-THEY SPEAK SPANISH

0:29:310:29:33

-Back at the hospital, Kania writes

-a prescription for the patient.

0:29:340:29:38

-Medicine made from the leaves

-of the guava tree.

0:29:390:29:42

-Kania is confident it will work.

0:29:460:29:49

-Medicinal plants

-are used every day...

0:29:520:29:55

-..by almost all the doctors

-at the hospital.

0:29:560:29:59

-They are supplementary medicines

-and even replace conventional drugs.

0:29:590:30:04

-These medicines aren't only used

-in the treatment of minor ailments.

0:30:060:30:11

-Doctors are developing plants...

0:30:110:30:14

-..that will hopefully cure

-more serious illnesses.

0:30:140:30:18

-SHE SPEAKS SPANISH

0:30:190:30:21

-Kania hasn't yet treated people

-with cancer and AIDS.

0:30:240:30:29

-But clinical trials

-are currently being carried out.

0:30:290:30:33

-In the hospitals, old knowledge

-is keeping modern socialism alive.

0:30:430:30:48

-This isn't the only example

-of past traditions being revived.

0:30:500:30:55

-Across the island,

-on the south-eastern coast...

0:30:590:31:03

-..lies the ancient city

-of Santiago de Cuba.

0:31:030:31:06

-It's a town steeped in history.

0:31:090:31:11

-For a brief period

-during the 11th century...

0:31:160:31:20

-..Santiago was Cuba's capital city.

0:31:210:31:23

-It was colonized by the Spanish.

0:31:240:31:27

-It was also conquered

-by an explorer from Wales.

0:31:300:31:33

-Santiago has been a strategic port

-for centuries...

0:31:360:31:39

-..and battles have been fought

-to take control of it.

0:31:390:31:43

-One of the most well-known invaders

-was a certain man from Abergavenny.

0:31:430:31:49

-Captain Morgan. Cheers, Captain!

0:31:490:31:52

-While offering a rum toast

-to the captain...

0:31:540:31:57

-..it's worth noting

-that the history is tainted.

0:31:570:32:01

-The conquerors

-brought slaves in tow.

0:32:050:32:08

-African people,

-who suffered greatly...

0:32:080:32:12

-..yet who clung

-to their unique traditions.

0:32:120:32:15

-Some 15km east of Santiago...

0:32:200:32:23

-..I visit a place

-where African influences survive.

0:32:230:32:28

-I'm in the small town of El Cobre

-on a very important day.

0:32:290:32:33

-Today is St Caridad's Day,

-the patron saintess of Cuba.

0:32:330:32:37

-There's a sense of excitement

-all over town.

0:32:430:32:46

-Throughout the day, visitors have

-been arriving in their hundreds.

0:32:480:32:53

-A devotional ceremony to worship

-St Caridad takes place tonight...

0:32:590:33:04

-..the likes of which

-El Cobre hasn't seen for decades.

0:33:040:33:09

-At first glance, this appears to be

-a typical Catholic mass.

0:33:140:33:19

-But another religion

-is practised here.

0:33:210:33:24

-A primitive faith, firmly rooted

-in Cuba's ancient past.

0:33:240:33:29

-When the African slaves came here,

-they knew their European masters...

0:33:310:33:37

-..would forbid them

-practising their religion.

0:33:370:33:41

-So they camouflaged their pagan gods

-as Catholic saints...

0:33:410:33:47

-..and pretended

-to join in the worship.

0:33:480:33:51

-Gradually, the African and Christian

-religions blended together...

0:33:540:33:59

-..to form a new religion

-called Santeria.

0:33:590:34:03

-For Santerian believers, the Virgin

-isn't just a Catholic icon.

0:34:040:34:09

-She also represents Oshun,

-the goddess of water and love.

0:34:100:34:15

-Yellow is Oshun's colour...

0:34:170:34:19

-..which explains the congregation's

-colourful clothing.

0:34:190:34:24

-Such expressions of faith

-are a recent development in Cuba.

0:34:270:34:32

-For half a century

-following the revolt...

0:34:330:34:36

-..people were forbidden from

-publicly celebrating their faith.

0:34:370:34:42

-More recently, the rules

-are gradually becoming more relaxed.

0:34:430:34:48

-The islanders

-are repossessing their faith.

0:34:480:34:52

-This year, the people of El Cobre

-have been granted permission...

0:34:560:35:01

-..to parade the Virgin

-through the town.

0:35:010:35:04

-It's an important moment, signifying

-the regime's new attitude.

0:35:070:35:12

-Twenty years ago, such a procession

-would have been impossible.

0:35:130:35:17

-Santeria believers

-aren't only found in the church.

0:35:200:35:25

-Abelardo Larduet is immersed

-in the ancient religions.

0:35:320:35:36

-Although he sometimes worships

-in church...

0:35:360:35:39

-..he prefers to perform rituals

-to his gods at home.

0:35:390:35:44

-I'm invited to visit Abelardo at

-his flat on the outskirts of town.

0:35:490:35:53

-The Soviet-looking grey buildings...

0:35:570:36:01

-..remind me of Russia's

-influence on Cuba.

0:36:010:36:04

-Hola!

0:36:040:36:06

-Despite its simple interior,

-it provides shelter from the heat.

0:36:060:36:11

-HE SPEAKS SPANISH

0:36:110:36:13

-As well as being a babalawo,

-a Santerian priest...

0:36:160:36:20

-..Abelardo is also a scholar...

0:36:200:36:23

-..specializing

-in his religion's history.

0:36:230:36:26

-He tells me that 70% of Cubans

-believe in Santeria...

0:36:280:36:33

-..and are true to the old beliefs.

0:36:330:36:35

-THUNDER ROARS

0:36:360:36:38

-Hundreds of thousands of people

-across the island...

0:36:400:36:44

-..worship their pagan gods.

0:36:450:36:47

-People believe that Abelardo

-can interpret the gods' messages...

0:36:510:36:56

-..and come to him for advice.

0:36:560:36:58

-For a small fee, Abelardo reads

-the spiritual message in the shells.

0:37:090:37:14

-He offers his customers advice

-on all kinds of matters.

0:37:170:37:21

-Money, health...

0:37:210:37:23

-..and personal issues.

0:37:230:37:25

-He can even foresee the future.

0:37:290:37:32

-This man can look forward

-to a happy and healthy life.

0:37:350:37:39

-It's important that Abelardo's

-predictions are accurate.

0:37:430:37:47

-His reputation is at stake.

0:37:480:37:50

-WOMAN SINGS

0:37:520:37:54

-But there are other babalawo

-who worry less about the facts...

0:37:540:37:58

-..and more about the showbiz.

0:37:590:38:01

-You'll come across them

-on Havana's street corners.

0:38:050:38:09

-As well as predicting the future,

-they'll perform complex rituals...

0:38:090:38:14

-..for a price.

0:38:140:38:16

-It's a practice

-that concerns Abelardo.

0:38:160:38:20

-He tells me that people use Santeria

-as a means of earning a living.

0:38:220:38:27

-They don't embrace the faith

-because it doesn't interest them.

0:38:280:38:32

-WOMAN SPEAKS SPANISH

0:38:320:38:34

-Santiago de Cuba is famous

-for another form of performance too.

0:38:400:38:45

-It's one I'm determined to savour

-before I leave the city.

0:38:460:38:50

-.

0:38:540:38:54

-888

0:38:580:38:58

-888

-

-888

0:38:580:39:00

-Santiago de Cuba is the most

-musical city in the whole of Cuba.

0:39:050:39:09

-This is the birthplace of son...

0:39:130:39:15

-..a fusion of African rhythms

-and Spanish singing.

0:39:150:39:19

-Son and salsa

-are Cuba's defining sounds.

0:39:200:39:25

-It can be heard

-in every single tavern.

0:39:250:39:28

-HE SINGS IN SPANISH

0:39:300:39:32

-One of the things I love most

-about this place...

0:39:340:39:37

-..is that everyone,

-young and old, rich and poor...

0:39:380:39:41

-..loses themselves in the music

-and the dancing.

0:39:410:39:45

-Cuban people feel the music

-in their bones.

0:39:570:40:02

-It's wonderful to see.

0:40:030:40:06

-Muy bien! Muy bien!

0:40:150:40:17

-As the sun sets to the sound

-of the church bells pealing...

0:40:230:40:27

-..the taste of the mojito...

0:40:270:40:30

-..makes me want to join in.

0:40:300:40:31

-..makes me want to join in.

-

-# Migldi, magldi, hey now now

0:40:310:40:34

-# The smithy door open

0:40:340:40:37

-# Migldi, magldi, hey now now

0:40:370:40:40

-# And the smith

-with his blackened face

0:40:400:40:42

-# Migldi, magldi, hey now now

0:40:430:40:47

-# At the forge, pumping the bellows.

0:40:480:40:51

-# Migldi, magldi, hey now now

0:40:510:40:54

-# It's a fine thing

-on a long winter's night

0:40:560:40:59

-# Migldi, magldi, hey now now

0:40:590:41:02

-# To be the first

-to get to the smithy.

0:41:020:41:05

-# Migldi, magldi, hey now now

0:41:050:41:07

-# When there's frost and snow

-outside

0:41:080:41:10

-# Migldi, magldi, hey now now

0:41:110:41:15

-# The best place to be

-is by the fire.

0:41:160:41:19

-# Migldi, magldi, hey now now

0:41:190:41:21

-And again!

0:41:220:41:23

-And again!

-

-# Hey now now #

0:41:230:41:26

-From Wales to Cuba, the old songs

-are still the favourites.

0:41:270:41:32

-But in Havana, music of another kind

-attracts a very different audience.

0:41:360:41:42

-The musicians

-look like American rap artists.

0:41:460:41:51

-But this is Cuba...

0:41:510:41:53

-..and as usual, there's a twist.

0:41:530:41:56

-HE RAPS IN SPANISH

0:41:570:42:00

-This is reggaeton,

-a fusion of reggae, rap...

0:42:010:42:04

-..and Latino music

-from Puerto Rico and Venezuela.

0:42:050:42:08

-It has a popular following in Cuba.

0:42:090:42:12

-HE RAPS IN SPANISH

0:42:130:42:15

-Tonight, there's a special gig

-in one of the city's nightclubs.

0:42:170:42:23

-Friday night in Havana -

-it's just gone midnight.

0:42:230:42:27

-I'm hoping to talk to one of

-the stars of reggaeton, Kola Loka.

0:42:270:42:31

-These fans have paid 20

-to see Kola Loka perform.

0:42:350:42:40

-That's almost a month's wages

-for many Cubans.

0:42:430:42:46

-HE RAPS IN SPANISH

0:42:490:42:51

-But what's so special

-about Kola Loka?

0:42:580:43:01

-Why are people willing

-to pay so much to see them?

0:43:070:43:10

-The band's frontman, Yasser Puente,

-agrees to talk to me.

0:43:190:43:23

-He mentions a saying.

0:43:270:43:29

-"You can't know where you're going

-without knowing where you're from."

0:43:300:43:36

-Reggaeton rhythms mixed with Cuban

-music makes the band's sound unique.

0:43:360:43:42

-REGGAETON MUSIC

0:43:420:43:45

-It's this combination

-of old and new that's so appealing.

0:43:470:43:51

-Yasser tells me that the creation

-of reggaeton defines the new Cuba.

0:43:560:44:01

-But not everybody agrees.

0:44:070:44:09

-The government believes

-reggaeton's sound and look...

0:44:120:44:16

-..is too much like

-American rap music.

0:44:160:44:19

-They have banned radio stations

-from playing Kola Loka's music...

0:44:240:44:29

-..so the band has to find other ways

-to promote themselves.

0:44:290:44:33

-They've struck a deal

-with taxi drivers.

0:44:350:44:37

-They've persuaded them to play

-their music and sell their CDs.

0:44:380:44:42

-The government has another reason

-for banning Kola Loka's songs.

0:44:440:44:48

-HE RAPS IN SPANISH

0:44:480:44:50

-The songs have a message.

0:44:530:44:56

-One which satirizes

-everyday life in Cuba.

0:44:560:45:00

-One of their most popular tracks

-is La Estafa Del Babalawo.

0:45:030:45:08

-It satirizes the Santeria priests

-who charge a fortune...

0:45:080:45:13

-..for their religious services.

0:45:140:45:17

-In a country where the government

-censors criticism...

0:45:210:45:25

-..it's a way of voicing an opinion.

0:45:250:45:28

-HE SPEAKS SPANISH

0:45:300:45:32

-It's a way of conveying a message

-to the Cuban people.

0:45:350:45:38

-It's a way of expressing an opinion

-without using violence.

0:45:380:45:43

-Rather than wanting to escape

-to America...

0:45:450:45:49

-..Kola Loka are determined

-to stay in Cuba...

0:45:490:45:53

-..and have their voices heard.

0:45:530:45:56

-From the outside, it's as if Cuba

-hasn't changed at all.

0:46:010:46:05

-For over half a century,

-Fidel has isolated the country...

0:46:070:46:11

-..from the rest of the world.

0:46:110:46:13

-By closely following his vision,

-he has created a lasting legacy.

0:46:150:46:20

-In terms of literacy, health care

-and the arts, Cuba leads the way.

0:46:210:46:26

-But times are changing.

0:46:260:46:29

-The socialist dream is now funded

-by tourism and private enterprise.

0:46:320:46:37

-It may be a precarious situation.

0:46:390:46:42

-While Cubans enjoy

-the simpler things in life...

0:46:450:46:48

-..will they too acquire a taste

-for material goods...

0:46:490:46:52

-..once they experience

-a small taste of freedom?

0:46:540:46:58

-As they learn

-about the outside world...

0:46:590:47:02

-..will they stay true

-to the vision...

0:47:050:47:08

-..of an island where everyone is

-equal and everyone lives in harmony?

0:47:080:47:13

-I came here

-to see whether Cuba has changed.

0:47:160:47:19

-It may have changed, but I prefer

-to say that it has adapted.

0:47:190:47:23

-I've been struck

-by people's patriotism.

0:47:230:47:26

-People really do love this country.

0:47:270:47:30

-Even if the political system

-is going to change...

0:47:300:47:34

-..I believe the Cuban spirit

-and its people will survive.

0:47:340:47:39

-S4C Subtitles by Adnod Cyf.

0:48:170:48:19

-.

0:48:190:48:19

Heddiw bydd Cerys Matthews yn teithio i Giwba. Cerys Matthews travels to Cuba and meets people living the socialist reality on the world's only communist island.