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-transports you to another world.
-Where natural life...
-..and the nature of life have
-evolved in their own unique way.
-But due to the pressures of the
-modern world, the tide is turning...
-..for better or for worse.
-In this series, we meet islanders
-all over the world.
-People who are proud
-of their history...
-..who are preserving their customs
-and who are patriotic.
-But the globalization
-of the world...
-..has made it impossible
-for islanders to stand alone.
-In many ways...
-..these shores are leading
-the battle to save the planet.
-The island's fate
-is critical to us all.
-The beautiful island of Cyprus lies
-in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.
-Nine thousand kilometres
-of idyllic coastline.
-Hundreds of acres
-of fertile plains...
-..set against a backdrop
-of dramatic mountain ranges.
-For both visitors and natives...
-..this place could be paradise.
-But if Cyprus
-has been blessed by its climate...
-..its location has been a curse.
-Throughout the ages, the island
-has been a stepping stone...
-..for marauding armies from Europe,
-Africa and the Middle East.
-Ruling the whole Mediterranean Sea
-was the goal of any despot.
-The starting point in the crusade
-for power was here in Cyprus.
-After landing here, they were
-only one step away from the east...
-..or the west.
-The ground beneath my feet
-is red from the bloodshed...
-..of battles in both the distant
-and the recent past.
-Sadly, the conflict continues.
-On a small island such as this,
-is all the conflict necessary?
-the battle lines were drawn again.
-the Greeks and the Turks...
-..who lived on the island
-turned on each other.
-The battles left visible scars
-on the landscape...
-..and on the minds of the people.
-Today, it is now one island
-made up of two nations.
-Cyprus is divided.
-North versus south.
-Muslim versus Greek Orthodox,
-Turk versus Greek.
-There are those, however...
-..who aspire to a new future
-of a united Cyprus.
-Can they bring harmony
-to a divided island?
-THEY SING IN GREEK
-I have been reluctant
-to visit Cyprus down the years.
-I'm not sure why,
-but it may be an irrational reason.
-I'd feel as though I was betraying
-..who happen to live on one
-of the islands nearest to Turkey.
-They remain sceptical
-of the Turks' motives.
-So I come here
-with my heart ruling my head.
-I wonder if I'll leave here
-with my head ruling my heart?
-Cyprus is an ancient world
-of legends and of love.
-This is the birthplace
-..the Roman goddess
-of love and beauty.
-Legend has it that Aphrodite
-arose from the sea here.
-It's said that if you swim around
-Aphrodite's Rock three times...
-..you will be blessed
-with eternal beauty.
-The legend is an excellent
-marketing ploy to attract tourists.
-Every year, 2.5 million tourists
-flock to these shores.
-isn't a new concept in Cyprus.
-The first tourists came to enjoy
-the landscape and the views.
-The sunshine, food and wine
-were added bonuses.
-Cyprus's long and complex history
-was another attraction.
-But these days,
-a very different kind of tourist...
-..comes here in search of fun.
-Cyprus is now the clubbing capital
-of the eastern Mediterranean.
-The former sleepy fishing villages
-of Aiya Napa and Paphos...
-..are now dancing
-to a different beat.
-But don't forget
-that the beautiful people...
-..also came here decades ago.
-In the 1960s,
-before the advent of mass tourism...
-..the seaside town of Famagusta
-was a paradise for wealthy celebs.
-It was a hot spot for such stars...
-..as Brigitte Bardot,
-Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton.
-In 1974, the golden era
-came to an abrupt end.
-This town, that was once dripping
-with wealth, is now dead.
-Its decline has nothing to do
-with the economic downturn...
-..or a shortage of tourists.
-It's all down to a bloody conflict.
-When the Greek army
-tried to annex Cyprus...
-..Famagusta was caught
-at the centre of the conflict.
-Determined to protect its interests,
-Turkey launched an invasion.
-The town was evacuated
-in a matter of hours...
-..before fighting broke out.
-By the time a ceasefire
-..the Turks had occupied
-the northern third of the island.
-The UN created a border
-to separate the two sides.
-That border, the Green Line,
-is still in force today.
-It serves as a permanent partition.
-Southern Cyprus is a republic
-that's home to Greek Cypriots.
-It is internationally acknowledged
-as an EU member state.
-In the north is the Turkish
-Republic of Northern Cyprus.
-Turkey is the only country
-to acknowledge its sovereignty.
-The centre of Famagusta
-belongs to the Turkish Republic...
-..but tourist areas and beaches
-remain in the Buffer Zone.
-No-one lives there any more.
-Only United Nations peacekeepers
-are seen there.
-Famagusta is a ghost city.
-When the Turks invaded Cyprus
-..the Greek Cypriots
-who had lived there...
-..fled to other parts of the island.
-stories have turned into legends.
-Exaggerated ones, I'm sure.
-Dinner plates left on tables,
-lights being left on...
-..and even washing
-still hanging on the line.
-One of those who was forced to flee
-is Andreas Hatziaros, a farmer.
-He's a Greek Cypriot...
-..whose birthplace, Axna, remains
-in the Buffer Zone in the distance.
-Andreas was 16 when his family
-was driven out of their homes.
-He remembers leaving everything
-when the Turks invaded his village.
-The family owned a sprawling farm,
-most of which lies in no-man's-land.
-Only a small part of it remains...
-..on the Greek side
-of the Green Line.
-HE SPEAKS GREEK
-All the land that you see
-belonged to us, he says.
-How else would we feel?
-The Turks would have occupied
-more of his family's land...
-..had it not been
-for a British Army base nearby.
-Today, Axna is uninhabited
-From the safety of the Greek side,
-Andreas can only stare longingly...
-..at the Turkish soldiers
-on his church's roof.
-This sign says it all about Cyprus.
-The Cyprus of today,
-not the Cyprus of old.
-It's in three languages -
-English, Greek and Turkish.
-That side belongs
-to the British Army.
-This side belongs
-to the Turkish Cypriot army.
-Andreas, the lowly farmer,
-is caught in the middle.
-He once farmed 60 acres.
-Now, he's only permitted
-to farm four acres.
-The loss of his inheritance
-and his livelihood...
-..is a constant reminder
-of the schism dividing Cyprus.
-There are no Cypriots living here,
-If there are Turks living here...
-..there's no such thing
-as a Cypriot nation.
-Believe it or not, the dispute
-over belonging to a nation...
-..today takes precedence over
-classical wonders from antiquity.
-Since its very beginnings,
-people have fought over Cyprus.
-Its fertile soil and location...
-..were huge rewards
-for those navigating the seas.
-They came from Europe,
-Asia and Africa.
-After each offensive...
-..the inhabitants would have
-to conform to a new master...
-..and new religion.
-The ancient city of Salamis
-attests to its turbulent history.
-Its deep harbour was a gateway
-for marauding troops.
-Cyprus's history is ancient
-and incredibly complicated.
-Many different nations
-have ruled the island...
-Egyptians, Persians and Romans.
-French crusaders ruled it
-for three centuries...
-for almost 80 years...
-..and the Turks for three centuries.
-The British were also here,
-for close to 80 years.
-So, in actual fact,
-how Greek is the island after all?
-Someone able to shed light
-on the subject...
-..is Italian historian
-Professor Luca Zavagno.
-He has spent a lifetime researching
-the ancient mysteries of Salamis.
-HE SPEAKS ITALIAN
-The professor dreams
-of uncovering its wonders.
-is waiting to be excavated nearby.
-It was a sprawling city,
-similar to Pompeii.
-But the schism in Cyprus
-is so grave...
-..that even its ancient history
-has become part of the ongoing feud.
-is in the Turkish north...
-..there's an international ban
-on archaeological excavations.
-It's hard to believe and even harder
-for the professor to accept...
-..that it's impossible to uncover
-Salamis's remarkable history.
-It's so frustrating
-that the last archaeological dig...
-..happened in 1974, he says.
-The embargo prohibits
-any archaeological activity...
-..unless it's for
-As someone who specializes
-in the Byzantine period...
-..it's a personal tragedy
-for the professor...
-..considering how important
-Salamis could be archaeologically.
-The feud continues
-in this lost paradise.
-What Luca had to say
-angers me greatly.
-Due to the political situation,
-his work has been halted.
-He can't continue this vital work...
-..that could greatly benefit
-Cyprus's hopeless situation.
-But as someone once told me...
-..a lot of heads
-need to be knocked together.
-The cause of Cyprus's division...
-..goes to the heart
-of the capital, Nicosia...
-..or Lefkosia in Greek.
-The Green Line
-runs through the city's centre.
-It's the only capital city
-in the world that remains divided.
-The scars from the battle
-between the two nations...
-..are all around.
-There are no guns here,
-but everything else is ready.
-This picture postcard view...
-..was viewed by angry eyes
-The 1,000 UN peacekeepers...
-..who are here
-to preserve the peace...
-..are a constant reminder
-of the ongoing feud.
-Though the flags of both nations
-fly above the city...
-..one establishes dominion
-over the island.
-Carved on a slope
-outside the city...
-..is the largest flag in the world.
-The Turkish Republic
-of Northern Cyprus flag...
-..measures 75,000 square metres
-and can be seen from space.
-Roughly translated, the slogan
-reads, "Proud To Be A Turk".
-inhabit the south of the city...
-..that's called Lefkosia in Greek.
-They are proud of their
-Greek Orthodox religion.
-This is an affluent city.
-The sociable nature of the Greeks
-is very prominent...
-..in the taverna and cafe neon.
-I would have thought...
-..that life was sweet for residents
-of a street such as this one...
-..with a cloudless blue sky
-and warm sunshine.
-But there's pain
-behind closed doors.
-The pain of people who remember
-living as refugees.
-Charis Charilaou has raised
-his children in the capital.
-But he himself was raised in a town
-which is now in the Turkish north.
-HE SPEAKS GREEK
-Before 1974, he and his family
-lived in the pretty town of Morphou.
-They had a large garden...
-..surrounded by lemon, orange
-and tangerine trees.
-But Charis's paradise
-would be destroyed.
-During the 1960s,
-the ethnic conflict intensified...
-..with both sides
-guilty of serious violence.
-For Turkish Cypriots,
-the Turkish invasion of 1974...
-..was their salvation.
-But for the 200,000
-..who lived in the north,
-it was a tragedy.
-What followed could only be
-described as ethnic cleansing.
-100,000 Turkish Cypriots
-fled from the south to the north.
-Greek Cypriots like Charis...
-..who lived in the north
-were forced to flee...
-..leaving their homes
-and livelihoods behind.
-We left all our belongings behind.
-None of us believed
-that we would never return.
-We only took the smallest bundle
-of clothes with us.
-Today, all he has left
-is a photo album...
-with the family's new generation.
-Charis treasures the photographs.
-How else could he show
-..the life they had in Morphou?
-Even after 40 years, the photos
-still cause him pain.
-This is the country of my ancestors.
-Of course I still have a longing
-and a yearning to have it back.
-His old home is only 40km away...
-..but his chances of returning
-are very slim.
-Though my Greek is poor,
-I wanted to ask Charis...
-..what it's been like
-to live as a refugee for so long.
-SHE SPEAKS GREEK
-Anyone who hasn't been a refugee
-can't understand, he says.
-Without having lost loved ones
-..and waiting for them to return,
-nobody can understand.
-The waiting continues
-for many more families.
-More than 2,000 people
-are still unaccounted for...
-..following the conflict.
-So far, only 217 bodies
-have been identified...
-..and returned to their families.
-On the island of Cyprus,
-the Greek and Turkish communities...
-..are completely separated.
-In order to learn more
-about this sad situation...
-..I'd have to visit both sides.
-I've crossed the famous Green Line.
-We weren't allowed to film
-We had to show our passports...
-..not on the Greek side because
-they don't acknowledge the border...
-..but on the Turkish side.
-We've been granted a visa
-to come to the north.
-It's like dividing Wales
-into two countries...
-..and having to show our passports
-in somewhere like Aberystwyth.
-The Greek south is a member
-of the European Union...
-..and permitted to trade
-with the rest of the world.
-..except the north of Cyprus.
-For businesses in the north,
-the situation is much worse.
-Only Turkey acknowledges
-its Turkish Cypriot republic.
-must first be approved by Turkey.
-It's a huge disadvantage
-for businessmen like Ozan Dagli.
-HE SPEAKS TURKISH
-Ozan tells me that he cannot compete
-because the duty is so high.
-Due to numerous problems,
-they can only run their business...
-..within certain northern confines.
-Only Turkey acknowledges northern
-Cyprus as an independent state.
-Consequently, all goods
-bought and sold here...
-..such as food and other produce,
-have to come via Istanbul.
-has to go through Turkey first.
-Selling produce to southern Cyprus
-is an impossible problem.
-Ozan has battled hard to get his
-produce into shops in the south.
-Even the United Nations
-has failed to ensure free trade.
-Ozan says that supermarket owners
-in the south...
-..reject products from the north...
-..because they fear an anti-Turkish
-backlash from customers.
-Ozan has no hope of selling
-to shops in the south.
-International duty makes it
-too expensive to export overseas.
-No wonder he's angry.
-He is angered by being isolated
-from the global market.
-Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots
-live on this island.
-At the moment, those in the south
-are doing all they can...
-..to make sure the north
-is still isolated, he says.
-The hopes of even the north's
-most successful businesses...
-..risk being dashed.
-Ozan comes across
-as a very sensible and astute man.
-If everyone was like him,
-Cyprus would be a true paradise.
-But restoring paradise takes more
-than healing an economic divide.
-People's faith must also
-be taken into consideration.
-There are two main religions
-on the island...
-..Greek Orthodox Christianity
-and Sunni Islam.
-Many Christian churches here
-have been turned into mosques...
-..as a result of people
-being displaced through conflict.
-But this is the first example,
-dating back to the 16th century...
-..when the island
-was conquered for the first time...
-..by the Muslim Ottoman Empire.
-MAN PRAYS IN TURKISH
-This was once
-St Nicholas's Cathedral.
-The Gothic architecture
-of the building in Famagusta...
-..is typical of Europe's
-When the Ottomans occupied the city,
-they took ownership of it.
-In keeping with Muslim tradition,
-the walls were painted white.
-The stained glass was replaced...
-..and every image of the human form
-The Greek Orthodox tradition
-is completely different.
-Churches are colourfully
-and meticulously painted.
-In the valleys
-and on the highest mountains...
-..are some of the most striking
-It's impossible to separate
-religion and politics in Cyprus.
-But in order to understand
-what religion means to people...
-..you must come to a place like this
-on an occasion like this.
-The village of Peristerona
-is preparing for Easter.
-It's the most important festival
-for the Greek Orthodox Church.
-The Saturday of Holy Week
-is a day to meditate and relax...
-..for the older members
-of the Greek Orthodox community.
-But for the younger men
-and the boys...
-..this isn't a time to be idle.
-On the eve of Easter, they have
-to be at their most alert...
-..to ensure weeks of hard labour
-Michaelis Savvas and his friends
-have been building a bonfire.
-It has taken weeks to build...
-..and its size
-is a matter of community pride.
-They must make sure
-it's the biggest local bonfire.
-Michaelis must spend long nights
-keeping vigil over the bonfire.
-They stay here every night
-until the early hours...
-..in case people
-from other villages...
-..steal the wood or set it alight.
-There's nothing obviously religious
-about this untidy pile of wood.
-But there's no doubt
-that for young men like Michaelis...
-..it has genuine
-The rag doll
-on top of the bonfire...
-who betrayed Christ.
-They burn it every year...
-that they totally condemn him.
-Such orthodox beliefs...
-..permeate all aspect of rural life
-in this part of the island.
-it's a wonderful custom.
-It's a way for communities
-to celebrate Easter...
-..and the resurrection
-of their saviour.
-His mother, Maria, is also busy...
-..preparing a traditional
-She's keen to teach
-the next generation.
-As her mother and grandmother did...
-..Maria now teaches her daughters...
-..so that they can continue
-the Easter customs.
-After fasting over Lent,
-the Easter Sunday feast...
-..is something the whole family
-looks forward to.
-Maria asks her daughter, Christala,
-These are flaounes,
-the Easter cheese breads.
-Maria tells me
-that the red paint on the eggs...
-..is a symbol of Christ's blood.
-The egg and lemon avgolemono soup
-is part of the feast.
-To accompany the soup, they eat
-special bread and boiled meat.
-A spring lamb
-is served as a symbol...
-..of Christ's sacrifice
-on the cross.
-They bake the bread with yeast
-to represent the resurrection.
-But this family's faith
-is a constant in their lives.
-is full of religious icons...
-..that are so important to them.
-The church bells
-summon the community.
-The family has invited me
-to join them...
-..for the climax of their year.
-The family, along with the others,
-are dressed in their Sunday best.
-Members of the Greek
-..have celebrated Easter in this way
-since the ninth century.
-MAN SINGS IN GREEK
-The words tell the story
-of the very first Easter.
-In the Christian faith, that's when
-Jesus rose from the dead.
-Maria believes that in order
-to keep the family together...
-..belief in God is essential.
-It's how children come to learn
-the best principles and values.
-As midnight approaches...
-..the lights are turned off
-..of the resurrection.
-This is the darkest moment
-of the year for the faithful.
-The atmosphere makes you feel...
-..as if something big
-is about to happen.
-On the stroke of midnight,
-the priest appears...
-..and summons his congregation
-to light their candles.
-light each other's candles.
-It's a symbolic ritual
-of Christ's light.
-The procession represents
-Mary Magdalene and Mary's journey...
-..to Jesus's tomb
-on the morning of the first Easter.
-To recall the women's surprise
-at seeing an empty tomb...
-..the priest announces,
-Christ Is Risen!
-The congregation replies,
-Truly, He Is Risen!
-Behind the church...
-weeks of hard work go up in flames.
-alongside his father.
-Family is just as important
-as the rituals.
-Tonight, scenes like these can be
-seen in every village in the south.
-They are destined to continue,
-whatever the island's fate.
-returns to the church.
-Christ is no longer in his tomb.
-The entire village,
-at least for one night...
-in the resurrection.
-I bid the Savvas family farewell...
-..as they continue
-with one other tradition.
-If they can keep the flame alight
-all the way home...
-..then they will enjoy
-a prosperous year ahead of them.
-The following day, Easter Sunday...
-..there are celebrations
-of a very different kind.
-Christala Savvas and friends
-take part in traditional games...
-..to mark the beginning of spring.
-Spirits are high
-among the villagers...
-..as they feast on huge plates
-of souvla, local lamb.
-Community spirit is important today.
-something more than religion...
-..tying these people to the island.
-There are few places
-in the Mediterranean...
-..that are as desolate
-as this region of Cyprus.
-The Karpaz Peninsula.
-It's referred to as the Panhandle.
-It extends 80km into the sea
-in north-eastern Cyprus.
-The region is rich
-in subterranean water reservoirs.
-They keep the plains fertile
-throughout the summer months...
-..while the rest of the island
-bakes in the overbearing heat.
-But that's not the only reason
-why the Karpaz Peninsula is unique.
-When the Turks invaded,
-the peninsula was isolated.
-The Greeks who once lived here
-were unable to flee to the south.
-They stayed here
-and lived under Turkish rule.
-Religion is important
-to both communities...
-..but it also divides them.
-The one thing
-they both have in common...
-..is their love of the landscape.
-they're very passionate about.
-The island is at its most beautiful
-in the north.
-The promise of a simple life...
-..tempted Greek Cypriot
-..and his Canadian wife, Lois,
-back to the Karpaz...
-..after many years overseas.
-Ismail tells me
-that he regards himself a Cypriot.
-He returned to raise his children...
-..in a nicer environment
-with two cultures and two languages.
-Ismail was brought up
-near the village of Buyukkonuk.
-He remembers mixing well
-with his neighbours.
-Greeks and Turks side by side.
-But when Lois arrived in 1986...
-..and adopted the culture
-..she was saddened to hear that the
-Greek villagers had been driven out.
-SHE SPEAKS TURKISH
-Lois tells me the Greek Cypriots
-didn't want to leave.
-They hadn't offended anyone...
-..and claimed to be friends
-with the Turks.
-But the Turks didn't want them here.
-They were driven out by soldiers.
-Sixteen Greek Cypriot villagers
-were killed in the conflict.
-Today, there are no signs
-of past conflicts...
-..but the history
-isn't far from people's minds.
-Lois tells me they discuss politics
-and the dispute in Cyprus daily.
-The older generation remembers
-what it was like before 1974.
-They long for the old days.
-In an attempt
-to move Buyukkonuk forward...
-..Lois and Ismail
-have created an eco-village here...
-..and a self-sufficient community.
-They recycle water...
-..use solar panels...
-..and press olives
-using traditional methods.
-They have a vision
-of revolutionizing the island...
-on small everyday things.
-Lois insists on cooking...
-..by using traditional methods
-and natural ingredients.
-Lois offers me a taste of Cyprus.
-Seeded bread with raisins...
-..and wild berries that provide food
-for migrating birds.
-It's really tasty,
-as well as being good for you.
-It's much better
-than a bar of chocolate.
-Ismail has revived
-old carving methods...
-..using the wood of olive trees
-that would usually be left to rot.
-In ecotourism, says Ismail...
-..natural produce, culture
-and traditions are all-important.
-They are elements
-that strengthen people's identity.
-Ismail has put his tragic
-experiences behind him...
-..and is focusing
-on creating a Utopia.
-It is difficult for people
-to forget the conflict.
-Ismail puts his faith
-in the younger generation...
-..who call themselves Cypriots
-and nothing else.
-Back in the divided capital
-of Nicosia or Lefkosia...
-..no effort has been made
-to move forward.
-But there are those here
-who are trying to bridge the gap.
-The Buffer Zone
-is about 100 metres wide...
-..but the gap between
-the two communities is far wider.
-I'm here tonight to see
-what could eventually become...
-of a new understanding.
-Engineer George Spyrou
-believes it is possible...
-..for the Turks and the Greeks
-to get along.
-In 1997, he formed a peace choir.
-The 50 members are both Greek
-and Turkish Cypriots.
-at the Ledra Palace Hotel...
-..in the UN-controlled Buffer Zone.
-This is where the UN administered
-the 1974 prisoner exchange process.
-People now come here
-of their own volition...
-..to sing for a better future.
-According to George, the choir's aim
-was to unite two communities.
-The message of love and peace
-would be spread through the music.
-George is a Greek Cypriot,
-born in the south...
-..during a turbulent time when both
-communities were at loggerheads.
-He hadn't even spoken to a Turkish
-Cypriot until he was 38 years old.
-George tells me
-that curiosity inspired him.
-He wanted to know who these people
-were, how they looked...
-..what they talked about
-and what ideas they had.
-about this choir...
-..is their desire to share
-languages, customs and traditions...
-..even if it takes
-GENTLE STRING MUSIC
-and two communities...
-..singing as one.
-If they can sing like that,
-why can't they live like that?
-"That wondrous day will come,"
-according to one of their songs.
-George Spyrou's dream.
-It's tragic that such a beautiful
-island is split in two.
-We Greek Cypriots
-and Turkish Cypriots...
-..could have created a paradise
-This is my last night in Cyprus.
-I've accompanied the choir
-..a small Greek enclave
-among Turkish Cypriot lands.
-It is a memorial concert
-for two friends...
-..one a Greek Cypriot,
-the other a Turkish Cypriot...
-..who were murdered for trying
-to bring peace to two communities.
-THEY SING IN GREEK
-I doubt this choir would win
-at an eisteddfod in Wales...
-..but they have a bigger ambition
-that's far more important.
-I came here
-with a bias towards the Greeks.
-But I've met nice people
-from both sides...
-..each of them hoping to see
-the Green Line eliminated...
-..so that everyone
-can live in harmony once again.
-Only then can Cyprus
-become a true paradise.
-S4C Subtitles by Adnod Cyf.