Pennod 1 Gwreiddiau: Murray the Hump


Pennod 1

Mewn cyfres ddwy ran, yr Arglwydd Dafydd Wigley sy'n teithio i Chicago a Maldwyn ar drywydd ei drydydd cefnder Murray the Hump. Lord Dafydd Wigley traces his links to Murray the...


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-Lord Dafydd Wigley is in Chicago...

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-..to trace the history

-of his third cousin...

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-..one of the most ruthless

-and clever gangsters...

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-..America had ever seen.

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-His name was Llewelyn Morris

-Humphreys, or Murray The Hump.

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-When Al Capone

-was incarcerated in 1932...

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-..The Hump was declared

-Public Enemy Number 1 by the FBI.

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-The nickname, Hump...

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-..is an abbreviation

-of his surname, Humphreys.

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-He was also known as The Camel.

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-What set him apart from every other

-gangster in this bloody city...

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-..was his understanding of how

-business, politics and law worked.

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-Although he preferred

-negotiating over killing...

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-..he was prepared to take

-all measures deemed necessary.

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-Plenty of evidence suggests

-he was a cold-blooded killer.

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-Yet he commanded respect in Chicago

-and throughout America.

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-Contemporaries regarded him

-as a philosopher and politician.

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-He was also considered professorial.

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-He was obviously

-a remarkably intelligent man.

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-He was involved in

-the St Valentine's Day Massacre...

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-..which took place some 20 yards

-from where The Hump was born.

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-While Al Capone was being

-interrogated by the police...

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-..the Welshman

-arranged an alibi for his boss.

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-Gangsters,

-some dressed as police officers...

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-..opened fire on Bugs Moran's mob.

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-He was a competitor in the

-lucrative illegal alcohol market.

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-The selling of alcohol

-was prohibited in America...

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-..from 1920.

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-It was here on St Valentine's Day

-1920 that the massacre took place.

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-Six of Al Capone's adversaries

-were shot in a garage...

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-..which stood on this site.

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-It's believed that Murray Humphreys

-was involved in the shooting...

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-..and certainly

-played a role in the plotting.

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-Some of his enemies

-in the laundry business...

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-..were shot dead.

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-The laundry service

-was The Hump's idea.

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-A respectable front

-for illegal operations.

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-The term, laundering money,

-has been derived from that practice.

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-On that fateful

-St Valentine's Day...

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-..a river of blood flowed

-from the garage onto the street.

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-But Bugs Moran

-avoided the bloodbath.

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-He sensed something was wrong

-and kept his distance.

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-The savageness of Chicago

-is a far cry...

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-..from the serenity

-of Montgomeryshire.

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-Llewelyn Morris Humphreys's parents

-emigrated to America in 1889.

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-His mother hailed

-from the Llyn Clywedog region.

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-His father was

-from Castell Farm in Carno.

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-Their Welsh relatives were reluctant

-to embrace the gangster.

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-It was Huw Davies

-who let the cat out of the bag.

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-I was in Chicago, researching a

-series about the Welsh in America...

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-..with the author and academic,

-Emyr Humphreys.

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-We were

-in the Bureau of Vital Statistics...

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-..and I asked for Llewelyn Morris

-Humphreys's death certificate.

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-Within an hour, I find out...

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-..that not only

-had he died in Chicago...

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-..and was an investment adviser...

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-..but his mother

-was called Ann Wigley.

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-As a native of Montgomeryshire...

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-..I was sure she had connections

-with this area.

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-My father was watching

-Huw's programme in 1977...

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-..about America's bicentenary.

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-He was sitting at home,

-whisky in hand.

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-The first half of the programme

-was about Frank Lloyd Wright.

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-The second half focused

-on this man from Montgomeryshire.

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-His father

-was Bryan Humphreys from Carno.

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-My grandmother

-was from the same area.

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-The gangster's mother

-was Ann Wigley.

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-My father suddenly woke up,

-spilling whisky everywhere.

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-That was the first time we learnt...

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-..that we were related

-to a gangster.

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-I later discovered in London

-that his parents were married...

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-..in China Street, Llanidloes...

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-..where we'd filmed a series

-on Emrys ab Iwan months previously.

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-That's how we found out

-about the man.

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-However, that does not explain

-the couple's emigration.

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-Why would anyone want to leave here

-for America, especially Chicago?

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-The reason is open to conjecture.

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-Ann Wigley

-gave birth to two children...

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-..before her marriage to Bryan

-in China Street, Llanidloes.

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-Bryan was most probably

-the children's father.

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-It's believed that three other women

-were also pregnant by him.

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-In order to stifle the scandal...

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-..and to dodge the women's

-families seeking revenge...

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-..Bryan fled

-far from Montgomeryshire.

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-Bryan and Ann Humphreys settled

-in Racine in the state of Wisconsin.

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-At the time, it was a small town

-with a strong Welsh influence.

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-Some 2,000 of the 15,000 population

-were Welsh-speaking residents.

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-Bryan and his new wife, Ann,

-came to Racine...

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-..because Ann had a relative here

-called David Painter Wigley...

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-..who ran

-a major business in Racine.

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-The building behind me

-is still trading...

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-..though it

-no longer belongs to the family.

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-This is where they lived for two

-years after first coming to America.

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-This book is proof that

-Bryan Humphreys and Ann Wigley...

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-..had corresponded with

-David Painter Wigley here in Racine.

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-The book is called Hanes Bywyd A

-Marwolaeth Yr Arglwydd Iesu Grist...

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-..by the Honourable TL Hughes, Ohio.

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-There is a written message

-in English on the first page.

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-"Presented to

-Mr William Bryan Humphreys...

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-"..on his departure to America.

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-"With good wishes

-for his future success...

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-"..by Sara Jones, Minffordd, Carno,

-27th of July, 1889."

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-This book was left...

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-..at the home of DP Wigley...

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-..proving that

-Bryan Humphreys had lived here...

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-..before moving to Chicago

-and leaving this behind.

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-If he'd taken the book with him...

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-..and raised Murray Humphreys

-on these teachings...

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-..perhaps

-he'd have turned out differently.

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-Having discovered

-where Bryan worked...

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-..Dafydd Wigley's next step was

-to find out where he used to live.

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-All was revealed...

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-..in a reference book

-about Racine from 1890.

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-He left the museum...

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-..in search of his relatives'

-first home in America.

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-But disappointment awaited him.

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-This is it.

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-We're here in Davis Place

-where Bryan and Ann Humphreys lived.

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-Nothing remains of their house.

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-The house had vanished.

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-Bryan and Ann

-had vanished from Racine too.

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-Perhaps the parochial

-Welsh community of Wisconsin...

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-..was too narrow-minded

-for a man like Bryan.

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-The same could not be said

-for Chicago, 70 miles away.

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-The two were worlds apart.

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-In 1891, Bryan and Ann Humphreys,

-along with their daughter, Ethel...

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-..moved to Chicago,

-which was already a major city.

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-In 1893,

-the World's Fair was held here.

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-It was a gritty, industrial city

-and life was hard...

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-..with much poverty.

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-Bryan Humphreys and his wife

-came during this industrial era...

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-..and it was into this society

-that Murray Humphreys was born.

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-In the same city

-during the same year...

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-..a son was born to another family

-of immigrants, this time from Italy.

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-His name was Alphonse Capone.

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-Between them, they succeeded...

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-..to undermine the entire

-law and order system in America...

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-..from the ghetto

-to the White House.

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-.

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-Subtitles

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-Subtitles

-

-Subtitles

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-The Chicago that Bryan and Ann

-Humphreys inhabited in 1891...

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-..was home

-to a million economic fugitives...

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-..from Italy, Ireland

-and all over Europe.

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-As a centre

-for industry and finance...

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-..crime was rife in the city.

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-Initially, at least...

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-..Bryan Humphreys managed

-to avoid Chicago's temptations.

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-Life was comfortable

-for him and his family.

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-Llewelyn, the future gangster...

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-..is the golden-haired child

-in this photograph.

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-But once the father lost his job,

-it all began to fall apart.

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-Bryan Humphreys was a coachman to

-one of Chicago's wealthiest men...

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-..when he first moved there

-from Racine.

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-He had a drink problem...

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-..which led to him losing his job...

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-..forcing him out

-of a respectable area...

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-..where the children

-had started school...

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-..into a poor neighbourhood.

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-Llewelyn had to leave school

-at seven years of age.

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-He sold newspapers

-on a street corner...

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-..and had to fight for his patch.

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-Life was hard. He came into contact

-with Chicago's worst elements.

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-From an early age...

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-..Llewelyn Humphreys learnt the most

-important lesson in gangsterism.

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-Securing and ruling territory.

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-Inevitably he got into trouble

-with the authorities.

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-At one point, he came across

-a character called Judge Murray.

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-According to family legend...

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-..he influenced him a great deal and

-tried to persuade him to study Law.

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-He saw potential in the young boy.

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-Llewelyn

-thought so highly of this judge...

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-..that he adopted his name and

-became known as Murray Humphreys.

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-He learnt so much from the judge....

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-..but this wisdom wasn't used

-as the judge had intended.

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-When he was 15,

-he committed a crime...

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-..which carried

-a custodial sentence.

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-He tried to strike a deal

-with the prosecutor at City Hall.

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-If he were charged

-with a lesser crime...

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-..that didn't carry a prison

-sentence, then he'd plead guilty.

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-The prosecutor would be praised for

-bringing a criminal to justice...

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-..and be rewarded with a small gift.

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-That's precisely what happened.

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-He pleaded guilty to a lesser charge

-and the following day...

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-..an expensive watch

-was delivered to the prosecutor.

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-Murray Humphreys,

-as he was now known...

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-..was on his way

-to becoming a gangster.

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-In 1921,

-he was involved in an incident...

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-..which forced him out of Chicago

-to his brother's home in Oklahoma.

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-It was in the town of Norman that

-he met Mary Clementine Brendle...

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-..who was half-Irish, half-Cherokee.

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-They were married, and the

-educated and sophisticated wife...

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-..taught her husband the skills...

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-..to behave like a real gentlemen

-in his home movies...

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-..and to socialize confidently

-with prominent American leaders.

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-In 1921,

-The Hump returned to Chicago...

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-..with his new wife.

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-In his absence, the city's gangsters

-had diversified.

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-A year earlier, the Government

-enforced Prohibition...

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-..prohibiting alcohol from being

-manufactured and sold in the USA.

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-For the gangsters, it was a

-wonderful opportunity to make money.

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-In the years that followed...

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-..illegal alcohol

-was the mainstay of their business.

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-It proved a continuous battle

-between police and gangsters.

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-The police occasionally won.

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-Here they are destroying 30,000

-worth of illegal liquor in Chicago.

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-The gangsters made millions

-upon millions of dollars profit.

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-It wasn't just the usual mobsters

-who profited from Prohibition.

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-It was how Joe Kennedy, the father

-of President JF Kennedy...

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-..made his fortune -

-the first of many.

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-We'll hear more

-about the difficult relationship...

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-..between him and Murray The Hump

-in the next programme.

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-But soon after returning

-to Chicago...

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-..Murray Humphreys

-did something foolish.

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-He set out to sabotage...

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-..a lorry load of alcohol

-belonging to Al Capone.

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-He held the driver at gunpoint

-and hijacked the load.

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-Of course, he was caught

-and brought before Al Capone.

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-Such a crime

-usually resulted in death.

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-However,

-as he did with Judge Murray...

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-..Llewelyn convinced Al Capone

-that he had something to offer.

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-Instead of shooting him...

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-..Al Capone

-decided to recruit him into his mob.

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-From that moment onwards...

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-..Al Capone relied wholeheartedly on

-The Hump's imagination and vision.

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-The pair's influence...

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-..permeated all aspects

-of American life.

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-The biggest problem

-faced by the authorities...

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-..was getting people to testify

-against gangsters of this ilk.

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-They knew how to buy

-a witness's silence...

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-..with money or with threats.

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-The Hump

-was imprisoned for 18 months...

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-..for income tax fraud,

-the lesser of his crimes, in 1934.

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-He told the press

-he'd spend his time behind bars...

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-..studying English and Geometry.

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-This was a typical statement

-from the gangster...

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-..who was different

-from all the rest.

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-Once he was freed,

-the Welshman returned home...

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-..and closed the door

-on the gangster world.

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-We're here outside

-Murray Humphreys's home...

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-..where he and his family

-lived in the suburbs.

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-It was

-a respectable neighbourhood...

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-..where he was able

-to keep a low profile.

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-There was a playhouse in the back

-garden for his daughter, Llewella.

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-It was aptly named

-the crooked house...

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-..after the family who lived here.

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-Thanks to his love

-of home movies and editing...

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-..remarkable footage exists

-of Murray Humphreys.

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-He and some of America's

-most notorious gangsters...

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-..are captured as doting fathers and

-husbands at home with the family.

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-Murray's daughter, Llewella...

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-..gave these films

-to Huw Davies as a gift.

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-Some of the most interesting items

-are the home movies.

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-Llewella was treated

-as their little princess.

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-They call her

-their American princess.

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-Here's the gangster himself

-in the flesh...

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-..putting his American princess

-to bed on Christmas Eve.

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-And here he is, reminding Llewella

-that she hasn't said her prayers.

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-The Christmas celebrations and

-the tree were huge and fantastic.

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-There were endless presents.

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-They were obviously

-a wealthy family.

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-1940 was a poor Christmas

-for the Welsh...

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-..and the rest

-of continental Europe.

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-It was the second Christmas

-of the Second World War.

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-America was yet to join the war.

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-Poor is the last word you'd use

-to describe the way...

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-..in which Christmas was celebrated

-at the Humphreys' household.

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-Ann, nee Wigley,

-The Hump's mother...

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-..leads the invited guests

-to the dinner table.

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-Among them is her son, Ernest,

-who was also a mobster.

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-Here's a motley crew...

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-..tucking into turkey at Christmas.

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-The Hump's home movies contain

-the only footage of his parents.

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-It's so strange

-to see his parents...

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-..who were both from this area,

-are together...

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-..in these movies.

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-I found that very strange. The film

-is in colour and very professional.

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-It was shot on 16mm film.

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-It's a treasure trove to me.

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-It's no wonder that The Hump

-took an interest in film-making.

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-The Welshman and his gangsters

-ruled the trade unions...

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-..the Hollywood studios

-and the cinemas.

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-One of the strangest experiences

-was seeing footage of him...

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-..and Fay Wray,

-the star of King Kong...

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-..walking together in Hollywood.

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-It's proof that he was

-a Hollywood boss during that era.

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-There was no end

-to Murray Humphreys's influence.

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-Though his parents would have known

-not to build a house on sand...

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-..they didn't dissuade

-their son from doing so.

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-He didn't just build a house

-in the Nevada desert...

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-..he built an entire city.

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-He financed the venture

-by stealing from the pension fund...

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-..of the Teamsters

-Transport Workers Union.

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-One of the most remarkable feats...

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-..was the way in which

-Murray Humphreys created Las Vegas.

0:21:310:21:36

-He set about bribing...

0:21:360:21:39

-..the members

-of the state government...

0:21:390:21:43

-..in order to change the law

-to allow gambling.

0:21:440:21:48

-Having succeeded, he built hotels

-incorporating gambling casinos.

0:21:480:21:53

-He owned two of the largest

-gambling hotels in the city.

0:21:530:21:57

-As a consequence...

0:21:570:21:59

-..hundreds of millions of dollars

-flooded through Chicago...

0:22:000:22:04

-..from the mob's exploits

-in Las Vegas...

0:22:040:22:09

-..and as a direct result

-of Murray Humphreys's activities.

0:22:090:22:12

-It was in Vegas that The Hump mixed

-with Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin...

0:22:140:22:19

-..and Sammy Davis Jr,

-members of the legendary Rat Pack.

0:22:190:22:23

-Frank Sinatra sang at his daughter

-Llewella's lavish graduation party.

0:22:240:22:29

-From Italian extraction...

0:22:300:22:33

-..Sinatra was suspected

-of having Mafia connections.

0:22:330:22:36

-But his status

-as a star of stage and screen...

0:22:370:22:41

-..granted him entry

-into the White House in Washington.

0:22:420:22:46

-Later, Murray Humphreys himself

-would directly influence...

0:22:470:22:51

-..John F Kennedy's

-presidential campaign.

0:22:510:22:56

-# Kennedy for me

0:22:560:22:58

-# Kennedy, Kennedy, Kennedy #

0:22:590:23:01

-S4C Subtitles by Adnod Cyf.

0:23:220:23:24

-.

0:23:240:23:25

Mewn cyfres ddwy ran, yr Arglwydd Dafydd Wigley sy'n teithio i Chicago a Maldwyn ar drywydd ei drydydd cefnder Murray the Hump. Lord Dafydd Wigley traces his links to Murray the Hump.


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