09/04/2016 Click


09/04/2016

Click features the smallest types of tech known to mankind, visits Malawi to see a solar projector and looks at dating for over 50s.


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Transcript


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Time now for Click.

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This week, deep concentration in Malawi, nanotech candyfloss

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in Cambridge, and in Switzerland...

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I have no idea what that is, but I want one.

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I'm looking for something that is thinner than a human hair.

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And that's because nanotech is about building things

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on the nanoscale, up to about 100 nanometres in width, or one 200th

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of the width of a human hair.

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No, I still can't see it.

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It's not in there yet!

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Right!

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That'll be why.

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Last week, we looked at one instance of nanotechnology - graphene.

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Remember, those sheets of carbon that are just one atom thick

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and that have amazing properties.

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Well, now I've come to Cambridge, where researchers seem to be

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pulling nanotech out of the air.

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These are carbon nanotube fibres.

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What we are looking at is carbon-nanotube based fibre.

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So even that is not one carbon nanotube, that's like thousands

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of them entwined.

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Thousands of entangled carbon nanotubes.

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And here in this lab, they've finally cracked how to

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incorporate these tiny tubes into a copper cable to make something

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they're calling UltraWire.

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OK, having a lighter, more conductive copper wire,

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because of the carbon nanotubes inside, who benefits from that?

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The biggest beneficial is the transport industry.

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In a single aeroplane, you may find from a few hundred

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kilograms of copper cables up to five tons of copper cables.

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Wow.

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It would bring huge savings on fuel consumption, it would reduce

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CO2 emission, and who knows?

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Even possibly provide some extra space for your luggage!

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Always about the excess luggage, tell me about it!

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And nowhere will this make more of a difference than in space travel.

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At the moment, it gusts an average of $20,000 to

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send each kilogram of a payload into space on one of these.

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Well, swap out any wiring for something perhaps even half the

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weight, and it's easy to see how everyone from Citroen to Nasa are

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interested in this kind of tech.

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But beyond its weight, the increased conductivity of the

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wire will mean faster data speeds.

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Carbon nanotubes can take many forms,

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so not only do we have these long strands, which are carbon nanotubes,

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or intertwined, we also have a film of carbon nanotubes here, we have

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a powder that is carbon nanotubes.

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This is interesting, these are the scrapings

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from the inside of their furnace!

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They are also carbon nanotubes, and they also work.

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There are thousands of projects now operating on the nanoscale.

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On a more everyday level, nanotech could see the creation

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of clothes that clean themselves.

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Researchers at RMIT university in Melbourne in Australia have ,

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with a cheap way to grow nanostructures directly onto

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textiles that, when exposed to light, degrade organic matter.

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And then there's this, which is a lavatory which does not need water.

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In fact, it produces clean water from what you...put

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in.

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A nano-thick covering seals off any waste material that goes into the

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bowl, preventing any smells, and that waste is passed through a nano

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carbon filter that is so fine that what comes out the other end, so to

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speak, is technically OK to drink.

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Although we are told it does whiff a tiny bit, so you may just want to

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water your plants with it instead.

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Now, obviously, nanotechnology requires you to take

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really, really accurate measurements, and for that you need

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no vibrations, absolute silence.

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Well, LJ Rich has managed to gain access to some really high precision

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research in one of the quietest places on earth.

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This building in Zurich hides a lab unlike any other.

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Welcome to one of the quietest places in the world,

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this is IBM's noise-free labs.

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We are six metres underground, eight metres underground if you count the

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two metres of extra work that's gone on to make this place so quiet.

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And behind these doors, some amazing nanotechnology is taking place,

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and we get to have a look.

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Six labs designed for incredibly sensitive work reside

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in IBM's answer to the Batcave.

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It's taken years to build this place.

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Experiments here are on a truly tiny scale.

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In some cases, manipulating single molecules.

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Noise of any kind has to be supressed.

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So if you start playing around with single molecules, these are

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incredibly small building blocks, typically one nanometre in length,

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and if you want to make contact with single molecules, of course you have

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to work in a very stable environment, because vibrations

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can interact with your molecule.

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Noise-free is not just about damping down sound, though they do down here

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with these sound absorbing tiles.

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There's also magnetic material in the walls and ceiling.

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This prevents electromagnetic fields from entering the room

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and interfering with measurements.

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Even the natural vibration of the earth is cancelled out.

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All the equipment rests on a suspended platforms

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so finely balanced that I can push it with my feet and move 36 tons.

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Pleasing!

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Most of the work here is involved in making transistors smaller.

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They're the building blocks of pretty much every bit of

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technology we use, and it feels like the set of a science-fiction movie.

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In there is an electron lithography machine for making transistors

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at sub five nanometre levels.

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That is absolutely tiny.

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The thing is, it's experimental, so they don't know

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if they're going to work.

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Now, we all know that smaller components mean, eventually,

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smaller tech, but with small tech comes the problem of lots

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of excess heat, which is why work is being done here to explore what

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happens when our gadgets get hot.

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This ultra sensitive thermometer actually touches

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the substance to measure its temperature, which is why the

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noise and vibration-free environment makes for a more reliable reading.

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So if you can better understand and see where the heat is dissipating,

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we may change the device design, and by this we can improve the

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efficiency and the performance of mobile devices, our computers, and

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basically make them operate faster and more energy-efficient.

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Sometimes, to see something small, you need to go big.

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This is a four metre high massive electron microscope that allows you

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to measure at the subatomic level.

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And thanks to the fact that we are in

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a noise-free environment, this thing is the most accurate in the world.

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The microscope excites molecules with a laser

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and measures what happens.

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Here is a bigger version of the experiment.

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As the distance changes between these magnets,

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you can find the exact point at which they zap together.

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But before you, like me, lust after the thought of working somewhere

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completely quiet, here is the catch.

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Lab techs actually spend most of their time here, with all

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the air-conditioning units.

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This is the room which keeps everything constant.

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Specially built temperature maintenance systems, electronics,

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and basically anything noisy is kept in this room.

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And all the experiments are done with the scientists outside

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the quiet room, because, well, even humans make quite

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a din with all that breathing, heat and everything else we generate.

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Wow!

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Well, it is pretty obvious to me that a lot of the stuff going

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on here is, you know, ten, 20 years in the future.

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Meanwhile, it's time for me to go back to the noisy world upstairs.

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That was LJ, and as LJ says, nanotech research takes time.

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This is Bojan Boskovic, the boss of the company set up to

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make the most of nanotech research here in Cambridge and elsewhere.

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I think a lot of people, when they hear the word "nanotechnology",

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think of tiny robots and tiny motors the size of molecules.

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Should we be thinking like that?

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Well, we're pretty much there with the size wise,

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so the size of the smallest carbon nanotube, single-walled carbon

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nanotube, is already in the range of the DNA molecule.

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So we're not going to get much smaller than the atomic level,

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and what is going to happen, those molecules and atoms, we will

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learn how to manipulate them, and that is all about nanotechnology

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engineering, at the nanoscale.

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So we will learn to use them, but probably robots like we think

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of small tiny parts going inside, it's not going to happen.

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But could you make cogs and motors that are the size of molecules?

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Yes, yes, yes.

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And put them together into something very tiny that could

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be called a machine?

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It could be, it could be, and we will see more and more tiny

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machines, but the real stuff is not probably going to be machines

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in the sense that we think it now, of a lot of mechanical parts.

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It is going to be what we call molecular machines,

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so clever molecules doing things the way how we want.

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It could be a drug-delivery vehicle, for delivering drugs exactly to

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the cell that we need it.

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They can also use, be used to kill the cancer cells,

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rather than shooting in the dark.

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Many things would be basically far more precise and far more

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controlled, and that's the way how the nanotechnology is taking us.

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In this week's tech news, one of the Old Masters, Rembrandt,

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makes a return with a new painting.

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Or at least, a computer has analysed and copied his style.

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A team of Dutch researchers, with help from Microsoft, have created

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a Rembrandt style image using a 3D-printing paint technique.

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The 3D printing creates the same texture as an oil painting.

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It was the week that Chinese outfit Huawei launched a brand-new phone

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fitted with two cameras on the back.

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Like Lytro cameras, the P9 smartphone is capable

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of refocusing part of an image after a photo has been taken.

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And it was also the week that games giant Valve found a new use

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for virtual reality, as a means of allowing e-sports spectators to

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get a whole new VR perspective on competitive gaming events.

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Next, have you ever wished that your web browser was more complicated?

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You have?

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Well, then the Vivaldi browser, designed for power users,

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could be for you.

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It's the brainchild of one of the guys behind the Opera browser.

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Instead of stripping back features for simplicity, Vivaldi is

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customisable to a mind-boggling degree, allowing users to have stuff

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bursting out of every corner of the screen - if that is what they like.

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Right, next, we're off to Malawi in Africa, and to a clever scheme

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that we've reported on before.

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We visited a school in Lilongwe, which had just been introduced to

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30 tablets used to teach the children maths.

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And the results were really startling, so much so that the same

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tablets and apps are now being used in the UK with similar results.

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Well, that the small scheme has grown at a phenomenal pace

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since we first visited.

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Dan Simmons has been back to Malawi to see what's new.

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BELL RINGS.

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This is the primary school, one of the busiest in

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the whole of Malawi.

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There are 9000 pupils attending this primary school,

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and classes of up to 250, which makes teaching,

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well, quite a challenge.

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It makes getting through the playground quite

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a challenge as well!

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Hello, hi!

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Hi!

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It is seven o'clock, and the first shift of school begins.

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These children will either come for the morning or the afternoon,

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because you can't teach 9,000 kids otherwise.

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First class of the day -

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how to deal with 100 schoolkids wanting to shake hands!

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This teacher is brilliant, she's fun, engaging, authoritative.

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Even though it's maths, she manages to hold the children's attention.

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Well, most of them, anyway.

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But she can't monitor what they've written down -

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whether it's legible, whether they're all keeping up -

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and after this there will be another class of 80.

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The classes are so large here, many are held outside.

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If it rains, school is off.

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A few years back, Malawi made primary education open to all,

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before it had enough schools to cope, and it still doesn't.

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In the last year or so,

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a different kind of classroom has been popping up across Malawi.

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It's very much shoes off and time to plug in.

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Everything is really quiet,

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because everyone's wearing headphones.

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The UK's VSO charity is working with onebillion.org

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and 68 schools to teach maths and, this year, the local language,

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Chichewa, as well as English, to four and five-year-olds.

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And when someone does well, the whole class knows about it.

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What it does mean is that, for the first time here,

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teachers are able to monitor every pupil's progress.

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Staff at the school or back in the UK can watch

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what works and tweak the lessons to get better results.

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Early analysis by independent universities suggests this method

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is hugely effective and it needs to be, because each child enrolled

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gets just two half-hour sessions in this room each week.

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This is a big deal.

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Reading even one sentence after two years' schooling has proven

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a challenge for most children.

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This British project has set its sights on teaching more

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than 20,000 children here how to read complete books

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in their own language by the time they leave.

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And how about this for interactive lessons?

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This project it is the first in the country,

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maybe even the continent, to run off a solar panel.

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Using sunlight is a classic African answer to an African problem,

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but the key thing with this project is the projector uses very low

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power, so three hours' worth of exposure to the sun

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will give these guys three days' worth of lessons.

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Every school in the area now wants one of these projectors,

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because the electricity here is so unreliable.

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Now, you might think Malawi, being one of the poorest ten

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countries in the world, doesn't have much to boast about,

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but directly across the valley is Lilongwe's new $70 million

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stadium, being built and paid for by the Chinese -

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a loan for Malawi to pay back.

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It sticks in the throat a little that those

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on this side of the valley have to pump their own water

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and now make their own electricity.

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But the marriage of self-sufficiency and technology is hugely empowering.

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Unlike the yet to be opened stadium,

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any power cuts here won't be stopping work.

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It doesn't take being part of a generation

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who grew up with smartphones, social networks

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and surfing the web to be making the most of life online.

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One example of a growing number of apps and websites aimed

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at the old market is Stitch, which has been referred to as Tinder

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for the over 50s.

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Nicole met her partner a few months ago using the app.

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I think, within about two days, I'd stitched with someone,

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which meant that we'd both seen each others' profiles

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and we both liked each other.

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That meant we could talk to each other via the messaging service

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on there, we started messaging, and then we rang each other

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on Christmas Eve to see how we would get along

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speaking on the phone.

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And, of course, there's always a little bit of anxiety, I'm sure,

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when you meet someone you haven't met before, but there

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is a sort of verification process with this app,

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isn't there, that doesn't exist with all dating sites?

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Yes, when you join to be a verified member, you have to show that you've

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got another profile somewhere else -

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on Facebook or LinkedIn, so you've got that little bit

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of security there that the person is a real person.

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And there is a stricter level of identification to become

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what they call a trusted member, but for Nicole the app overcame one

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of her great irritations.

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Well, Stitch is for over 50s.

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The major thing with other dating websites is that the men, generally,

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seem to want women who are about 20 or 30 years younger than themselves.

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At least if you go onto Stitch, you know that everyone

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is going to be over 50.

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You also actually meeting up with some other people

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that you've met as a community through the app, haven't you?

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That is right, since I've met the person that I'm now seeing,

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I've changed my profile, so I don't see people

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who are looking for dates now.

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But I can still see people that want to be friends, and

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I can also join in the discussions, the book groups,

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and the different forums.

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So we decided it might be quite fun to actually meet,

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and so we're planning a trip to Vegas in June or July.

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And here is something aimed at older adults whose focus is less

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on new people but more about engaging in a more meaningful

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way with their loved ones.

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The Kindeo app creates an easy way of filming and storing videos

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of important moments of your life, so the experience prompts

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you to answer specific questions about each area of your life,

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so there's family, childhood, work, places, friends.

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And once you tap on them, you'll go through a list of questions.

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We all experience relatives and family getting older,

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and it's very difficult thing to talk about sometimes.

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What Kindeo does is give people a really easy way

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to express how they are feeling.

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For anyone who feels they are no spring chicken,

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here is a website that might be able to help.

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It's a place where learning mindfulness, tips on overcoming

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loneliness, shopping and exercise advice come together.

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The team, aged from 18 to 82, keep it up to date

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with the latest products and ideas tailored towards seniors.

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Begin to inhale...

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And after all that screen time, with over 180,000 downloads,

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Tai Chi for Seniors is one of many apps encouraging

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you to get on your feet,

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providing a spot of clearly explained gentle exercise.

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Look into my eyes.

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Go one, I dare you.

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Yes, they're not that practical, but these glasses are just one

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of a number of crazy inventions recently shown off at the very first

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IBM Mad Scientists evening.

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It had everything from soap dispensers that talk to you to

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boxes that send messages into space.

0:21:280:21:30

No, not that box - this box.

0:21:300:21:34

All designed to attract kids of all ages and show

0:21:340:21:36

the fun side of coding.

0:21:360:21:40

They are testers, they write books, they write code, they are IT

0:21:460:21:50

specialists, they are programmers, those sorts of people,

0:21:500:21:52

all sorts of stuff, and we thought it would be good if we could show

0:21:520:21:56

these guys some of the cool stuff that we've done.

0:21:560:22:00

And it doesn't get much cooler than a BB-8 unit

0:22:000:22:03

controlled by the power of the mind.

0:22:030:22:07

You think of a song... I think of a song.

0:22:070:22:10

And it goes in a certain direction. And it goes in a certain direction.

0:22:100:22:14

Do you realise how insane that sounds?

0:22:140:22:15

Completely insane, but it's part of the event.

0:22:150:22:20

So you think of a song and it goes one way,

0:22:200:22:22

how do you get it to turn round?

0:22:220:22:24

By smiling.

0:22:240:22:27

That's just mad!

0:22:270:22:30

Luke's brainwaves are actually being analysed by a system

0:22:300:22:33

that is taking signals from his headset and then

0:22:330:22:38

interpreting them using a Raspberry Pi.

0:22:380:22:41

Those commands are then transferred via Bluetooth to BB-8,

0:22:410:22:44

although it's much more fun to say that Luke is using the Force.

0:22:440:22:50

But if you can't get something to move with your mind,

0:22:510:22:54

then how about controlling a drone using a tweet.

0:22:540:23:00

Good, trick zone, OK, let's do a backflip, OK, right.

0:23:020:23:06

This project teaches kids the importance of accuracy

0:23:120:23:15

in programming, both in spelling the commands correctly and in

0:23:150:23:18

fully testing things before deployment.

0:23:180:23:22

I'll tell you what, just for a laugh, I'm going to fly

0:23:220:23:24

into the camera now.

0:23:240:23:27

Got you!

0:23:310:23:36

And I will leave you with a dance floor that is controlled

0:23:390:23:42

using Twitter.

0:23:420:23:43

Why?

0:23:430:23:44

Because.

0:23:440:23:46

So anyone can change the pattern on it just by sending commands so...

0:23:460:23:49

# Come and get your love... #

0:23:490:23:52

Or you can send texts, which it will display too,

0:23:520:23:56

and I can't foresee any problem with that whatsoever.

0:23:560:24:00

So that it from the mad scientists at IBM, thank you for watching.

0:24:000:24:03

You can follow us on Twitter throughout the week @BBCClick.

0:24:030:24:07

That worked, see?

0:24:070:24:09

Brilliant, see you soon!

0:24:090:24:11

Good morning.

0:24:360:24:37

If you were lucky enough to have spring sunshine yesterday,

0:24:370:24:39

you probably got some spring warmth as well.

0:24:390:24:41

In fact, it was beautiful - warmest day of the year

0:24:410:24:44

so far across England and Wales.

0:24:440:24:46

We had highs of 19 degrees.

0:24:460:24:49

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