Nuremberg Click


Nuremberg

Click looks at how VR is being used to help prosecute Nazis at WWII concentration camps and how it can be used to help learn a language.


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How VR is helping the ongoing hunt for war criminals.

:00:00.:00:09.

And, prepare to enter your mind palace.

:00:10.:00:42.

It's estimated that 6 million Jews were killed by the Nazis

:00:43.:00:44.

in the Holocaust with millions of others, many in concentration camps.

:00:45.:00:52.

To try and bring justice to the innocent civilians who died,

:00:53.:00:55.

on November the 20th 1945, the Nuremberg War Trials began.

:00:56.:01:01.

71 years later, the prosecution of Nazi war criminals

:01:02.:01:03.

And now, virtual reality is playing a part in the process.

:01:04.:01:14.

Marc Cieslak travelled to Germany and Poland to find out how.

:01:15.:01:17.

The town of Oswiecim in Poland is the sight of perhaps

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The town of Oswiecim in Poland is the site of perhaps

:01:47.:01:48.

the most infamous of Nazi concentration camps,

:01:49.:01:50.

Between May 1940 and the camp's liberation by the red

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Between May 1940 and the camp's liberation by the Red

:01:56.:01:57.

Army in January 1945, 1.1 million people were killed here.

:01:58.:02:00.

Most gassed by a cyanide-based pesticide, Zyklon B.

:02:01.:02:07.

This is the Auschwitz two, Birkenau site.

:02:08.:02:10.

This is where the vast majority of people were killed.

:02:11.:02:20.

Gassed and then their bodies burned in the camp's crematoria.

:02:21.:02:23.

Towards the end of the war, the Nazis destroyed those

:02:24.:02:25.

crematoria, trying to cover up some of the appalling atrocities

:02:26.:02:28.

Pavel Savitski has worked here for nine years.

:02:29.:02:39.

Most of the Jews deported to Auschwitz first came

:02:40.:02:42.

Within minutes they were separated for ever.

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They told people they would be living here with their families

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But first they need to go through disinfection process,

:02:51.:02:59.

Usually around 75, 80% of each transporter was taken straight

:03:00.:03:03.

The Nuremberg trials initially prosecuted 21 senior members

:03:04.:03:06.

of the Nazi regime for war crimes, including the crimes in the camps.

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But many of the perpetrators of these atrocities,

:03:11.:03:12.

SS officers and camp guards, remained at large and they are still

:03:13.:03:15.

being pursued by the authorities to this day.

:03:16.:03:25.

Here at the Bavarian State criminal office in Munich,

:03:26.:03:28.

they are working on new methods to assist with the prosecution

:03:29.:03:30.

of war crimes committed over 70 years ago.

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Ralph is a digital imaging expert here.

:03:37.:03:40.

He works with technology like 3-D printed re-creations

:03:41.:03:43.

of gunshot wounds to assist in gathering evidence.

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His team has created a 3-D model of Auschwitz,

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which can be visited in virtual reality.

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So Ralph, how long did you spend at Auschwitz capturing

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TRANSLATION: We spent five days in Auschwitz.

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We took stock of the buildings that are still standing, then we laser

:04:04.:04:06.

Virtual reality is an incredibly powerful tool for immersing

:04:07.:04:11.

the viewer in the experience they are having.

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TRANSLATION: I think within five to ten years,

:04:16.:04:27.

virtual reality will become a standard tool for police, not just

:04:28.:04:30.

Because it's a way to make scenes of crime accessible

:04:31.:04:42.

A version of the 3-D Auschwitz which doesn't use VR has already

:04:43.:04:48.

But why is this model necessary in the first place?

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To find out, I travel to the town of Ludwigsburg near Stuttgart.

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The building we are just coming up to, for 200 years,

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And then in the 1960s, it took on a new role,

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it became the Central Office for the Investigation

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Essentially, the people that work here are Nazi hunters.

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A former criminal prosecutor, Yens Rommel now heads

:05:17.:05:18.

Its files contain the names of thousands of possible suspects,

:05:19.:05:24.

along with a staggering number of documents relating

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What you find here is a paper database system, dealing

:05:26.:05:33.

really with index cards, explaining which person,

:05:34.:05:39.

which location, the scene of a crime, for example.

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We have 1.7 million cards here, dealing alone with 700,000 people.

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So how does this 3-D model, virtual reality model of Auschwitz

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When it comes to a specific line of defence, a defence strategy used

:06:07.:06:12.

in almost all cases, the defendant admits

:06:13.:06:19.

that he was exactly in Auschwitz, but generally he says

:06:20.:06:23.

I didn't know anything about what was going

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It can help to understand what the person involved could see

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For examples, from a watchtower over the camp, or from the fence

:06:37.:06:45.

We saw a trial this year with Mr Hanning,

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Former SS guard Reinhold Hanning was convicted of accessory

:06:52.:07:10.

to 170,000 murders and sentenced to five years in prison.

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The judge in this case pointed out the 3-D model made it clear

:07:13.:07:15.

what he would have been able to see from his watchtower.

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We are going to go inside one of the watchtowers and see

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what you can actually see from inside here.

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Using the virtual reality model of Auschwitz, I went

:07:35.:07:36.

inside a watchtower to see what the lines of sight were and see

:07:37.:07:40.

And you can see pretty much everything.

:07:41.:07:46.

There is an urgency to the work of prosecuting the perpetrators

:07:47.:07:48.

Well, it's not an easy job to do, to look each day into these crimes,

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And sometimes it can be frustrating to see that 95% of the names

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we are checking here when it comes to suspects,

:08:13.:08:15.

that these persons have died already.

:08:16.:08:20.

The virtual reality model of Auschwitz was uncannily accurate,

:08:21.:08:36.

but there's one thing it can't recreate and that is the unusual

:08:37.:08:40.

atmosphere of this place, perhaps the most notorious of all

:08:41.:08:49.

A place where 1.1 million people were killed.

:08:50.:09:02.

Hello and welcome to the Week in Tech.

:09:03.:09:06.

It was the week that Google and Facebook introduced measures

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they say will help curb the spread of fake news stories

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Twitter also tried to clean up its act, putting the mute

:09:13.:09:17.

on hateful content, suspending several American activists

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and announcing new ways to tackle abusive messages.

:09:21.:09:25.

And, not content with showing you a street view of the world,

:09:26.:09:32.

Google this week also showed off the entire world in virtual reality.

:09:33.:09:41.

Exclusive to, no, not its Daydream headset, but the HTC

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Vive, users could zoom around iconic skyscrapers.

:09:44.:09:45.

Soar above beautiful landscapes, but no doubt will have many just

:09:46.:09:47.

And if getting about by bike is your bag, it was also the week

:09:48.:09:53.

that a safety helmet made of paper won the James Dyson Design Award.

:09:54.:09:57.

The recyclable eco-helmet is designed to disintegrate

:09:58.:10:00.

with age, and so it can only be used a limited number of times,

:10:01.:10:05.

but it can fold up to fit snugly into your rucksack.

:10:06.:10:09.

And finally, if you're sick of your pizza delivery being stuck

:10:10.:10:18.

in traffic, a company in New Zealand has started

:10:19.:10:20.

The aim is to have piping hot pizza in your lap less than ten

:10:21.:10:26.

It could only be a matter of time before the skies are filled

:10:27.:10:30.

Ever tried to learn a language but never quite got round to it

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or kept up the good work for long enough?

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Well, some of the latest apps and software could be just

:10:50.:10:53.

And in my quest to learn a little bit of Spanish,

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And here at the University of Westminster, this

:10:59.:11:06.

Combining the ancient concept of the memory palace

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This visual way of organising information aims to help you learn,

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retain and recall things by picturing objects

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and creating your own connections to remember them.

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So why not do this with learning a language?

:11:25.:11:31.

This exercise teaches how to conjugate the verb

:11:32.:11:36.

The objects I'm seeing represent the ending, so the 'O'

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for ostrich is hablo, I speak, and so on.

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Hablan, so it's just a woman named Ann.

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When engrossed in it, it's easy to memorise and then

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you've learned a pattern are many other Spanish verbs follow.

:12:11.:12:13.

So now, if you actually take off the headset...

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So, how did I do once the headset was off?

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It is amazing because you do come away from the experience,

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and I think that's partly VR, you come away from the feeling

:12:28.:12:30.

I'm certainly visualising those things.

:12:31.:12:35.

But it's a very slow way to learn a language, isn't it?

:12:36.:12:38.

People spend years trying to learn these things.

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The most important thing, particularly as an adult learner,

:12:41.:12:42.

if you are looking to use a language at a high level,

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is to understand the structure and the grammar of the language.

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So those aren't actually, it's not that much in terms

:12:49.:12:52.

of content, but it's complex content and it's all

:12:53.:12:55.

The software is already being created in Arabic,

:12:56.:12:57.

French, German, Italian, Spanish and English.

:12:58.:13:01.

And after a few more tweaks, will be available in beta

:13:02.:13:03.

Of course, apps coaching numerous languages have

:13:04.:13:09.

But for the purpose of this piece, I've looked at the Spanish lessons

:13:10.:13:15.

Babble teaches you to read, write, speak and

:13:16.:13:25.

It even tests your pronunciation skills, which is actually

:13:26.:13:30.

The only problem is, if it takes you a few

:13:31.:13:33.

times to get it right, it becomes quite irritating

:13:34.:13:35.

Duo Lingo works in a similar way, gamifying the experience

:13:36.:13:55.

and letting you achieve a Street count for how many days

:13:56.:13:58.

Pursue pictures itself as a social network for language learning.

:13:59.:14:02.

Its 16 million worldwide users can communicate with and give or receive

:14:03.:14:05.

But the team behind the Mem Rise app have prioritised the importance

:14:06.:14:09.

of learning conversational language from locals,

:14:10.:14:10.

as well as giving the app a bit of character.

:14:11.:14:13.

They've recently returned from a four-month road trip

:14:14.:14:15.

across Europe, collecting video content for their Meet

:14:16.:14:17.

Having this added feature of a person actually talking

:14:18.:14:22.

to you in a conversational way, I think does help.

:14:23.:14:26.

In a way, it just makes you feel that little bit more pleased

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with yourself that you've understood a real person talking

:14:30.:14:32.

As well as having big gaming features and off-line mode

:14:33.:14:41.

similar to other apps, it also uses means to help

:14:42.:14:48.

similar to other apps, it also uses memes to help

:14:49.:14:50.

Like this Chinese symbol for the woman.

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Ultimately though, all apps take commitment and whilst the memory

:14:54.:14:55.

palace has clearly etched place in my mind now a week later,

:14:56.:14:58.

the only full sentence I think I've actually

:14:59.:15:00.

learnt is "Lo siento, no hablo Espanol."

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translation - "sorry I don't speak Spanish."

:15:03.:15:04.

Right, Spanish viewers, marks out of ten please,

:15:05.:15:26.

Now this fascinating idea that you can bring a mind palace

:15:27.:15:30.

into virtual reality, but I did find myself thinking

:15:31.:15:32.

the idea of a mind palace was that it imagines,

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so you did a lot of work within your brain.

:15:35.:15:37.

Now you can visualise it in VR, does that kind of spoiled

:15:38.:15:40.

I understand your point, but I do think that actually

:15:41.:15:44.

having done it in VR, in what is probably the most

:15:45.:15:46.

engaging environment I could, I can really commit the things to memory.

:15:47.:15:49.

Because you know that funny feeling where you come out of a VR

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experience and you feel old we had to be back in the real world.

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And I think if at the same time you've actually learned

:15:57.:15:58.

something in the process, then that's pretty good.

:15:59.:16:00.

So, if I were to ask you conjugate verbs are now,

:16:01.:16:03.

you would be able to go to that space and pick out the right thing?

:16:04.:16:07.

Because I've learned the ending is still a lot of verbs,

:16:08.:16:10.

but I still don't have a great deal of vocabulary and that's

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what I would need to develop, so I actually knew what the words

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were, so I could then conjugate the verb.

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We're going to Australia now, would you believe?

:16:19.:16:25.

Jen Copestake is there and she's been taking a look at some

:16:26.:16:27.

Week in, week out on Click, we see technologies that

:16:28.:16:31.

But could they also change what fundamentally makes us human?

:16:32.:16:35.

This is something being discussed in Sydney at the BBC

:16:36.:16:37.

Addressing our increasingly complex relationship with artificial

:16:38.:16:47.

intelligence, the Earth's fragile ecosystem and space,

:16:48.:16:49.

leading researchers and a couple of astronauts brought their ideas

:16:50.:16:51.

for how people could use technology to enhance our species

:16:52.:16:54.

Retired astronaut Ron Garan was deeply moved by his time

:16:55.:17:01.

in space and believes travel above the Earth could bring

:17:02.:17:03.

a new perspective to our lives on the ground.

:17:04.:17:06.

He has made two trips to the International Space Station

:17:07.:17:09.

and is now the chief pilot at World View,

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Its aim is to bring tourists to the outer

:17:13.:17:18.

atmosphere using gigantic, high altitude balloons.

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Blown up, they are the size of a professional football pitch.

:17:24.:17:25.

Attached is a pressurised, gondola-like craft with

:17:26.:17:27.

room for eight people - two crew and six passengers.

:17:28.:17:30.

Travelling 30 kilometres up, there will also be a bar

:17:31.:17:32.

The plan is to send the first trip up before the end of 2018

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and at a cost of $75,000 per ticket, it's a relatively cheap trip.

:17:41.:17:48.

I think the price will initially go up, but we are looking to find ways

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to bring the prices as low as we possibly can.

:17:53.:17:57.

We called World View for a reason, it is written in our DNA,

:17:58.:18:00.

that this will be a transformative experience and I believe,

:18:01.:18:03.

the company believes, that the more people who get

:18:04.:18:05.

to see our planet from that vantage point the better of all of us

:18:06.:18:08.

Back on Earth, with great technological progress,

:18:09.:18:14.

comes increasing piles of electronic waste.

:18:15.:18:16.

There are more than 2 billion smartphones in use around the world,

:18:17.:18:19.

all containing small amounts of precious metals including

:18:20.:18:21.

gold, silver, copper, platinum and palladium.

:18:22.:18:25.

And finding simple ways to locally recycled the precious materials

:18:26.:18:30.

And finding simple ways to locally recycle the precious materials

:18:31.:18:33.

from smartphones is the focus of Venus, who presented the case

:18:34.:18:35.

So here we have a fragment, which actually is pretty cool

:18:36.:18:39.

because it applies high voltage to pull apart the components

:18:40.:18:41.

So it's really like using a super powerful lightning bolt to separate

:18:42.:18:59.

out the case, the glass, the circuit board from mobile

:19:00.:19:01.

A drone is programmed to identify a circuit board in a pile of waste

:19:02.:19:09.

and relate this info to a robot, who picks up the circuit board

:19:10.:19:12.

The furnace uses uses precisely controlled high-temperature

:19:13.:19:16.

reactions to draw out the viable metal alloys.

:19:17.:19:18.

Any toxic or unwanted materials can be safely incinerated

:19:19.:19:20.

So, I mentioned the conference was also challenging our ideas

:19:21.:19:27.

I had a role here too, giving an artificially

:19:28.:19:33.

intelligent Chatbot named Rose, a human body to speak

:19:34.:19:38.

What do you think, should we fear artificial intelligence?

:19:39.:19:47.

I am baffled as to what Stephen Hawking and the others think

:19:48.:19:50.

This experiment attempts to challenge our idea

:19:51.:19:53.

of where we end and artificial intelligence begins.

:19:54.:19:55.

I'll have more on that experience in a later episode of Click,

:19:56.:19:58.

That was Jen in Australia and now to a truly American phenomenon.

:19:59.:20:19.

After nine months and 35 races, this weekend marks the culmination

:20:20.:20:22.

As you are undoubtedly aware, for drivers are all tied for first

:20:23.:20:31.

As you are undoubtedly aware, four drivers are all tied for first

:20:32.:20:34.

place, they've all got the same number of points.

:20:35.:20:36.

So, whoever wins this weekend's race, wins the championship.

:20:37.:20:39.

The tiniest advantage could do it, so Dave Lee stuck in his earplugs

:20:40.:20:42.

and spent a weekend with the teams who are targeting immortality.

:20:43.:20:54.

In the USA, only American football gets more viewers than NASCAR,

:20:55.:20:57.

and that's because of the drama out there on the track,

:20:58.:20:59.

where every fraction of a second can make the difference

:21:00.:21:02.

Which is why NASCAR teams are constantly looking

:21:03.:21:05.

to new technology to help them understand more about how

:21:06.:21:07.

I jumped at the chance to check out the teams and their tech

:21:08.:21:16.

when they raced in Sonoma, part of California's

:21:17.:21:18.

So we are in the bustling garage area where all the teams are making

:21:19.:21:26.

the final touches to their cars for the racing this weekend.

:21:27.:21:31.

All the changes they make end up being inspected

:21:32.:21:33.

just around the corner, to make sure none of the teams

:21:34.:21:36.

are doing anything unfairly to gain an advantage over everyone else.

:21:37.:21:41.

The teams must line up around the block to be inspected.

:21:42.:21:45.

Until recently, this process used to rely on paper documents.

:21:46.:21:49.

Now, it's all synced up in the Cloud with data

:21:50.:21:51.

It's saved more than 20,000 sheets of paper and saved many hours

:21:52.:21:57.

Basically, everything used to be done with hand-held

:21:58.:22:01.

It took seven, eight, nine people to inspect a vehicle.

:22:02.:22:06.

Now, as you can see, we can do it with three people,

:22:07.:22:09.

just based on the fact everything now is automated and we have

:22:10.:22:12.

The partnership with Microsoft is designed to help the teams

:22:13.:22:18.

and the fans make sense of the vast amount of data

:22:19.:22:20.

But the new technology is also being used to stop teams

:22:21.:22:26.

The system can automatically detect certain infractions.

:22:27.:22:31.

The system will automatically detect if they've driven through more

:22:32.:22:36.

than three pit boxes on entry or exit.

:22:37.:22:38.

It will automatically detect the vehicle position,

:22:39.:22:40.

so if the vehicle is outside of the box and they start to work

:22:41.:22:43.

on it the system automatically flags that.

:22:44.:22:45.

And when the crew is potentially over the wall too soon,

:22:46.:22:48.

the system, again, will automatically flags that.

:22:49.:22:52.

The system uses Hawk-Eye, the same tech used in tennis matches,

:22:53.:22:54.

to spot things like when a pit crew jumps over a barrier to early.

:22:55.:22:58.

If you are a driver, it's now a lot harder to get away

:22:59.:23:01.

with some of the more sneaky tactics in racing.

:23:02.:23:07.

If they were going to get rid of one type of technology, it

:23:08.:23:10.

would be all the technology they use to police others,

:23:11.:23:13.

You can't get away with much, especially race time

:23:14.:23:16.

with all those cameras, that system they have set up,

:23:17.:23:18.

Exhaust for drivers, but technology has seemed

:23:19.:23:23.

to have won over most of NASCAR's fanatical followers.

:23:24.:23:25.

As a fan I can look up how my driver's doing,

:23:26.:23:28.

I can see all the specs, I can listen online

:23:29.:23:33.

Sometimes it's good to kind of see the old days, let them race and do

:23:34.:23:38.

I think technology can take away some of the uncertainties,

:23:39.:23:41.

where people were not really sure what the call was.

:23:42.:23:44.

You can have the technology help settle that for them.

:23:45.:23:46.

The winner this weekend was Tony Stewart,

:23:47.:23:49.

who managed to win it using a refreshing low-tech tactic.

:23:50.:23:52.

He bashed another driver off the track.

:23:53.:23:57.

That was Dave Lee at the NASCAR and that it for this week.

:23:58.:24:01.

Thanks for watching, follow us on Twitter throughout

:24:02.:24:36.

It's been cold and frosty this Saturday morning, with icy issues

:24:37.:24:38.

Click looks at how VR is being used to help prosecute Nazis at WWII concentration camps and how it can be used to help learn a language.


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