50 Shapes of Goo Click


50 Shapes of Goo

Click looks at how first responders deal with terror attacks with a new VR training tool. Plus a look at artificial muscle and turning urine into electricity.


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Transcript


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Comey into his links with Russia. That is your lot from me but now on

:00:00.:00:07.

BBC News week. -- week. This week, swaying

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votes on Facebook. And the stretchy and slimy world of

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soft robotics. It is hard to believe that the world

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is safer than it used to be. It is but the nature of terror attacks in

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the west in the last few years, the increasing use of vehicles, knives

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and guns to carry out prolonged attacks have forced authorities to

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think differently about how to deal with a terrorist incident. And, of

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course, they are not confined to the west. In some parts of the world

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these atrocities are more common and often have more casualties. It is

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difficult to predict when and where a terrorist attack will occur but

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while the authorities cannot predict, they can prepare for the

:01:32.:01:39.

worst. This is a large-scale counterterrorism training exercise.

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It was a combined effort, including London's Metropolitan Police, fire,

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ambulance and river services. However, training on this scale is

:01:50.:01:53.

expensive and requires large numbers of personnel and huge amount of

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planning, so it can't happen that often. But there are new ways to

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train more people individually. Mark Chisholm ACAS been taking part in a

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new type of terror training. -- has been taking part. Since 2015 from

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all across Europe a group of 14 partners including law enforcement,

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emergency services, transport companies and universities have been

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working together on a three-year project to create training

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simulation for real-world terrorist attacks.

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The project is called Auggmed and has been funded by an EU

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Part of it has been designed here at Sheffield Hallam University.

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Rather than build new technologies from the ground up, the hardware

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and software that is at the core of this training system is tech

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that is more commonly found in video games.

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And that technology is proving to be a flexible training tool.

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You can act out a lot more scenarios that would be too dangerous to do

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It's a lot cheaper, it's more cost effective,

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it's easier to set up, and it offers a whole

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range of scenarios that you couldn't do in real life,

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because they would just be too dangerous or too complicated.

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Virtual simulations that can be used to train a wide variety

:03:13.:03:16.

of different people, from paramedics to the police,

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and even those employed by the transport networks.

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For this scenario we're going to put a new bag down here.

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And so the trainees are going to be looking for this bag.

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A suspect bag has been placed in an accurate virtual model

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of a real location - a subway station in the Spanish

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There is what I'm assuming is some kind of explosive

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So in this situation I'm going to start evacuating

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I'm going to tell them to start to evacuate.

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Now your people are evacuating towards the bomb,

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So you might want to go on the platforms to start evacuating

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So all of the passengers are all being driven by an AI, yeah?

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But the people behave in a pretty realistic fashion?

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That's all based on scientific data of what people do

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So you've successfully started evacuating everybody who has been

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We can't show too much of this as the images are just too graphic.

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In the aftermath of an explosion, a paramedic trainee must triage

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the injured passengers, applying different coloured

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The different colours indicate the urgency

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It's an unsettling and distressing experience.

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Overwhelming sound and distressing images are designed to replicate

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But this system isn't just the work of counterterrorism researchers

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To find out more, I travelled to the real location

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In recent years, terrorist atrocities have been carried

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out all over Europe, highlighting the international

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nature of the response to this terrorism.

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Here in Barcelona, the emergency services themselves have played

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a key role in the design of the Auggmed virtual

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Jose Jurado is a doctor and emergency first

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He's been helping to fine tune the system to improve

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its utility to emergency services and paramedics.

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So this is the station that I saw in the VR model?

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What is the big thing that you get from the virtual

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reality, from the fact that it is so immersive, that

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When I get to a real situation, I am used to it,

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So it doesn't surprise me so much as it could.

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It is quite unusual being in the real station,

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having spent a little bit of time in the virtual version.

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What has been interesting walking around here is noticing

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I now know the layout, the geography of the station.

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I know where all of the exits are, I know where the escalators are,

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and which direction of travel they go in.

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So even I was able to learn something very, very quickly in that

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virtual reality version of this subway station.

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Robert Guest is from Birmingham University and is part

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You can't really get a physical hands on an object in virtual

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reality, but what we can trade is things like

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We can look at emotional management and general communication skills

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We see terrorists constantly changing their tactics.

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How do you guys respond to those changes of tactics?

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The benefit of this project as a whole is we can rapidly

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change what scenarios are actually being trained.

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So for new tactics being used, out in the public, in reality,

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we can bring those into a virtual world and allow people to train

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The next stage of this system's development is a haptic vest,

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which provides force feedback to trainees simulating

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It's also fitted with heating elements, which make

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If you are in a stressful environment like this one,

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there is a good chance you will start to get

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As soon as you get uncomfortable, then that makes it a lot more

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difficult to do your job and creates an environment for them

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which is as close as it can be to the real one.

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This whole system isn't designed to replace real-world

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training but to augment it, to allow people to betray

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dramatically if need be, constantly reinforcing their skills.

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Skills which recently have been sadly tested all too often.

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Now, while the professional first responder is always

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going to be better trained, it is ask the public who are almost

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always going to be first on the scene of an attack.

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Current advice from the British police is to run from an incident,

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rather than surrender or try to negotiate with attackers.

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This online video also explains how and where to hide

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Now, if you dial 999, but it is not safe to talk out loud,

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the operator will give you the option to dial 55,

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to show you haven't called by accident and you really

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55 looks like SS, which stands for silent solution.

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There is also an app called Citizen Aid, which uses advice

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from combat situations to help users administer first aid and make more

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informed decisions in different emergency situations.

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Hello and welcome to the week in tech.

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It was the week that Uber refunded customers for journeys taken

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near last Saturday night's London terror attacks, after pricing had

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automatically surged due to demand - a function they disabled

:09:51.:09:52.

The comment section on Britney Spears Instagram account

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has been used by Russian speaking hackers to test malware.

:10:01.:10:05.

And Snapchat specs have gone on sale in the UK.

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If you think this is a sensible way to go out.

:10:10.:10:12.

Google's Streetview cars have been tracking air pollution.

:10:13.:10:14.

After a year of the vehicles driving around the streets of Oakland,

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California, data localised to individual roads has become

:10:19.:10:20.

available, with initial recordings of black carbon,

:10:21.:10:22.

nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide being revealed.

:10:23.:10:24.

Anyone with kids can tell you what it's like trying to get

:10:25.:10:27.

But, sadly, I don't have a new gadget to tell you about that.

:10:28.:10:41.

It's actually the play clay that's gone high-tech.

:10:42.:10:44.

Doh Universe can conduct electricity and aims to help kids

:10:45.:10:46.

learn about circuits, sound, light and

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And, finally, researchers at MIT have developed sensors

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for the grippers of robotic arms that aimed to help bots grab things

:10:52.:10:55.

with the right amount of pressure. The GelSight sensors aim to make

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negotiating smaller objects possible, as well as making general

:10:59.:11:00.

household tasks easier to approach - which would be handy,

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if one day robots are to become ordinary household companions.

:11:04.:11:21.

This annual running of the nerds can only mean one thing.

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We are in San Jose for Apple's worldwide developers' conference,

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It's an event the company doesn't typically used to make big

:11:27.:11:31.

product announcements, but, this year, perhaps

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feeling the heat a little, they broke with tradition

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It's been 15 years since we held the developer conference in San Jose

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The HomePod is a direct competitor to assistance made

:11:45.:11:56.

It will cost $349 and be available later this year

:11:57.:12:00.

It will be controlled by Siri, but Apple isn't really calling

:12:01.:12:10.

They say it is a music device first and foremost.

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We weren't allowed to film it in action, but I was given

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a private listen and, well, it does sound fantastic.

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One of the potential downside is that you need an Apple music

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subscription in order to get the full integration.

:12:29.:12:30.

So if you prefer to use Spotify or Pandora, maybe not

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In other news, Apple says it can become the biggest augmented

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This demo is from the new production house run by Peter Jackson,

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the man famed for creating the Lord Of The Rings movies.

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And the iPad has been given a new lease of life.

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They announced a new 10.5 inch iPad pro and the next version of Apple's

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operating system will see the tablet get a bunch of extra features.

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Many people might see this as a kind of middle ground between getting

:12:58.:13:01.

a very expensive computer, but still being able

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Several thousand developers turn up to WWDC every year.

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Many more would come if they could get tickets.

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Among the masses, I found the youngest attendee,

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a ten-year-old who had come all the way from

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I just enjoy the fact that I can turn, like,

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my ideas into reality by programming and making apps.

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So this is my most recent app, which I published six days ago.

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You can click anywhere to place a block.

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Your goal is to get the highest tower blocks.

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So you are obviously much younger than everybody here?

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So what do you want to do when you grow up?

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Are you going to carry on making apps?

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How can I just turn myself into a turtle and grow a shell?

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I would like to create apps I can revolutionise the world.

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And I also want to teach the world coding and get them into coding,

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so they can actually improve all the technology we have and make

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A young man destined for great things, I'm sure.

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Think robots and maybe you'll picture something like this.

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But what about robotic muscle and smart materials that

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could act as human skin, all clothes that rehabilitate

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Well, that is part of what's called soft robotics and this team

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at Bristol Robotics Lab are bioengineering technologies

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This is a bucket of alien saliva, right?

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Yeah, this is the same stuff that drips out of the alien mouth.

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So Ridley Scott just used a whole bunch of that.

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Though, in this case, it is to simulate blood.

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This soft robot mimics how some bacteria move through our bodies.

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In the future, it is thought that nano robots will take a similar trip

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through our veins looking for infection and illness.

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Some of the projects they are working on here involves

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making assistive technology for elderly and disabled people,

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like this pneumatic artificial muscle.

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It can be made into any shape and built into clothing.

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As you apply air, it changes its shape so it

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could for instance help people with limited grip strength.

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Its force is only dependent on how much air pressure you apply.

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And here is some material that can sense when that

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This diametric elastomer can detect when it's being stretched,

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so it can sense when you are trying to move and add extra power to maybe

:16:09.:16:12.

And it can not only detect movement, it can also change its shape

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when you apply a high enough voltage.

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You could use it for changeable clothing, clothing that

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You can use it as a sort of second skin to help

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with deep vein thrombosis, to assist with pumping blood.

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It can even be layered up to create stronger artificial muscles.

:16:33.:16:34.

It doesn't seem like it is doing a lot, but, actually,

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it is very thin, it weighs almost nothing - the active part

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of which only weighs, let's say, four grams,

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is complicated, none of this is extremely high-tech,

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using like billions of transistors, and it is simple voltage

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I think that is one of the big advantages of soft robotics,

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In a complicated robotic system you have a lot

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With these sorts of things it is very simple and

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The intelligence is in the design and immediately used,

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The robotics lab in Bristol is 50,000 square feet of innovation

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filled with hundreds of different types of robots.

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But what nearly all have in common is they need power to run.

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Over in the bio energy lab, scientists are working on one freely

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available resource the world will never run out of -

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Each one of these cylinders is a microbial fuel cell device.

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It turns waste water into electricity using microbes.

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That is their favourite item on the menu.

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In this unit, two litres of urine is fed into the fuel cell pack.

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The microbes eat what they need, creating electrons as a by-product.

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And because they are attached to an electrode's surface,

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it is all collected to produce about 30-40 milliwatts of power.

:18:08.:18:11.

Now that's enough to slowly charge a smartphone,

:18:12.:18:14.

power smart displays, or power internal lights

:18:15.:18:18.

When we do it out of the lab, we install these units out

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of the lab, we have many more of them connected

:18:27.:18:28.

If you are going to Glastonbury this year, you might see these

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If you choose to use the urinals, you'll be part of an experiment

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which is literally putting the P into power.

:18:43.:18:49.

These are E Ink displays, which don't require a lot of power.

:18:50.:18:54.

But a lucky few may be able to charge their phones for a bit,

:18:55.:18:58.

Most of the pee used here comes from staff donors at the lab.

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It's only good for the microbes for an hour or so,

:19:06.:19:08.

Around the world, scientists are looking at different ways

:19:09.:19:20.

Here, it is alternative sources of power.

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At soft robotics, it's smart materials and possibly

:19:25.:19:27.

But in Italy's Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,

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Ana Matronic went there to look at attempts to simulate touch.

:19:33.:19:41.

I am at the biorobotics lab where researchers are trying

:19:42.:19:44.

to merge human physiology with machine engineering.

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The team are working on a bionic fingertip that is capable

:19:48.:19:50.

The human sense of touch is an incredibly complex one.

:19:51.:19:57.

I don't even need to look at these three pieces of plastic to sense

:19:58.:20:01.

the differences in the coarseness of the ridges.

:20:02.:20:04.

This of course presents a huge problem to people

:20:05.:20:06.

How do you transfer that same sensitivity into a prosthetic hand?

:20:07.:20:13.

To create a machine capable of sensing and transmitting tactile

:20:14.:20:18.

data, first we need to understand how bodies decode sensory stimuli.

:20:19.:20:22.

Fingertips have the highest concentration of sensation almost

:20:23.:20:31.

Thanks to 20,000 nerve fibres on each finger.

:20:32.:20:36.

They react to sensory information as we move our fingers

:20:37.:20:42.

Some respond to pain, some to temperature.

:20:43.:20:50.

Others react to pressure or vibration.

:20:51.:20:55.

This is the characteristic that allows our skin to interact

:20:56.:20:59.

with the environment and that will allow an object,

:21:00.:21:02.

The bionic fingertip registers the textures it touches

:21:03.:21:08.

On screen it may look simple, but that is exactly the language

:21:09.:21:14.

As we touch objects, it sends nerve impulses to the brain.

:21:15.:21:22.

And the tiny, subtle variations in how the skin deforms as we touch

:21:23.:21:26.

changes those impulses and how we perceive texture.

:21:27.:21:32.

This capitalises on an actual principle and can be more effective

:21:33.:21:36.

as humans and animals in general can interact with the environment.

:21:37.:21:41.

The professor and his team have already had some success.

:21:42.:21:47.

Dennis Sorensen was one of the first amputees to try out

:21:48.:21:50.

The output from the finger was directly connected

:21:51.:21:53.

to the healthy nerves in his upper arm.

:21:54.:21:57.

I could tell the difference between where it was very rough and smooth.

:21:58.:22:01.

And, since this first clinical trial a couple of years ago,

:22:02.:22:11.

the team had been trying to increase the number of textures

:22:12.:22:14.

The experiments that we are showing now are demonstrating

:22:15.:22:21.

the capability to encode, for examples silk, from cotton,

:22:22.:22:25.

from elastic, from wool, from different kinds of materials.

:22:26.:22:31.

And in this way we could restore a more natural sense

:22:32.:22:34.

of touch to the person wearing the prosthesis.

:22:35.:22:41.

What is learned here can be transferred to other applications.

:22:42.:22:44.

For example, a surgical robot could use this technology

:22:45.:22:48.

to identify tumours, which would feel different

:22:49.:22:51.

Another kind of application is for rescue.

:22:52.:22:58.

To allow to be present in the environment, not

:22:59.:23:01.

only through vision, but to have more senses available

:23:02.:23:05.

Think for example of the nuclear disasters, or in the case

:23:06.:23:11.

The robot can go and touch in the perceived environments,

:23:12.:23:17.

based also on the sensory feedback that you can have remotely

:23:18.:23:21.

it can be integrated into simple things like gloves.

:23:22.:23:30.

For instance, I could be anywhere in the world.

:23:31.:23:34.

My husband back in New York can give me the sensation of petting our cat.

:23:35.:23:38.

And that would be transferred through these actuators to me

:23:39.:23:42.

Well, I can't give you that at the moment, Ana,

:23:43.:23:53.

but in the meantime, how about a hug from this chap?

:23:54.:23:56.

That's it from the Bristol Robotics lab.

:23:57.:23:58.

Next week, we are going to be in Los Angeles for the annual E3

:23:59.:24:02.

We will tweet everything we see at BBC Click.

:24:03.:24:09.

You can also follow us on Facebook for loads of extra content

:24:10.:24:12.

Thanks for watching and we will see you in LA.

:24:13.:24:36.

It's felt a little more like autumn for some this week and although high

:24:37.:24:40.

pressure will build into next week and we'll hopefully see more

:24:41.:24:43.

of these skylines, this was sent in late in the day on Friday,

:24:44.:24:48.

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