Let There Be Light Click


Let There Be Light

A remote village in the corner of the Himalayas receives electricity for the first time. What does it mean for the daily lives of the villagers?


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Transcript


LineFromTo

of Borneo has plummeted by half,

almost 150,000.

0:00:000:00:01

Now it's time for Click.

0:00:010:00:08

This week, dancing with the stars,

laughing with the stars and...

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Skinny-dipping in the Himalayas!

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Choose Wi-Fi, choose Snapchat,

choose a pre- ordered backyard with

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arm and milk, juice likes, choose

follows, choose pizza delivered by a

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drone, is quite bright, swipe left,

follow, follow, follow. We are

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constantly being bombarded with

updates, twigs and information. We

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are glued to our phones, addicted to

digital status and even smashing up

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our gadgets, obliterating them to

pieces in a violent quest to rid

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ourselves of this virtual

assistants. How self-imposed

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restraints. Well, it's time to get

away from all that, just for if you

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minutes. This week, Justin Rowlatt

travelled thousands of miles to a

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village in the Himalayas which is

getting electricity for the first

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time by enhancing the power of the

sun.

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I've joined the team hiking up the

frozen Zanskar River. We've got an

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eight day 140 kilometre trek ahead

of us. Our destination, a village

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which has around 50 people, for

houses huddled together, under

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granite cliffs. For hundreds of

years the only light of the dark was

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the thin flicker from oil lamps.

Tanzin struggles to cook in the dim

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light.

TRANSLATION: These

traditional lights are not portable

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and they don't cover enough area for

the children to read. It also causes

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pollution. If we had solar power it

would be much better for us.

The

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next morning and the team gets to

work. This is the satellite dish and

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take a look at this. It has taken

quite a beating along the way. It

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will be interesting to see if this

works.

This is a street light.

20

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watts. A complete grid?

Because you

get wild animals in the summer and

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winter. This is a charge controller.

Tying the grid together is over 550

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metres of wiring, but there's a

problem.

The wire is very thick and

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it is frozen.

It's so cold. It's

about minus 15.

Yes, we need to warm

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this for about half an hour so that

it can be usable.

His team is hard

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at it, threading cables through the

tightest nooks and crannies. Each

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home is topped off with a shimmering

solar panel.

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This is a solar panel and the

capacity of the solar panel is 260

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watts. This panel is a

polycrystalline panel. At any

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coverage it can charge the batteries

very well.

So even when it is

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freezing, as it is now, it will

still generate electricity?

The

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beauty of this is even at low

temperatures it gives a better

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current. So it gets better? It gets

better.

It is like a high altitude

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desert, so it gets Sunbury-on-Thames

50 days in a year?

Yes any one day

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it gets nine hours of sunlight. In

winter it get six hours and proper

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sunlight.

Generating as much power

as possible is only the half of it.

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The other issue is making sure no

power is wasted. What's more, the

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solar panels don't just passively

drip DC into a battery, this system

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has a brain. Remote motion sensors

ensure what's generated laughs. The

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idea is you don't have to remember

to turn the lights off, as soon as

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you leave the room the lights go

off. The sunsets... And it is almost

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ready to go. The new solar micro

grid is a big deal for the

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villagers. There is an elaborate

ceremony. The local Buddhist monk

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says a prayer for the system. And

then it's time to throw the switch!

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The hope is the new grid can ensure

the future of the village.

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That added satellite dish does work

of the role and so... Does the

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motion sensor.

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A local Himalayan expedition has

installed over 250 micro grid is in

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outlying areas of Ladakh. -- the

Global Himalayan Expedition. After

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Hanamur we visited one specifically

designed to light up the minds of

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schoolchildren. It is at the

government higher secondary school.

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Hallow, kids! They've got an

innovative computer system and what

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I'm going to do is test it by asking

you a fuse simple questions. So I'm

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going to write them on the board and

then you fire up the computers and

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we will get to work.

OK, Sir!

Here

we go.

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That's right. Get to work! It might

look like they are online, but they

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are actually scouring through an

off-line internet. So even without a

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data connection, these children will

learn the sort of research skills

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essential for finding out

information in a connected world and

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of course it all runs of solar

power. There's half a terabyte of

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memory on here and installed on here

is all of Wikipedia, Ted talks, all

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sites of encyclopaedias and works,

works that the kids can use in order

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to research all sorts of subjects.

At the heart of the system. But this

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is the key to keeping it lower

power. This is a UK developed

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computer system. Incredibly

low-energy, drives the keyboard and

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the mouse. This is the computer they

use. What it means is they can have

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up to ten of these bright LED

screens all running on 24 bolts, so

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very, very efficient -- vaults. Time

is up! We need answers. I'm going to

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pick on you.

He was the last king of

the Empire.

What do you think of

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this system?

How does it work? It

works very well. I get many

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knowledge from it.

It's very useful

and easy to operate. I think it's

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perfect for students of mountain

areas.

Solar micro grid is a great

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fit for Ladakh, where steepling

geography has scattered communities

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and made them difficult to reach

with powerlines. 1.2 million people

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globally live without electricity

and for many of them solar is a

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perfect solution too because we've

seen it can be rolled out almost

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anywhere under the sun. It feeds the

demand for electricity without

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eating up the planet.

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But there is a rather unfortunate

tradition at the end of the track.

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That's right. A deep -- dip.

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Welcome to the week Intech. It was

the week that the UK government

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unveiled an artificial intelligence

tool for blocking extremist content

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online. And it's not just airspace

that are going to be occupying in

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any future, researchers at a

university in North Carolina have

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developed a drone that can fly

through the air and propel itself

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underwater. Plus the Winter Olympics

website was frozen by a cyber attack

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during the Opening Ceremony. And a

robot got to compete in its own

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Olympics. 18 downhill skiing droids

went on to the slopes, competing for

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a $10,000 prize. Boston Dynamics is

at it again with a demo guaranteed

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to freak most people out. It's Robo

dog can now open doors. That's one

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less obstacle in the fight world

domination. And a pig farm in China

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is using AI to bring home the bacon.

The AI measures animal health and

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behaviour, which the developers

Alibaba hope will improve farming

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efficiency. And finally a coin might

be preventing us from making contact

0:10:540:10:58

with aliens. Researchers complained

this week that the price of key

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computer chips have been driven

through the roof by demand from

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crypto currency miners, with no

price drop on site we will all just

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have to watch this space.

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Fashionably late, Apple has decided

it wants a slice of the home speaker

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market, finally releasing its home

pod, sometime after the first ones

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hit the shelves. They've gone for

the same cylindrical shape as Google

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and Amazon but it looks more like a

premium high-end speaker that either

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of -- than either of those systems.

The amount of audio work Apple have

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done on this device means its key

selling point is as a speaker. It is

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impressive, with a full rich upper

facing woofer and seven tweeters,

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each with its own amplifier, meaning

it can push sounds in different

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directions. So it sounds exactly the

same wherever you are in the room,

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but what it doesn't do is give you

the opportunity to change the levels

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in any way. If I wanted to push the

base up right now there is no way of

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me doing that. And even in a space

this big, the sound really carries.

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What is interesting though is even

at 100% volume I can't even hear

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myself think and it can still hear

my voice. Siri, pause. Just like

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that. Where is Apple is going to

sound quality, Amazon seems to be

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focusing on different features.

Their Echo Spot is all about the

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screen. It now has the ability to

make video calls, as well as doing

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the usual like play music, Kelly the

weather and even boil your kettle if

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you've got a smart home setup. But

really it comes into its own as a

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very nice alarm clock. It's not just

a function that makes this home

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assistance different, but price is

another factor. While we Echo Spot

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costs £119, the home pod will set

you back £319. The home pod ties chi

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Wintune Apple, so instead of being

able to access any music streaming

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service by voice activation for

example you can only use Apple music

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in this way. If you wanted the 70

million Spotify subscribers would

0:13:240:13:28

have to go into your phone and use

Air Pay as a workaround, essentially

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turning this speaker into a... Well,

speaker. And as people have been

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discovering one that might leave a

nasty white park on wooden tops.

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Apple's response? Choose a different

surface, or get a cloth and some

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elbow grease.

Over the next few weeks we are going

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to be talking to some of the gods of

the visual affects world. Last week

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we went behind the scenes of Blade

Runner and this week it is the turn

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of the Guardians of the Galaxy

volume two and we started by talking

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about it is truly bonkers opening

sequence.

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The beginning of the sequence

features a title sequence with

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dancing in the foreground. And it

doesn't cut. It is on Groot the

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whole time. He has to hold their

viewers with his crazy little

0:14:300:14:34

dancer, while what happens in the

background never stops. We have

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something like or thousand frames of

continuous action. -- 4000 frames.

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We were faced with the fact that the

environment was completely

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spectacular and had to be created

entirely digitally.

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spectacular and had to be created

entirely digitally. Everything that

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we were inserting had to be

reflected and that is multiple times

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the computation to compute the light

on them and also their reflection.

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Everything ended up being done two

or three times, because of the

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surface of the world they were

standing on. We were delighted to

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have the opportunity to take on

Rocket at the raccoon. The first

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aid, the muscle systems, all of

these things had updated in the

0:15:250:15:29

three years between the first

Guardians and this one. We wanted to

0:15:290:15:34

bring all about into Rocket, which

meant rebuilding him from the ground

0:15:340:15:38

up. And yet making sure that he was

absolutely recognisable as the same

0:15:380:15:43

character from the first movie.

Space being very open, it is very

0:15:430:15:50

hard to tell how fast things are

moving. James Cameron is very keen

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on selling the speed of the action.

So we conceived of these sort of

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wasps and waves of plasma energy

that lived in and around this planet

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is so we could sell how fast the

camera and the spaceships were

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moving -- wafts. There is a scene in

the middle of the movie where Rocket

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and Yonder are in prison, but when

they break out they are on-board

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this enormous, very big spaceship.

Which of course didn't exist. We had

0:16:280:16:33

big shots of Yondu walking through

these hallways and docking bays with

0:16:330:16:45

all of the ravages of the crew of

the spaceship being shot out with

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his arrow. Ultimately, the arrow

which Yondu is firing works its way

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all the way around the spaceship. We

had to design the interior of the

0:16:550:16:58

spaceship to give a satisfying

journey for this arrow to take. It

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looks like a Busby Berkeley movie,

with crazy camera angles. Every

0:17:060:17:13

movie that we get involved in we

want to be pushing the envelope,

0:17:130:17:18

putting something new, with

expectation that we will get there.

0:17:180:17:34

Old film stock is a treasure trove

of historical information. In the

0:17:340:17:39

case of old BBC programmes it can be

a race against time to find any

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remaining copy and digitise it or

risk losing it forever. But when

0:17:430:17:49

producer Charles Norton was given an

old Morecambe and Wise episode there

0:17:490:17:53

was a problem.

After this that both

the BBC in the British Film

0:17:530:17:58

Institute have a look at the film

and essentially judged it to be

0:17:580:18:07

unable to be recovered. They were,

effectively it was going to be

0:18:070:18:12

thrown out. The pictures inside that

film, they are still there, they

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still printed on the plastic, but

they are all locked inside this

0:18:150:18:19

permanently fused block of immobile

gunk, which, sooner or later, we'll

0:18:190:18:26

just rot away to soup.

So Charles

brought the film to Queen Mary

0:18:260:18:33

University's dental department to

use that x-ray machine to see

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through the love of decaying film to

be precious pictures within. But now

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they had another problem. The film

was too big to be X-Raid.

The only

0:18:420:18:45

thing you could do would be to cut

the film into little pieces and scan

0:18:450:18:51

Monfils at a time I didn't expect

him to say yes to cutting up the

0:18:510:18:57

film, but given the alternative was

watching this just rapidly

0:18:570:19:01

disintegrate, he said let's do it.

We were using an infrared laser, it

0:19:010:19:08

generated a lot of heat,

occasionally there were flames. At

0:19:080:19:11

the best we had a little bit of

damage at the age of the frames, at

0:19:110:19:15

worst we lost whole frames.

Frame

took 5000 images of each chunk as it

0:19:150:19:22

rotated through 360 degrees to make

a 3-D model. At that point they

0:19:220:19:27

started to see what was on the film

for the first time.

When you first

0:19:270:19:31

start seeing those pictures of Eric

Morcombe in one of his stereotypical

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poses, you can't help but smile and

think, yes, this has to be done.

0:19:360:19:46

Once the scans were finished, they

had loads of data, but they also had

0:19:460:19:52

a new problem.

The next really

difficult part was finding a way of

0:19:520:19:58

digitally flattening out this warped

object and digitally prising apart

0:19:580:20:04

all of the individual filmmakers

within it. -- film layers. We

0:20:040:20:11

originally have the manual software

where I would physically go through

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each individual block and spend five

or ten minutes flattening out one

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layer after the other, but that was

over several thousand frames, quite

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labour-intensive.

At this point

Charles took the problem to a data

0:20:260:20:30

scientist.

What a human would do is

try to see where the image was

0:20:300:20:38

within the cross-section, the

problem here is that a computer

0:20:380:20:42

algorithm cannot quite do that. What

the algorithm does is it follows,

0:20:420:20:48

predominantly, the layers of

plastic, so not the images, but the

0:20:480:20:52

plastic. So once we have the layer

of plastic, we can move to the edge

0:20:520:20:58

of that layer and read off the

image.

That process was repeated on

0:20:580:21:05

all of the film, making short work

of a task that would take a human

0:21:050:21:10

thousands of hours of work. Now

Charles is beginning the next phase,

0:21:100:21:17

turning the sky pictures back into

video. That is the next problem. But

0:21:170:21:22

now he has managed to put together a

taster of what is on that film.

And

0:21:220:21:27

beautifully as well. Not a word out

of sync.

I'm not mainly now. It is

0:21:270:21:32

me.

You realise, of course, that the

tape has stopped. How does he do it?

0:21:320:21:46

That is an impressive sight. That is

the king's library, assembled by

0:21:460:21:51

King George III in the second half

of the 18th century. Four floors

0:21:510:21:55

below my feet here at the British

Library lie its vast basins, which

0:21:550:22:00

as you can imagine also contain a

lot of books. But did you know they

0:22:000:22:04

also contain 6.5 million sound

recordings which are now being

0:22:040:22:09

digitised? -- vast basement. The

British Library is the National

0:22:090:22:15

Sound archive, with sound recordings

spanning the last 130 years. These

0:22:150:22:22

are stored on all sorts of physical

formats, from delicate wax cylinders

0:22:220:22:27

to brass discs, two short lived

formats like minidisks, remember

0:22:270:22:32

that? There is a big push to

digitise them and make them

0:22:320:22:36

available online. Each of the 40

different types of storage format

0:22:360:22:41

has unique challenges, they all need

their own playback devices, and some

0:22:410:22:46

need a little TLC to coax the best

quality sound from them.

Something

0:22:460:22:50

reasonably robust like a vinyl this,

we have an ultrasonic bath to be

0:22:500:22:56

able to shake that debris out of its

hiding place, we also have the more

0:22:560:23:00

traditional type of record cleaning

machines, the brush and vacuum

0:23:000:23:05

arrangements, that can produce some

quite startling results when you

0:23:050:23:10

start to clean off otherwise

invisible gunk.

The team also have a

0:23:100:23:16

workshop to keep their collection of

machines in tiptop condition, so

0:23:160:23:20

staff can work on as many concurrent

transfers as possible and chip away

0:23:200:23:24

at the millions of recordings.

If

you are faced with a tape for a disk

0:23:240:23:30

in a really parlous state and you

take it off a shelf, it may be

0:23:300:23:34

mouldy, it may need treatment, some

sort of repair, that doing that

0:23:340:23:38

process, that active process of

conserving and repairing that media

0:23:380:23:44

such that it can be replayed, even

just once, is hugely rewarding.

0:23:440:23:48

Certainly challenging.

But with only

2% of their collection digitise and

0:23:480:23:56

only 15 years until some recordings

become unsalvageable, it is a race

0:23:560:24:01

against time to save as many as

possible -- digitised. It reminds me

0:24:010:24:05

that I have a box full of minidisks

in the loft, to bring them in. That

0:24:050:24:09

is it for this week from the British

Library. Don't forget we live on

0:24:090:24:13

Facebook and on Twitter at BBC

click. Then he very much a watching.

0:24:130:24:17

We will see you soon. -- for

watching.

0:24:170:24:25

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