01/12/2011 GMT with George Alagiah


01/12/2011

Britain and Germany call for new sanctions against Iran as EU foreign ministers gather to discuss concerns over the Iranian nuclear programme.


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Transcript


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Britain aims to tighten the screw on Iran. It's calling for more

:00:06.:00:10.

sanctions from the European Union at a meeting of foreign ministers.

:00:10.:00:12.

Iran's all-important oil industry could be a target, says Britain's

:00:12.:00:18.

William Hague - just one of the options being considered. I hope we

:00:18.:00:20.

will agree today additional measures that will be an

:00:20.:00:24.

intensification of the economic pressure on Iran. Peaceful,

:00:24.:00:34.
:00:34.:00:46.

Welcome to GMT, I'm George Alagiah. Also in the programme:

:00:46.:00:49.

So far, so good - America rewards Burma for progress, but says it

:00:49.:00:58.

needs more reform before it's business as usual.

:00:58.:01:02.

And green is red hot at the Tokyo Motor Show as Japanese

:01:02.:01:09.

manufacturers unveiled their visions for the future of the car.

:01:09.:01:13.

It's midday here in London, 3:30 in Tehran, and 1:30 in Brussels.

:01:13.:01:15.

That's where the British Foreign Secretary William Hague is pushing

:01:15.:01:18.

for more sanctions against Iran at a meeting of fellow European Union

:01:18.:01:22.

foreign ministers. The talks come two days after Iranian protesters

:01:22.:01:25.

stormed the British mission in Iran. Mr Hague, who's since ordered the

:01:25.:01:27.

expulsion of Iranian diplomats from London, suggested that Iran's

:01:27.:01:30.

money-spinning oil industry could be targeted, though he acknowledged

:01:30.:01:40.
:01:40.:01:41.

that there could be a variety of views on that.

:01:41.:01:47.

Here is James Reynolds. This morning in Brussels, Britain's

:01:47.:01:50.

Foreign Secretary William Hague arrived to test Europe's desire for

:01:50.:01:55.

further steps against Iran. European Union has taken many

:01:55.:01:57.

measures already but the additional measures, I hope we will agree

:01:57.:02:01.

today, that will be an intensification of the economic

:02:01.:02:07.

pressure on Iran. A peaceful, legitimate economic pressure,

:02:07.:02:10.

particularly to increase the isolation of the Iran financial

:02:10.:02:16.

sector. The attack, British Embassy is still fresh in every one's mind.

:02:16.:02:20.

-- the attack, V. There is enormous amount of support for those people

:02:20.:02:25.

who have had a dreadful experience. This is what British diplomats are

:02:25.:02:31.

still recovering from. The country's two compounds in Tehran

:02:31.:02:34.

work stormed by protesters on Tuesday. In response, Britain has

:02:34.:02:39.

withdrawn its staff and ordered the closure of the Iranian embassy in

:02:39.:02:43.

London. It wants Europe to act together. Here is what may be

:02:43.:02:48.

discussed in Brussels. Iran is one of the world's largest oil

:02:48.:02:52.

exporters and it is how the country get much of its revenue. There is a

:02:52.:02:55.

suggestion that an oil embargo may be debated.

:02:55.:03:01.

The EU and Iran do a lot of business, but Iran's key market is

:03:01.:03:05.

in Asia, China in particular, which means that more European sanctions

:03:05.:03:10.

can only have a limited impact on Iran.

:03:10.:03:17.

Let's get some more analysis on the story. We will be like that the

:03:17.:03:27.
:03:27.:03:27.

Iranian embassy in London shortly, but first, let's cross to Brussels.

:03:28.:03:33.

His Tehran going to be concerned that William Hague, up the British

:03:33.:03:39.

Foreign Secretary, is talking about targeting the oil industry? I think

:03:39.:03:45.

they are very concerned. I think they should be concerned. Judging

:03:45.:03:50.

by the muted response from Iran today after the events of the last

:03:50.:03:53.

24 hours, the closure of the embassies and the expulsion of

:03:53.:03:58.

Iranian diplomats from London, it is quite clear that either they,

:03:58.:04:03.

Iranian leaders, they recognise that the attack on the British

:04:03.:04:10.

Embassy was pretty much a major mistake bad miscalculation -- and

:04:10.:04:14.

miscalculation and has projected Iran of working outside the norms

:04:14.:04:18.

of international relations and international law. Here, it has

:04:18.:04:23.

firmed up the attitudes of the foreign ministers here, who are not

:04:23.:04:28.

talking, are they don't have any more doubts, if there were any,

:04:28.:04:34.

about increasing sanctions against Iran. Here, the idea... Can I just

:04:34.:04:37.

interrupt? When you say there is a sense that there has been a

:04:38.:04:42.

miscalculation, are you suggesting that within the administration in

:04:42.:04:48.

Tehran, there is now, if you like it, various factions vying for

:04:48.:04:55.

status, vying for power? Well, there was always a division about

:04:55.:04:59.

this issue of relations with Britain and how to handle the

:04:59.:05:05.

latest sanctions that Britain imposed about 10 days ago. The

:05:05.:05:12.

Government of President Ahmed dared Jack was against the idea are such

:05:12.:05:17.

taking -- the Government of the present was against taking such

:05:17.:05:22.

drastic measures, but the opposition had different ideas.

:05:22.:05:27.

Let's go back to or oil sanctions, it has been suggested on BBC World

:05:27.:05:32.

News by our colleague James Reynolds that most of Iran's oil

:05:32.:05:36.

coast eastwards towards China and Asia, so they wouldn't really have

:05:36.:05:42.

to be worried about sanctions from Europe -- goes eastwards. Europe

:05:42.:05:52.
:05:52.:05:55.

accounts for about 15-20% of Iran's oil exports, and the drying up of

:05:55.:06:01.

20% of the oil exports, it is not going to impact that much. But

:06:01.:06:07.

these things have a tendency to be incremental, NSX that today, the

:06:07.:06:11.

European Union is going to do that, tomorrow other countries might be

:06:11.:06:16.

under pressure to do the same thing. If, for example, the banking

:06:16.:06:22.

sanctions are tightened further and many countries are going to censure

:06:22.:06:30.

and Iran's central bank, bent Iran's -- then Iran's ability to

:06:30.:06:34.

get its hands on its oil export revenue from countries like China,

:06:34.:06:40.

South Korea, India, it is going to be difficult. Already, Iran has

:06:40.:06:45.

trouble getting the money for its oil exports from China. Apparently,

:06:45.:06:48.

they have signed some kind of barter agreement. They have trouble

:06:48.:06:52.

getting the money getting back from the Indians, who are channelling

:06:52.:06:57.

their money through Turkish banks these days. These are serious

:06:57.:07:03.

problems. A we will leave it there for the moment. -- we will leave it

:07:03.:07:10.

there. Let's go to the London Iranian embassy, described the mood

:07:10.:07:16.

there. Diplomats were given 48 hours to leave, were they not?

:07:16.:07:21.

know that they have to leave very soon, but it is rather quiet here,

:07:21.:07:26.

despite some calls or demonstrations in front of Iranian

:07:26.:07:32.

wet -- embassies in European capitals. We only have one protest

:07:32.:07:36.

here, but in front of the Iranian consulate, 10 or 15 minutes' walk

:07:36.:07:41.

from here, we heard that there are some Iranians killing to do their

:07:41.:07:45.

paperwork, because the consulates said it is opened their -- queuing

:07:45.:07:49.

up. They say they are doing their best to try and finish the

:07:49.:07:53.

paperwork and give people their documents, including passports

:07:53.:07:59.

under ID cards. They have also started moving things out of the

:07:59.:08:08.

consular. Both of you, thank you very much. American Secretary of

:08:08.:08:11.

State Hillary Clinton has told Burma's leaders that changes

:08:11.:08:13.

they've made so far are unprecedented and welcome, but just

:08:13.:08:23.
:08:23.:08:24.

a beginning. Mrs Clinton said it was encouraging that Hang Seng Sue

:08:24.:08:29.

Key was free to take part in the talks but the US would not take any

:08:29.:08:33.

further part until broader Reformation as were taking place. A

:08:33.:08:38.

we are not that the point yet until -- that we are considering lifting

:08:38.:08:44.

sanctions. That is because of ongoing it concerns, policies that

:08:44.:08:54.
:08:54.:08:55.

have to be reversed. But any steps that the Government takes will be

:08:55.:09:01.

carefully considered and will be, as I said, matched, because we want

:09:01.:09:09.

to see political and economic reform take hold and I told the

:09:09.:09:14.

leadership that we will certainly consider the easing and elimination

:09:14.:09:22.

of sanctions as we go forward in this process together. Let's cross

:09:22.:09:31.

live to Thailand, where many Burmese exiles live. Thank you for

:09:31.:09:36.

joining us on GMT, of what is your reaction to what you are hearing

:09:36.:09:44.

from Burma? -- what is. We are quite excited, this is an

:09:44.:09:51.

historic moment. We certainly hope that Hillary Clinton can break the

:09:51.:09:56.

ice and can leverage the reform of the Burmese pro for -- process. We

:09:56.:10:06.

are the same as many Burmese, cautious as to whether this change

:10:06.:10:12.

is irreversible, and especially within the military administration,

:10:12.:10:20.

because there is ongoing and oppression -- ongoing depression.

:10:20.:10:24.

I'm sorry to interrupt you. When you say you are excited, are you

:10:24.:10:28.

not concerned that there are still something like 1,000 political

:10:28.:10:38.

prisoners behind bars? That is where we have concerns, for

:10:38.:10:48.
:10:48.:10:49.

political prisoners under -- and oppression in a wider area. The

:10:49.:10:53.

President was saying there were no political prisoners left, so at

:10:53.:10:57.

least acknowledgement about those remaining political prisoners and a

:10:57.:11:05.

dressing on going -- and a dressing ongoing issues. And there are many

:11:06.:11:14.

other concerns, when we talk about reconciliation. Would you accept

:11:14.:11:21.

that in the end, in these sorts of things, you have got to be prepared

:11:21.:11:27.

to take risks, and that is what America is doing? That is exactly

:11:27.:11:32.

what we are doing it, of course. Every change has always risk

:11:32.:11:40.

involved. Especially taking risks... The President is taking risks to

:11:40.:11:49.

change. It is so via a oppression. A lot of people have suffered -- it

:11:49.:11:59.
:11:59.:12:00.

is so via. -- Severe. It is all about risk taking. But the question

:12:00.:12:09.

is whether shall we take this risk? Is it worth it? Then the question

:12:09.:12:16.

is, well a lot of stakeholders take this risk? We will have to leave it

:12:16.:12:23.

there, sorry to interrupt again, it is a difficult line. Let's take a

:12:23.:12:28.

look at some of the other stories today.

:12:28.:12:32.

Thousands of people are protesting in Athens about salary cuts and tax

:12:32.:12:36.

increases. They are staging a 24 hour strike against austerity

:12:36.:12:40.

measures which Greece must implement if it is to reach the

:12:40.:12:43.

next stage of the international bail-out plan.

:12:43.:12:46.

The cigarette manufacturer British American Tobacco says it will

:12:46.:12:49.

challenge a new law passed in Australia that requires tobacco

:12:49.:12:53.

companies to sell their products in non branded packets. The changes

:12:53.:12:58.

due to come into force in a year's time. -- changes.

:12:58.:13:01.

Police in Mexico have discovered the 600 metre tunnel used

:13:01.:13:08.

discovered -- Korea drugs from Tijuana to San Diego. The tunnel

:13:08.:13:14.

entrance was close to the headquarters of the federal police

:13:14.:13:19.

force Bob bash. Still to come, the Afghan women out

:13:19.:13:23.

of their homes and now working. They are afraid it will all change

:13:23.:13:31.

if there is a reconciliation with the Taliban.

:13:31.:13:39.

Let's get all of the business news. I didn't know this, but there are

:13:39.:13:42.

much fuel made in China labels around.

:13:42.:13:48.

You wouldn't believe it, but yes, the overheated economy looks like

:13:48.:13:51.

it is cooling down. The latest figures from China manufacturing

:13:51.:13:58.

figures show that the economy fell by one. In November. This is a sign

:13:58.:14:02.

of the Government's's efforts to cool the economy but also a sure

:14:02.:14:06.

sign that the problems are the Eurozone are filtering through to

:14:06.:14:09.

China and affecting demand for Chinese goods. Let's listen to what

:14:09.:14:15.

they had to say. The PMI data we saw today shows the economy is

:14:15.:14:19.

slowing and slowing fast, so with growth coming off quite

:14:19.:14:23.

considerably, if you take that in conjunction with calming inflation

:14:23.:14:26.

under property market that looks like it is correcting significantly

:14:27.:14:30.

and the disastrous looking efforts in the euro-zone, it means that

:14:30.:14:35.

policy makers in China are fairly concerned. This comes after the

:14:35.:14:39.

Chinese central bank announced it is cutting reserve ratios for banks,

:14:39.:14:43.

basically meaning it is easier for banks to lend money. Talking of

:14:44.:14:47.

central banks, Mario Draghi is the new head of the European Central

:14:47.:14:51.

Bank and has been speaking in the European Parliament, I think it was

:14:51.:14:56.

his first time, any hint as to what he is going to do with the bank and

:14:56.:14:59.

its policies? He has been talking about what he thinks government

:14:59.:15:05.

should do. He has said he wants more integration between

:15:05.:15:07.

governments and wants European economies to work closer together

:15:07.:15:11.

and warns that the risks to Europe's growth have really grown.

:15:11.:15:15.

Basically, it is pretty grim reading. Let's listen to what he

:15:15.:15:23.

had to say. Whatever the approach, companies, markets and the citizens

:15:23.:15:28.

of Europe expect policy makers to act decisively to resolve the

:15:28.:15:34.

crisis. It is time to adapt the euro area designed with a set of

:15:34.:15:40.

institutions, rules and processes that is commensurate with the

:15:40.:15:50.
:15:50.:15:50.

He is basically saying they need to work together, European leaders of

:15:50.:15:53.

the Eurozone economies. There will be a meeting in Brussels in nine

:15:53.:15:59.

days' time between Eurozone leaders. His words come only a day after the

:15:59.:16:03.

central bank, the Federal Reserve and the central banks across Europe,

:16:03.:16:09.

agreed to come together to create more liquidity in the markets. If

:16:09.:16:13.

we can look at what the markets are doing now, that is what the

:16:13.:16:23.
:16:23.:16:32.

We have not got the European markets for you, but they are

:16:32.:16:42.
:16:42.:16:43.

stable. This is GMT from BBC World News.

:16:43.:16:47.

The headlines: Britain pushes for more sanctions against Iran at a

:16:47.:16:51.

meeting of European foreign ministers. On an historic visit to

:16:51.:16:56.

Burma, Hillary Clinton says more democratic reform is needed before

:16:56.:17:06.
:17:06.:17:06.

full diplomatic ties with the US can be restored.

:17:06.:17:08.

Women's rights activists in Afghanistan say the international

:17:08.:17:11.

community is preparing to abandon them in the rush to withdraw troops

:17:11.:17:14.

from the country. Improving women's rights was one of the major

:17:14.:17:17.

objectives cited when US-led forces toppled the Taliban ten years ago.

:17:17.:17:20.

Now campaigners fear that women and their concerns could be sidelined

:17:20.:17:30.
:17:30.:17:30.

at the upcoming Bonn conference on the future of Afghanistan.

:17:30.:17:36.

Fashioning a new future, for themselves and their country. Every

:17:36.:17:40.

stitch testament to a fragile freedom. Under the Taliban, Afghan

:17:40.:17:48.

women were trapped at home, uneducated and unemployed. Spalford

:17:48.:17:52.

Teniers, and they make up half the workforce -- if you spool forward

:17:52.:17:56.

ten years, they make up half the workforce at this company where

:17:56.:18:00.

they toil alongside men. Zargona says she is proud to be the

:18:00.:18:04.

breadwinner for her two younger brothers. But the company's founder

:18:04.:18:08.

worries about the outlook. If there is reconciliation with the

:18:08.:18:12.

insurgents. None of the Taliban have come forward to say, I am a

:18:12.:18:18.

moderate and I believe differently. We are fooling ourselves if we

:18:18.:18:26.

believe that the Taliban have changed their view or philosophy.

:18:26.:18:31.

They have not claimed that they have changed and will be different.

:18:31.:18:35.

There are big plans for this business. The hope is to begin

:18:35.:18:41.

exporting to the US and Europe, and eventually to create a hundred jobs

:18:41.:18:45.

here. All of that might be possible in the future if the future is not

:18:45.:18:51.

shaped by the Taliban. In areas under their control, women are

:18:51.:18:57.

still voiceless and defenceless. This is Siddiqa, 25 years old. Her

:18:57.:19:01.

final moments are captured in this footage, which emerged in January.

:19:01.:19:06.

For the crime of adultery, the Taliban stoned her, then shot her

:19:06.:19:13.

dead. This woman is another of their targets. She is a prominent

:19:13.:19:21.

member of parliament who survived a Taliban ambush on her car last year.

:19:21.:19:25.

This outspoken activist refuses to be silenced, but she fears that

:19:25.:19:30.

Afghan women could soon be abandoned by the international

:19:30.:19:37.

community, which promised them so much. They seem to turn their faced

:19:37.:19:41.

to women's issues and say, we just want to say goodbye and leave

:19:41.:19:45.

Afghanistan. That could put us more at risk, because we have been

:19:45.:19:50.

outspoken about what we want. eldest daughter is studying hard.

:19:50.:19:56.

She wants to be an aerospace engineer. But she and her younger

:19:56.:20:00.

sister are afraid for themselves and their mother. They want a

:20:00.:20:07.

future outside Afghanistan. The Tokyo Motor Show is getting

:20:07.:20:10.

underway at the end of a dismal year for Japan's car industry.

:20:10.:20:13.

First it was hit by the earthquake. Then floods in Thailand disrupted

:20:13.:20:16.

its supply chain. Still, Japanese manufacturers remain confident in

:20:16.:20:26.
:20:26.:20:35.

their capacity to lead the way to a new generation of cars.

:20:35.:20:41.

The Tokyo Motor Show is a celebration of Japanese cars. But

:20:41.:20:45.

this has been a terrible year for the industry. The earthquake, the

:20:46.:20:49.

tsunami, the floods in Thailand. Nissan is showing off new types of

:20:49.:20:55.

electric vehicles, putting the technology into his sports car. The

:20:55.:20:58.

chief executive says more production will leave Japan unless

:20:58.:21:04.

the high yen can be tamed. That is why we are being very vocal to the

:21:04.:21:08.

Government to say you should not underestimate what is taking place.

:21:08.:21:12.

Take action. I do not buy that there is nothing you can do. Look

:21:12.:21:19.

at what the Swiss have done. They have drawn a line in the sand. The

:21:19.:21:23.

whole country was a lined on a position, and they made their

:21:23.:21:29.

position respected. Japan is one of the largest economies. It has a lot

:21:29.:21:33.

of financial clout. Japan can make it happen if it wants.

:21:33.:21:37.

challenge for these companies is to ensure that making cars in Japan

:21:37.:21:42.

remains profitable in the years ahead. Other countries are simply

:21:42.:21:47.

cheaper. But the future for Japan could lie in the -- becoming more

:21:47.:21:54.

high-tech. Toyota is pushing ahead with hybrids. The mass

:21:54.:21:57.

manufacturing of cheap vehicles, Japan struggles to compete, but it

:21:58.:22:07.

is leading the way in developing the next generation of cars. In the

:22:07.:22:13.

market, we successfully transformed the conventional engine into their

:22:13.:22:23.
:22:23.:22:24.

new type. That activated the industry. So I really hope the

:22:24.:22:29.

future course is now starting. amount of Blitz can hide the

:22:29.:22:34.

difficulty faced by manufacturing because of the strong yen. But the

:22:34.:22:39.

car industry is putting its faith in what made it a world beater -

:22:39.:22:44.

Japanese ingenuity and innovation. Ask anyone about Hamlet, and they

:22:44.:22:48.

are likely to answer back with another question - To be or not to

:22:48.:22:53.

be? Unless, of course, it is a foreign production, in which case

:22:53.:22:56.

the question will sound completely different. Well, on today's GMT, we

:22:56.:23:01.

are talking about one such production in German. And it is not

:23:01.:23:04.

just the sound that is different - its look is also a radical

:23:04.:23:07.

departure from the Shakespearean standards. In the original, there

:23:07.:23:11.

are over 20 characters. In this one, directed by Thomas Ostermeier, just

:23:11.:23:16.

six actors play all the characters. Well, the German Hamlet is now on

:23:16.:23:19.

tour in Britain and the lead actor, Lars Eidinger, joins me from our

:23:19.:23:28.

central London studio. I was reading about you, and I gather

:23:28.:23:32.

there was a time when you thought this play would not transfer very

:23:32.:23:38.

well to Britain. But you have changed your mind? No, it was more

:23:38.:23:43.

that we were afraid that people with the English tongue, they don't

:23:43.:23:49.

want to listen to Shakespeare spoken by German translation by

:23:49.:23:55.

Germans. That is a good point, because there are purists in

:23:55.:23:59.

England who say Shakespeare should not be modernised even in the

:23:59.:24:05.

English language, let alone hearing it in German. It is difficult,

:24:05.:24:12.

because you lose so much of the meaning. But in a way, it is an

:24:12.:24:16.

advantage, because people say that even English people sometimes do

:24:16.:24:21.

not understand the original Shakespeare. So in our performance,

:24:22.:24:28.

I am sure you will get everything. But it must put an enormous stress

:24:28.:24:31.

on you as an actor if the audience cannot understand what you are

:24:31.:24:36.

saying. We are relying entirely on what you are doing with your eyes,

:24:36.:24:42.

your voice, your hands. But we are very used to play in foreign

:24:42.:24:47.

countries. Our experience is that people can follow. In the beginning,

:24:47.:24:53.

it is a bit difficult with the surtitles. But then they get into

:24:53.:25:00.

it. And they do not read the whole time. The whole performance is very

:25:00.:25:05.

visual, very physical and very strong. So I think people know how

:25:05.:25:10.

that already. And this will not be the first time it is playing to an

:25:11.:25:15.

English audience. You have been in Australia? Yes, and it has been a

:25:15.:25:23.

big success in Sydney. Wherever we play, people love it with, although

:25:23.:25:27.

it is always translated. producers tell me that this

:25:27.:25:32.

particular production is a gritty and sexy. What are you going to get

:25:32.:25:40.

up to? I take it as a compliment. I think it is something to do with,

:25:40.:25:50.
:25:50.:25:50.

how do you say, the physicality. I think it is very passionate. The

:25:50.:25:57.

way I am interpreting the character, it is very emotional. And yes, of

:25:57.:26:04.

course, there is a sequence where Hamlet and Horatio are doing the

:26:04.:26:10.

play, which used originally played by a company. We play it ourselves.

:26:10.:26:16.

And I am playing my mother and I am half naked. Well! Hopefully, that

:26:16.:26:20.

will do something for your audience. I wish I had worked out how to say

:26:20.:26:25.

good luck in German. But the best of luck from us. But I like the

:26:25.:26:32.

English expression, break a leg. Don't do that!

:26:32.:26:36.

Serving at night is not usually recommended, but this group of

:26:36.:26:40.

surfers in Sydney have not let cover of darkness stop them.

:26:40.:26:44.

Australia's famous Bondi Beach was lit up with colour as the surfers

:26:44.:26:48.

International news and intelligent analysis going live to the heart of the day's top global story. George Alagiah shares his experience as one of the BBC's most successful foreign correspondents to communicate why world stories matter to a UK and global audience.

Featuring exclusive reports from BBC World News correspondents based around the world, plus up-to-the-minute global business news.

Britain and Germany call for new sanctions against Iran as EU foreign ministers gather to discuss concerns over the Iranian nuclear programme.


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