22/11/2011 GMT with George Alagiah


22/11/2011

Zeinab Badawi presents international news and intelligent analysis going live to the heart of the day's top global story. Plus up-to-the-minute global business news.


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Thousands of Egyptians lose patience with the country's interim

:00:05.:00:12.

military rulers as protesters stream into Cairo's Tahrir square.

:00:12.:00:15.

The escalating protests raise pressure on the military to

:00:15.:00:25.
:00:25.:00:34.

handover power sooner than they are Welcome to GMT. I'm Zeinab Badawi.

:00:34.:00:39.

Also in the programme: Turkey's President Abdullah Gul on a state

:00:39.:00:42.

visit to Britain says Syria has reached a dead end and that change

:00:42.:00:49.

is intevitable. And we speak to the the African American writer who

:00:49.:00:52.

appeared on TV next to an anti immigration party leader and turned

:00:52.:01:02.
:01:02.:01:04.

It's 1230 here in London. 7.30 in New York and 2.30PM in Cairo where

:01:04.:01:07.

the popular discontent with the generals who replaced Hosni Mubarak

:01:07.:01:13.

has escalated. The protests are growing in Cairo and also spreading

:01:13.:01:17.

to other cities in Egypt. The showdown between the generals and

:01:18.:01:23.

the pro democracy protesters has already turned violent. And there

:01:23.:01:25.

are fears the frustration could again lead to clashes with the

:01:25.:01:29.

security forces. Around 30 people have already died in the past few

:01:29.:01:36.

days. Humphrey Hawksley has the latest.

:01:36.:01:41.

During the morning, more and more filled to the square. And the crowd

:01:41.:01:49.

parted to allow the injured to go to hospital. Higher risk tactics of

:01:49.:01:59.

hide and seek. All the time, they test the resolve of the police.

:01:59.:02:07.

Here, police used tear gas against protesters. One of picks it up,

:02:07.:02:14.

runs towards them and hurls it back. A small strike against the security

:02:14.:02:22.

forces they demand become accountable to civilian rule. The

:02:22.:02:29.

numbers of injured and killed are mounting. They fired a shotgun

:02:29.:02:35.

cartridge, he says, and it hit the person with me directly in the face.

:02:35.:02:43.

Just a few months ago, the army was hailed as Egypt's saviour and its

:02:43.:02:52.

head courted both at home and abroad but no more. Egypt is

:02:52.:02:55.

exactly the same as it was in January. This is not what we fought

:02:55.:03:03.

for. 12,000 civilians have been tried by courts. People complain.

:03:03.:03:07.

People used freedom of expression and are detained. A view underlined

:03:07.:03:13.

by those in the square. TRANSLATION: Our demands are

:03:13.:03:17.

reforming the constitution, the Cabinet stepping down and having a

:03:17.:03:23.

civil democratic government. insist that the armed forces gives

:03:23.:03:29.

us a date on which they will hand over power to an elected official.

:03:29.:03:34.

As the army and rolls on razor wire, it has asked for emergency dialogue

:03:34.:03:39.

with all parties. The Moslem Brotherhood has agreed to the talks.

:03:39.:03:44.

There is unity here on what needs to go but little detail on what

:03:44.:03:52.

exactly will replace it and how and the dangers of getting it wrong.

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That report by Humphrey. We now want to take you live to Tahrir

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Square in central Cairo. You can see that the crowds have been

:04:02.:04:08.

massing, and more and more are streaming in by the our. Very keen

:04:08.:04:14.

to make sure that the ruling military council is aware of their

:04:14.:04:18.

growing frustration and anger, and this isn't just happening in Cairo.

:04:18.:04:23.

Are there are also protests in other major centres in Egypt like

:04:23.:04:28.

Alexandria, and in the past three days, since these protesters have

:04:28.:04:32.

reappeared in Tahrir Square, we have seen 26 people who have been

:04:32.:04:36.

killed in the clashes between the pro-democracy protesters and the

:04:36.:04:41.

security forces. The BBC's Lyse Doucet is in Tahrir Square. She

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witnessed first-hand the street battles taking place there. This is

:04:50.:04:55.

the main point of tension in Tahrir Square. Protesters are moving down

:04:55.:05:01.

the street towards the police headquarters. There were running

:05:01.:05:06.

battles here yesterday. As you can see, its continuing again. You can

:05:06.:05:13.

feel the tear-gas in the air. This is the focal point of protest now.

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And they are moving down this road. A key junction for the this leads

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to the headquarters of the police. It has been a target of protests

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and rock throwing by these protesters, who accuse police of

:05:29.:05:32.

the brutality. This is where we have seen battles between police

:05:32.:05:42.

and protesters. It's happening now. Watch the crowds going. Any minute

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now, we expect the tear-gas to be fired. Day after day, hour after

:05:48.:05:54.

Allott, this is the politics of Egypt now in Tahrir Square. This

:05:54.:06:02.

confrontation between protesters and the police -- hour after hour.

:06:02.:06:08.

We are getting reports from Egypt that the head about ruling military

:06:08.:06:13.

council is expected to make a statement on TV some time on

:06:13.:06:16.

Tuesday. Let's take a look at some of the other stories making

:06:16.:06:22.

headlines around the world today. The Tunisian newly elected assembly

:06:22.:06:25.

is holding it's inaugural session, ten months after the popular

:06:25.:06:27.

uprising forced the former president Zein al-Abedine Ben Ali

:06:27.:06:30.

into exile. The assembly is tasked with shaping a constitution and a

:06:30.:06:33.

democratic future for the country country that sparked the Arab

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Spring uprisings.The assembly has a year to write the constitution

:06:35.:06:38.

before new elections are held Syria's UN envoy has labelled a UN

:06:38.:06:48.

draft resolution as a declaration of war. The report, which condemns

:06:48.:06:50.

the Syrian government's conduct against protesters, was created by

:06:50.:06:53.

Germany, Britain and France and submitted to the UN General

:06:53.:07:01.

Assembly's human rights committee. And in Libya new pictures have

:07:01.:07:04.

emerged of Saif al-Islam Gaddafi in the first hours after his capture

:07:04.:07:10.

on Saturday. It comes as the International Criminal Court's

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chief prosecutor has said the son of Libya's former Libya doesn't

:07:13.:07:19.

necessarily have to be tried at the ICC in The Hague. Luis Moreno-

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Ocampo says that Saif Gaddafi could be tried in Libya if the country's

:07:22.:07:32.

Justice system was up to it. He was captured on Saturday. And is wanted

:07:32.:07:34.

by the ICC for crimes against humnanity, allegedly committed

:07:34.:07:43.

during this year's uprsising. And staying in Libya, the annual Rory

:07:43.:07:46.

Peck Awards pay tribute to the freelance camera operators who risk

:07:46.:07:48.

their lives to bring us pictures from the world's most dangerous

:07:48.:07:52.

places. This year's News Award went to a Libyan, Ahmad Bahaddhou. He

:07:52.:07:55.

was one of the first journalists to join rebels fighting to topple

:07:55.:07:58.

Muammar Gaddafi in the west of the country. Caroline Hawley has his

:07:58.:08:06.

story. Fighting for the strategic village

:08:06.:08:09.

earlier this year. It's the gateway to the Tunisian border and the

:08:09.:08:19.
:08:19.:08:26.

The battle is fierce and he is the only journalist to witness this.

:08:26.:08:32.

What the rebels lack in training, they make up for in determination.

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They were dentists, guys who studied in America, in Canada, in

:08:36.:08:42.

the UK. In Italy. And they were quite determined to get rid of the

:08:43.:08:47.

Gaddafi regime and you could see it. Not knowing anything about weaponry.

:08:47.:08:53.

But just going and learning on the field, on the battlefield. I

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realise that the people I was with were not professional armies. They

:08:58.:09:02.

did not realise how close things were flying above our heads,

:09:02.:09:08.

rockets. But you don't realise that at the moment because what

:09:08.:09:11.

interests you as the cameraman, you want to get the shots, the

:09:11.:09:21.
:09:21.:09:27.

The rebels took the village. As they move into it, shell-shocked

:09:27.:09:33.

residents of venture out of their homes. The villagers were terrified

:09:33.:09:37.

because loyalists were using their houses and threatening them, to let

:09:37.:09:40.

them use their houses, and they were taking everything they had

:09:40.:09:45.

from them. These people were already poor. The rebels inflicted

:09:45.:09:50.

several casualties and captured a loyalist. And they celebrate, or

:09:50.:09:56.

one victory in a long and difficult road to success. Bravely chronicled

:09:56.:10:00.

by this journalist and other Libyans. Sometimes it Russian

:10:00.:10:05.

roulette. When your time has come, it's your time. It doesn't have to

:10:05.:10:14.

stop you doing your job the best way.

:10:14.:10:17.

The Turkish President Abdullah Gul is on a state visit to Britain, the

:10:17.:10:22.

first one by a Turkish President in 23 years. Today Abdullah Gul is

:10:22.:10:28.

being welcomed by Queen Elizabeth II. Mr Gul has said that Syria has

:10:29.:10:33.

reached a dead end and change is inevitable. In Turkey itself, the

:10:33.:10:36.

prime minister Recep Tayep Erdogan, has reiterated his call for

:10:36.:10:39.

President Bashaar Al Asaad to step down. Mustafa Akyol is a political

:10:39.:10:42.

commentator and author based in Istanbul and he joins me here in

:10:42.:10:52.
:10:52.:10:53.

the studio. You have written a book about Islam without extremes.

:10:53.:10:57.

Looking at the experience of Turkey in particular. Looking at his

:10:57.:11:02.

official state visit, all the work has been given to the President

:11:02.:11:08.

Abdullah Gul. It shows how serious Turkey is being taken on the world

:11:08.:11:13.

stage now. Yes, it is now become important in the Middle East. More

:11:13.:11:18.

influential. Especially the political parties which emerged

:11:18.:11:23.

from the Arabs bring say they take Turkey as an example. And I think

:11:23.:11:27.

Turkey's example with Islam and democracy which I tried to use in

:11:27.:11:34.

my book, means something for people in the Middle East. We talk about

:11:34.:11:37.

Turkey in a second on a global stage but looking at Islam and

:11:37.:11:42.

democracy, critics increasingly say the ruling party there is a bit

:11:42.:11:49.

authoritarian particularly with two very prominent journalists on trial

:11:49.:11:54.

there on spurious claims and so on, so democratic freedoms, slightly

:11:54.:11:59.

shrinking, people would say. It's a controversial issue. During this

:11:59.:12:06.

party, not of reforms have taken place. Recently, yes, I think their

:12:06.:12:09.

attitude towards the media is not very positive. They don't like

:12:09.:12:13.

criticism. At the same time, some of the opposition against the

:12:13.:12:21.

ruling party is a terrorist group, and terrorist propaganda, the

:12:21.:12:28.

Kurdish militants. On the global stage, a key NATO player, on the

:12:28.:12:31.

border with Syria, very important country at the moment. To what

:12:31.:12:37.

extent to Turkey's foreign policy objectives dovetail with the West?

:12:37.:12:43.

To a great extent because it's aborts democracy in the Middle East.

:12:43.:12:49.

-- it supports. Also Turkey realises some neighbours are

:12:49.:12:54.

dictators and the Turkish government made a decision to award

:12:54.:13:00.

not supporting dictators but people. I think the Turkish policy changes

:13:00.:13:04.

show that turkey supports the Arab spring and I think, in that sense,

:13:04.:13:12.

Turkey is in line with the West. in to talk to us. Graphic accounts

:13:12.:13:15.

of the brutality of the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia are being heard

:13:15.:13:18.

at the opening of the trial of three of its most senior surviving

:13:18.:13:23.

leaders. In opening statements at one of the world's most high

:13:23.:13:25.

profile genocide trials, prosecutors are trying to etablish

:13:25.:13:28.

that senior members of the Khmer rouge regime were accountable for

:13:28.:13:34.

the crimes that were committed. These crimes were the result of

:13:34.:13:40.

organised plans, developed by the accused and other CPK leaders. And

:13:40.:13:44.

systematically implemented through the regional, military and

:13:44.:13:52.

government bodies they controlled. One of the accused, Nuon Chea, was

:13:52.:13:55.

shown dramatic footage taken from a 2009 documentary Enemies of the

:13:55.:13:57.

People, in which he appeared and defended the regime's bloody purges,

:13:57.:14:07.
:14:07.:14:21.

Whilst watching the footage he remained emotionless. All the

:14:21.:14:24.

defendants are accused of being responsible for the deaths of an

:14:24.:14:28.

estimated 1.7 million people in the 1970s.

:14:28.:14:34.

Still to come on GMT: Power to the people. Why India's thirst for

:14:34.:14:44.
:14:44.:14:46.

energy is causing tension in Tamil First though let's get all the

:14:46.:14:52.

business news. Aaron Heslehurst is here.

:14:52.:15:02.
:15:02.:15:07.

Something that must interested In the UK the rich are doing one

:15:07.:15:13.

thing, they are getting richer. This is for findings of a year-long

:15:13.:15:19.

enquiry. It was very critical of the increases for top executives.

:15:19.:15:24.

It highlights this widening between the top 0.1% of the population and

:15:24.:15:30.

the rest of us. It is wider. On average over the UK over the past

:15:31.:15:37.

30 years, executive pay has risen by 4,000 %. They get paid 145 times

:15:38.:15:44.

more than the average worker. The average worker gets �26,000 a year,

:15:44.:15:49.

top executives �27 million. If it continues, some so we could be

:15:49.:15:57.

thrown back into time. If we don't check this huge bonanza in pay,

:15:57.:16:01.

within five to 10 years we will be back at a Victorian levels of

:16:01.:16:06.

inequality. If that is what we want as a society, there enough but I

:16:06.:16:11.

would suggest most people don't want to end up there. I would

:16:11.:16:15.

imagine most of us wouldn't want to go back to the Victorian inequality.

:16:15.:16:20.

So more pressure on the Government. Let's look at Spain, their new

:16:21.:16:27.

leader was only elected on Sunday, and the honeymoon is over? Spain

:16:27.:16:32.

went back to the money markets to borrow 3 billion euros, short-term

:16:32.:16:36.

debts. Investors were willing to give them the money, but those

:16:36.:16:41.

investors demand of the country paid by 0.1% interest. Double what

:16:41.:16:45.

Spain paid for exactly the same option only a month ago. The new

:16:45.:16:50.

Prime Minister said yesterday, give me more than 30 minutes to get the

:16:50.:16:55.

things fixed. I don't think the markets are listening but experts

:16:55.:16:59.

believe three top priorities are needed. First one is the fact

:16:59.:17:06.

regional spending is quite a large proportion of the country's deficit.

:17:06.:17:11.

There have been some noises about setting limits to that. The second

:17:11.:17:16.

one is tackling and finding out what the size of the hole in the

:17:16.:17:20.

financial sector is. The financial sector is very exposed to real-

:17:20.:17:24.

estate, like Ireland suffered a massive bubble which collapsed. And

:17:24.:17:28.

third, the massive structural reforms that need to be put in

:17:28.:17:33.

place, especially in the labour market. Spain has 21% unemployment,

:17:33.:17:39.

at 5 million people out of work. That has to be a key focus.

:17:39.:17:44.

Your blood is still boiling on executive pay!

:17:44.:17:48.

Buchan keep up-to-date on the situation in Egypt and all other

:17:48.:17:58.
:17:58.:17:59.

major events on the BBC news website.

:17:59.:18:05.

This is GMT. The headlines: Escalating protests

:18:05.:18:08.

in Egypt are increasing pressure on the ruling military council to step

:18:08.:18:14.

down earlier than planned. As Damon from the council's leader is

:18:14.:18:18.

expected on state TV today. The International Criminal Court

:18:18.:18:21.

says Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi could stand trial for war crimes inside

:18:21.:18:28.

Libya. As most of us know, India is

:18:28.:18:32.

growing rapidly. To keep development on track in needs power

:18:32.:18:36.

and plenty of it. Over the coming years the Government in India wants

:18:36.:18:40.

to bring energy production hubs in pockets of South India. In recent

:18:40.:18:45.

months, plans for a nuclear power plants have prompted protests and

:18:45.:18:55.
:18:55.:18:56.

hunger strikes. Protesting against India's

:18:56.:19:01.

development drive. These people are fighting a production of

:19:01.:19:05.

electricity in their patch. They know there is a great and growing

:19:05.:19:10.

need, but they do not want the place they call home to be used to

:19:10.:19:18.

power India's future. We need to retake -- retain our land, water,

:19:18.:19:25.

sea and seafood. This is more and Porton than electricity. These

:19:25.:19:29.

villagers have gathered to protest against a nuclear power plant that

:19:29.:19:34.

is said to come online not far from here in the coming months. Plans

:19:34.:19:38.

for nuclear power to come to this area of Tamil Nadu in south India

:19:38.:19:43.

have been going for some years. But now the people say they are taking

:19:43.:19:47.

a final stand and they will fight to the end for their future and

:19:47.:19:56.

livelihoods. Florence Anthony fears the worst. A local fisherman, he

:19:56.:20:02.

depends on these waters. But he says a nuclear power plant here in

:20:02.:20:07.

the coastal area of Kudankulam will raise the sea temperature, damaging

:20:07.:20:14.

fish stock and local trade. TRANSLATION: It this reactor starts

:20:14.:20:18.

we cannot do our jobs and we will be forced to leave our homes and

:20:18.:20:23.

land. We cannot do that, we will end up becoming refugees in Another

:20:23.:20:28.

Place. It is a stark reminder of India's

:20:28.:20:34.

first for power. The Government insists once operational, the

:20:34.:20:41.

Kudankulam nuclear power plant will help to solve energy problems.

:20:41.:20:45.

Local companies suffer from regular electricity source to judge and

:20:45.:20:50.

power cuts. The chance to keep the lights on for longer is being

:20:50.:20:59.

welcomed by local industry. TRANSLATION: Across the state, we

:20:59.:21:05.

have to stop production for four hours a day. If this can be solved

:21:05.:21:08.

with a nuclear power plant, productivity will improve on so

:21:09.:21:13.

well Government earnings. For now, children in Kudankulam

:21:13.:21:18.

enjoy village life. But the landscape around them is changing.

:21:18.:21:23.

Many coastal areas like this one had been earmarked for major energy

:21:23.:21:27.

projects. But, the challenge the Government faces is convincing

:21:27.:21:32.

local people of the benefits of playing a part in India's growth

:21:32.:21:41.

story. The increase in demands of India's

:21:41.:21:45.

growing economy. Race and politics often make for an

:21:45.:21:51.

explosive mix. Two years ago, the London based African-American

:21:51.:21:55.

writer, Bonnie Greer made a television appearance against the

:21:55.:21:59.

leader of an anti- immigration party, Nick Griffin of the BNP. She

:21:59.:22:03.

described it as probably the weirdest and most creepy experience

:22:03.:22:09.

of her life. Now she has written an opera about her experience on that

:22:09.:22:13.

episode of the programme, Question Time.

:22:13.:22:16.

Welcome to Question Time doctor macro Question Time is one of the

:22:16.:22:20.

best-known political debate shows on the BBC with the lively audience

:22:20.:22:25.

to put questions to a panel of public figures. Bonnie Greer says

:22:25.:22:30.

taking part in that changed her life. She received a lot of

:22:30.:22:33.

criticism for agreeing to sit next to Nick Griffin, who had predicted

:22:33.:22:37.

his appearance would provide his party with a big platform and

:22:37.:22:43.

propel them into the big-time. Instead, he seemed to squirm as

:22:43.:22:46.

audience members called him a disgrace and he was forced to

:22:46.:22:51.

explain why he had previously sought to play down the Holocaust.

:22:51.:22:57.

We listened Churchill put everything on the line so that my

:22:57.:23:00.

ancestors wouldn't guess slaughtered in concentration camps.

:23:00.:23:04.

But here sits among that says it is a myth, just like a flat world was

:23:04.:23:10.

a myth. How can you say that? cannot explain why I used to say

:23:10.:23:15.

those things. Bonnie Greer has said she had to keep her back turned to

:23:15.:23:21.

him to avoid slapping him. The programme which attracted more than

:23:21.:23:26.

half of the British viewing public, caused huge protests outside BBC

:23:26.:23:32.

Television Centre. And no review, and Bonnie Greer is

:23:32.:23:37.

in the studio. Hello. This opera, you have called it yes, because

:23:38.:23:47.

that is when you said when it production people called you. Why

:23:47.:23:52.

did you write an opera? It is not about the programme itself, so we

:23:52.:23:58.

won't see a bunch of singing Nick Griffin or David Dimbleby. It is

:23:58.:24:02.

about the young man in the audience he said to Nick Griffin, what about

:24:02.:24:06.

my ancestors who had to escape the concentration camps? It is about

:24:07.:24:12.

people and feelings. It is an experimental opera, there isn't a

:24:12.:24:20.

plot or a long narrative. I wanted to do an opera because what I got

:24:20.:24:25.

was a change of life. Snippets of feelings, reactions. People walked

:24:25.:24:29.

up to me and said, I will be looking at you, please be good.

:24:29.:24:37.

Don't cry when he talks to use. don't want to Labour it, but

:24:37.:24:41.

Question Time, it is about the voice of the people. Ordinary

:24:41.:24:46.

people putting their points to political figures. People would say

:24:46.:24:54.

opera? Covent Garden? It is done by Experian -- et experimental wing.

:24:54.:24:59.

It gives people like me, one hour on the stage and say, make

:24:59.:25:04.

something new, do something new with the form. Covent Garden allows

:25:04.:25:09.

that? The opera talks about feelings. He won't get a whole

:25:09.:25:15.

narrative, you'll get people who can say things, I don't like what

:25:15.:25:20.

he just said. Or I agree with what he said. Looking at images from

:25:20.:25:24.

those programmes, you were sitting next to him, even though you had

:25:24.:25:30.

your back to him. I have not seen that programme, this is the first

:25:30.:25:36.

time. You write, you are commentator, you are an anti-racist

:25:36.:25:40.

campaigner in many ways. People say you dignified the arguments of the

:25:40.:25:45.

anti- immigration of the BNP by simply sitting next to him? It is

:25:45.:25:49.

important in a democracy, and we say this in the opera, people have

:25:49.:25:55.

freedom of speech. If they speak in peace, they must have that freedom.

:25:55.:26:00.

It gives people like me, and what the opera does, is take a

:26:00.:26:03.

misinformation, expose it and give it the opportunity of truth of

:26:04.:26:08.

correction. One of the problems all over the world is there are

:26:08.:26:12.

prominent people who are using their feelings and putting and

:26:12.:26:16.

misinformation about the fact this is an island of immigrants.

:26:16.:26:20.

Everything and everybody is descended from an income up, an

:26:20.:26:26.

invader or an immigrant. In 20 seconds, what is the music like?

:26:26.:26:34.

is a range of reggae, gospel and beautiful Mozart. It is a hybrid to

:26:34.:26:40.

reflect the rich background of people here? It is. Thanks for

:26:40.:26:44.

coming to talk to us. Before we go, let's remind you of

:26:44.:26:49.

International news and intelligent analysis going live to the heart of the day's top global story.

Featuring exclusive reports from BBC World News correspondents based around the world, plus up-to-the-minute global business news.

Zeinab Badawi presents.


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