Phil Connell investigates whether a military badge found in France could help trace a fallen soldier's family, and Paul Hudson looks at how farmers in the Dales spend the winter.
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Hello, this week we are in search of the family of an unknown soldier
who fell in the battlefields of France.
Plus, I've been spending the winter with a couple of Dales farmers.
Welcome to Inside Out, I'm Paul Hudson.
This week, we are trying to identify a soldier who lost his life
Will experts be able to find his family more than 100 years on?
Also tonight, I meet two sheep farmers trying to contend
with winter weather and the cold wind that Brexit might bring.
They are going to lose the environmental benefits that have
been created over the last 40 years through subsidies,
and they are going to lose the cheap food policy,
because people will go out of business.
the Royal Shakespeare Company moves to Hull.
Almost a million British families lost loved ones on the battlefields
For some, what was even worse was that they never
knew what happened, just that their father, son
But for one in Yorkshire family, their wait may be coming to an end.
Fred Holmes is about to give a sample of his DNA,
a test that could explain what happened to his great-uncle,
John, a soldier killed in 1916 and one of the many whose bodies
I still feel very emotional about it.
Because, you know, it was a very big thing, you know,
all these people climbing over the trenches and going off
To think, you know, a member of my family had succumbed
in that particular battle, it was very, very
And what would it mean to the family to find him?
I know in my heart, if I wanted to go and be close to him,
I could go to Thiepval and I could see his name on the, um,
But, um, it would be nice to see a gravestone in a war cemetery.
For similar reasons, Francis Storry is taking the same test.
Along with his wife, Susan, he wants to know about a relative
called Henry Parker, another great-uncle who never
When they were in the trenches and this and that, you know,
"Come on, out, lads, come on, get 'em."
And all the bullets and that were coming over, it must
Been thinking about it the other night, you know,
I know what I think of it now, it's absolutely good
Francis and Fred's great-uncles both served with the Yorkshire Regiment,
who recruited soldiers from Yorkshire and the North East.
In 1916, though, they were to lose their lives in one of the most
I think if you ask anybody to name a battle from the First World War,
they would all say the Battle of the Somme.
The bloodiest battle in the history of the British Army.
And here we have medals awarded to some of the men who fought
there and in previous campaigns, all here in our medal room
at the Green Howards Museum in Richmond, standing as testament
And four particular medals here, awarded during the Somme campaign,
four Victoria Crosses for individual acts of bravery.
So, what would conditions have been like for these men?
Pretty much as you imagine, you've seen it so many times.
They're living in trenches, if food comes up and can get up,
that's great, water is short, you are being sniped and shelled,
and you know you've got to go over the top at some point in the future.
Many of those who died are remembered here
in the war cemeteries of northern France.
But for 500,000 soldiers, including John and Henry,
there is no recognised grave, as their bodies were never found.
For one family, though, there is a glimmer of hope.
100 years on, there is news that one long lost soldier
Well, last year, in a field in France, human remains
were discovered of a First World War soldier, and on him was a very,
very distinctive cap badge, which means that we know
which battalion of this regiment he served with.
So, how unusual is it to find human remains with a cap badge like this?
To get that starting point, that clue that helps us narrow it down,
the possibilities of who this individual might be,
So, how is it that a find in a field in France has brought
hope to these families, 100 years on?
Well, it is all down to a team of war detectives, based at this
They work for the Ministry of Defence, and bit by bit,
they are piecing together the story of this unknown soldier.
After 100 years, identifying the soldier will not be easy.
For the war detectives, though, the metal regimental badge
It is from the 5th Battalion, the Yorkshire Regiment,
the T is for territorial, because the 5th Battalion
So, how much of a head start does something like this give you?
If you did not have that insignia, you would not be able
You have to determine what the regiment is before you can
There were so many thousands of soldiers killed out there,
there would be no way you could identify them
without identifying an insignia like this.
As enquiries continue, it emerges the mystery soldier
could be related to one of 12 different families.
All of these documents say that the 5th Battalion
were tasked with an attack, setting off from the trench
where they came from, up to an attack on the enemy trench
line here, which you can see, which is the wiggly line.
I'd like to say it's very exciting, it's very exciting when you get
the information and you find information in the diaries,
and you can actually trace the movements.
It is also very harrowing, it is very emotive,
because as you take the case forward, if you can take it forward
to identification and then to burial, you become acutely aware
of what these young men had to deal with, and the enormity
And here is where the science begins.
have been brought to a government laboratory in Middlesex.
But what are the odds of the family's DNA
We are given a ratio, so, say, one in a million aspect,
and then we put that information together with all the other
information, such as the artefacts, details from the anthropology,
and that all then links together to produce, hopefully,
As a scientist, I guess you look at things in black and white,
but in a case like this, do you get emotionally involved?
You come across the aspect where you might be able to help
identify someone who has died 100 years ago, yeah, you cannot take
So, with emotions running high, an extraordinary investigation
But will any family receive the news that brings
In Yarm, there's disappointment for Fred.
In Driffield, though, there is dramatic news
The remains found are confirmed as those of his great-uncle,
Private Henry Parker, who was 23 years old.
Oh, we are going to have to give him a sendoff, aren't we?
After everything he's gone through, that's what he needs,
To find his remains, and it's come to this...
Private Henry Parker will be buried in France with full
A mystery solved through his regimental badge, the long lost
soldier at last reunited with his family.
And if you've got any comments about tonight's programme,
or if you've got a story you think we might like to cover,
you can get in touch on Facebook or on Twitter.
The Royal Shakespeare Company come marching into Hull.
Now, hill farming has never been an easy life,
and many farmers struggle to make it pay.
There is now uncertainty following Brexit about EU farming subsidies.
Well, I've been to meet two farmers from this area who are preparing
for an uncertain future, and coping with
But if you had to eke out a living from this terrain,
you might take a less romantic view of its charms.
Starting in the dark, so that we can get all the cattle
It's very pleasant when it's cold and crisp.
It's a little bit wearing when it's wet.
Tenant farmer Garry Schofield's day starts at 6am.
To add to his income as a sheep farmer, he also
The hours are long and the work is hard, but the economics
of the business have never been tougher.
The importance of efficiency has increased dramatically.
Farming, I would say, has become much more of a similar
business to what you would see in the middle of Leeds.
It is very much now dependent on the food policy that needs to be
developed by our Government for post-Brexit times.
Because if they do go down the road of cutting subsidies
to farmers across the country, which then drives farmers
to food production on mass scale to fill the gap,
then they are going to lose the environmental benefits that have
been created over the last 40 years through subsidies,
and they are going to lose the cheap food policy,
because people will go out of business if they haven't got
Some farmers get less for their livestock
And until there's a government policy on how post EU
agriculture will work, Garry is unsure whether he'll be
That's a little heifer there, which is quite small,
gets bullied out of the feed by the others.
This is a ram, he broke his leg in the summer, so he has been no use
this year for serving the sheep, so he is getting fattened
20 miles to the south in Malham, Garry's friend Neil Hesseltine
I took over from my parents, who farmed the farm prior to me,
things are very different now, things are not necessarily
about the production of food quite so much.
We would still like that to be the case.
But we are still extremely reliant on payments,
environmental payments and subsidies and these sorts of things,
so that is almost as big a part of the farming world
But, you know, I love to be a farmer and although it
doesn't look great today, this is a great place to be.
Back in Buckden and Garry's finished on the farm
and he's up on the moorside, checking on his sheep.
We came here in 1995, when the National Trust bought
the farm, so that's 20 years, isn't it?
So, how has the job changed in the time that you've done it?
There has been quite a few changes in comparatively
All to do, probably, with the environmental side
of the payments and the way that agriculture has been led
We've had the climate change over the last 20 years,
How do you cope with the extremes of weather?
If you think back, last year was stormy and wet, relentless rain.
2010, the coldest December since 1890 and, what,
It must be the extremes that are difficult to cope with.
In 2010, when that cold weather came in, early December, normally,
we would not have been feeding sheep at that time of year.
It kicked off the feeding time of the year a month early,
and we had to continue feeding the sheep.
Right the way through the winter, right the way into the spring.
So, it was a knock-on effect, it was very, very expensive.
And then last year, obviously, we had very, very little snow
and an awful lot of rain, and that was more of a mental
attitude, as in, do I have to get up and go out and feed
Six weeks, you know, of blowing terrible wet weather,
on both me and the sheep, it took its toll.
Down in the valley at Heber Farm in Buckden, Garry and his wife Gill
have had to look at ways of making the land pay.
They hope this field will be open as a campsite this year.
This was one thing that was open to us, which was reasonably simple,
and hopefully is going to be quite effective and enable us
to secure our business for the years to come.
We had a campsite here for the Tour de France,
And I think that's what inspired us and gave us the idea.
The need for an alternative was huge.
We have two children, we have one we are trying
It was an absolute necessity, because we were looking at such
a dramatic shortfall in payment, it was quite frightening.
Farmers are not alone in facing post-Brexit uncertainty.
But without the subsidies the EU provide to make
food production viable, there are genuine
Dales farming isn't just a business, it's a way of life.
The bunk barn was something that my mum and dad converted,
Some things never change, they saw that farming
was getting tough at the time, and diversifying from sort of woman
was getting tough at the time, and diversifying from sort of
you know, a cattle shed into visitor accommodation was something they did
Neil's wife Leigh is preparing the barn for the next set of guests.
It's more proof that farming alone can no longer sustain the family.
It has allowed me to stay on the farm and take a wage from it
and run this business, because there is not always a lot
It fluctuates, it is an industry that fluctuates,
and incomes can drop, so it just gives us something
else to spread the risk of our income, really.
Without money from tourists, Leigh would have to go back to work
in historic building conservation, taking her away from the farm.
It would be a case of driving to a town or city, to take
Most of my work was in local authorities, within their planning
departments, so I would have to look into that and move away
So, this allows me, I suppose, to be able to stay at home and be
involved with the business, which is a really nice thing.
And it allows Leigh to spend more time with her daughter,
who would represent a fifth generation at the family farm.
Is there pressure to keep on the family tradition of farming?
My parents never put any pressure on me to become a farmer.
It's what I felt I was interested in and it's what I wanted to do.
But there is certainly a feeling, an aspect looking back
and you're thinking, I'm actually doing what my
forefathers have done that for me, and carrying on that tradition,
But whether farming will remain economically
viable for his children, a fifth generation,
It was always slightly uncertain anyway, but the Brexit vote has
thrown all that into chaos, you know, and I'm not even sure
if the Government knows where we are going next,
But you know, we've just got to farm through those uncertainties and hope
It's a couple of months since I was up here last,
We have been very lucky with the weather.
I've come back to see what progress Garry and Gillian have
They're already up against it with budget and time,
We've been waiting for the Electric Board to come and put
We've been waiting since the middle of September and we've just found
out this morning that there is some paperwork gone amiss.
So, we have probably another six weeks to wait before they can come
So, it's just another of those things that have
By Easter, this site needs to be ready for 22 tent pitches
and there'll be three wooden camping pods.
Money has been spent, money needs to come back in,
it will be open for Easter, there's no choice.
I was very anxious to hear that the electricity was going to be
On top of running a farm full-time and Gillian working as a nurse,
they're having to ponder pricing, promotion and how to operate
Both Garry and Neil have had to look long and hard at the books.
And they've had to get better at being small businessmen
Imagination is going to be key if hill farming
Now, you should all know by now that Hull is the UK City of Culture,
and nothing is more cultured than the Royal Shakespeare Company.
And they have moved actors, technicians and some really
interesting props northwards for a brand-new production.
Anne-Marie Tasker has been taking a look.
It is a play that boasts star names...
The Hypocrite, starring Caroline Quentin and Mark Addy,
had its world premiere in Hull this weekend.
Why is there a Frenchwoman in the bedroom?
But the journey getting it from page to stage has been a long one.
And a pause there, please, for lighting.
One of the first jobs was to find the Royal Shakespeare Company
A draughty, disused church on a housing estate.
I suspect that we probably don't need all the pews. No.
Unless one of the members of the company is getting
And by January, the pews have been replaced by cast and crew,
including the leading lady, Caroline Quentin.
For people that don't know, it is all about the beginning
of the Civil War, which happened in Hull, the Beverley Gate is the
The play is frantic, funny, and there is a lot of us in it.
For those of us that come from a time when it was too
expensive to have a lot of people on stage, who were normally involved
with five-handers and things, it is really exciting to be able
And this play is Hull through and through.
Written by a playwright from Hull, it is being rehearsed and premiered
here and is based on a key moment in Hull's past.
So, this is a very historic spot for Hull, isn't it?
So, in 1642, Hull was a walled town, a very secure fortress town.
And Sir John Hotham stood on the Beverley Gate low wall
and spoke directly to the King and refused him entry.
At that moment, he became treacherous and a traitor
The writer, Richard Bean, started researching his lead
You would think that would be enough for anybody, wouldn't you?
But rather than a historical drama, he has turned the events or 1642
into a comedy. Villa I thought I would be doing all the politics.
Villa but what you hear, it is like reading a Feydeau farce, a French
farce. That final thing of the town is chaste, I'm not going to say
Benny Hill, but... I wasn't going to say that! But you were thinking it
Richard Bean had found his central character, and he's been plagued
with another Yorkshireman, TV and film star Mark Addy. -- being
played. I've spent the last two days running around inside a cardboard
box, which represents a commode, for reasons that are too complicated to
go into. But yes, farce is ultimately a physical form. I am
tricked, I'm done! I do sometimes think, am I too old for this? But we
are getting there and it will be... I think it is one of those, it is a
gift of a show. While the actors rehearse, work has started on the
week-long project of building the set. The largest Hull Truck Theatre
has ever made. To accommodate the biggest professional cast the
theatre has ever had, they are building more dressing rooms, even
converting offices. Before we have really struggled, but it was our
meeting rooms, changing rooms, like Windows, changing it purely into
dressing rooms. But now, people have been here all the time. It is now
two days until opening night, and everyone is heading through to the
stage for a technical rehearsal. It is the last chance for everyone to
practise and practice the trickiest bits of the play until they are
perfect. War is inevitable now. On your conscience! They are working 12
hour days, going over every detail with a fine toothed comb. And as
with any farce, the physical jokes and timing have to be perfect. A new
play is always difficult, it is the best kind of theatre to do but
you're dealing with a developing script and it has never been done,
there is no production history. On top of that, you have songs, there
are physical comic routines, of which require some death-defying
bravery from the actors. With Hull being the City of Culture, to be
involved in the big opening show, for that year, it is terrific. She
swallowed a key, I was sucking it out!
Richard Bean is probably our best comedy writer at the moment.
Especially in terms of farce. He can write a farce like nobody else.
The more careful next time, you stupid Mayor! I read four of five
pages in bed and I said, I have got to do this play. I could not bear
the thought of somebody else laying Lady Sarah before I did. I am really
glad I am doing it first. -- playing. The play is filled with
tricks and illusions. From a sword through the neck, to mark Addy being
beheaded on stage. The man in charge of pulling it off work on the Harry
Potter play in the West End of London and says this show is proving
just as tough. You have people watching from three different sites,
so sometimes you can do things with magic and you do not want people to
be able to see from the sides, but with this, you have to think about
those things because people are up close. A lot closer than in a
conventional theatre. At one point there is a sword that gets put
through the ghost's neck. And this is a big solid thing. Yes, that was
the challenge. It is a solid sword through a neck but we are doing it.
Tell us how. I can't, it's magic! It has finally arrived, opening weekend
for the fastest selling show in Hull Truck Theatre's history. There does
come a point where there is a character missing from the play, and
that is the audience. Liver-mac it is very nerve wracking, I think it
kind of gets worse the older you get. You do not know the lines as
well. So it is nerve wracking. It is nerve wracking. But I am really
looking forward to the people of Hull seeing this play. At the play
about Hull getting its world premiere in Hull, went down a storm.
I'm getting a sense of the audience that they cannot load the story,
this is our story, and I am slightly ashamed that I kind it into a sex
farce! I am more interested in them following the story, but I love it.
Big stars, except, a big cast and a big response from the audience. It
went way better than I expected. The best thing I have ever seen. Coming
together to create the biggest theatrical moment in Hull's year as
City of Culture. That's all from us here at the top
of this very bleak hill! Make sure you join us next week.
We will find out what research in Bradford could do to help asthma and
how we could help other countries prevent air pollution.
Presented by Paul Hudson.
Phil Connell investigates whether a military badge found in a French field could help trace a fallen soldier's family, and Paul Hudson looks at how farmers in the Dales spend the winter months.