26/02/2012 Countryfile


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putting forward very pragmatic proposals for about separating the


investment and the detailed activities in balance, financial


transactions, but what Boris Johnson says he is, I'm sorry to


use a French word, but it is at cliche. This could all lead to one


interesting an actual contest this year. Onto the weather and Sara


Thornton is here. A great day today Towards the countryside but could


see grass frost as temperatures under the clear skies start to fall


into single figures so a chilly start for some of us and also


patchy drizzle to come through first thing and you can see for the


majority, clear skies for some time, cloud makes its way end tomorrow


morning from the West but temperatures as low as four degrees


and some drizzle making its way towards the West. Skirting towards


the south and the majority will not see this and in the afternoon,


bright spells coming through. Temperatures in the mid-teens, 14


degrees, and through the next few days, we will continue with this


mild feel, temperatures above where they should be, Tuesday seeing the


peak and brighter spells sometimes. No problems with Frost, and it is a


taste of spring. That's all from us for now. We're back at 10.15pm.


Until then, enjoy the rest of your It has been a cracking day in the


sunshine, Aberdeenshire had 15 degrees but in Glasgow, just seven


degrees. And the cloud will spread across the north-west and that


moves south east tonight, taking rain with it. On the once it


reaches the drought parts of south- east England, later in and out,


barely enough to dampen the ground. Ahead of that, clear weather in


southern England, allowing for some ground frost in places but the


temperature is recover. Elsewhere, it is a man start to Monday but


cloudy with more rain for Northern Ireland, heavier in western


Scotland and that spreads southwards tomorrow. Tomorrow


afternoon, 3pm, across northern England and into the Midlands, more


rain and this will be a brighter slot perking things up across East


Anglia and the south-east and the temperatures were left. In the far


south-west and across much of Wales, Wicky plenty of cloud. Damn,


drizzly in places with drier slots. Another band of rain moving across


Wales for the evening. As that clears from Northern Ireland it


leaves behind a lot of cloud, for the damp weather and rain in


western Scotland. In north-east Scotland, it warms up again and


there will be a gusty, blustery wind. Very bad on Monday night and


on Tuesday, cloud in the West, but brighter weather further east.


Apology for the loss of subtitles for 77 seconds


Cornwall. The dramatic coastline in the North...


Sheltered bays in the south. In between, beautiful countryside.


This county has it all. But there is a side to Cornwall you


really do get to see. I am going to be getting access to


a new tunnel that could bring the industry back to life.


It years ago, a naval frigate was sucked down there to create an


artificial reef, and since then has been home to 250 marine species.


There is a problem - this. I will be going under the waves to


find out what is happening to the Whilst I am exploring beneath the


waves, John is looking into what could be looking in our favourite


meat. We all know about the dangers of


food poisoning from undercooked meat up. Our fondness for chicken


has led to increased concerns about the risk. Is anything being done to


make the food we eat the saver. They really are the crudest of


animals, but she'd like this are at risk because of the viruses that


have spread across Europe and have Cornwall, the longest coastline of


any county in the UK. The under my feet, why is a rich,


natural resource, networks of tunnels belonging to 2,000 disused


mines Riddle the rock beneath Cornwall. For centuries, men have


children as young as 12 worked in the darkness. As deep as 3,000 ft


underground, they were chipping away at precious minerals, as well


as keeping their families fed. They were supplying the world with


2:00am. Until, in the late 1,800, tin deposits were discovered around


the globe. The price plummeted, and they could


not compete. Today, the remnants star the Cornish landscape. 100


years after the Cornish mines closed, one is hanging on.


This became the last 109 in Europe. It survived until 1998. Alan


Reynolds worked there. Allen, while the mines were closing


across Cornwall, headed his stay open? -- how did this stay open?


The guys that were working here, it was their job, their life. We took


pay cuts, that kept them going. Is there any left under ground?


There is, there is an incredible tonnage left on the ground. When it


closed, there were 200 -- to 0.5 million tonnes still sitting there.


There is probably as much left to 950 million cubic feet of metal was


removed from the site. The labyrinth of tunnels created was


enormous. Below a surface area of two square miles was a network of


tunnels 400 miles long. That is the distance from here until yorked.


Each of these coloured shades is a tunnel where the miners worked.


Alan Buckley moved to Cornwall and became a miner, but even in his


retirement he cannot shake it off. OK. I'm all set. Try your light.


Yep, it's working. Good, good. Super job. Right, so


Matt Baker from Countryfile is leaving the surface and going


underground. Round here. Yep. Oh, OK. Here we


are. Thank you very much indeed. We're going down here, then? Mm-hm.


That's a weird feeling! Straight down there, it just drops away. How


There's not much of a view. Just That is a strange feeling. Alan!


They're tiny passageways, aren't they? Yeah. They are a bit narrow.


I thought they'd be much bigger And thinking back to the early


miners with a little candle, hacking away at this rock. 'We


eventually reach a stope, 'a vast cave created as the miners removed


the ore.' When was this all taken out?


The very top of the mine, over there, was taken out as early as


the 1660s, in the records. about 50 feet above us, through


there, it was being stoped out in the early 18th century, almost 300


years ago. The fascinating thing about this is not just the


continuity in time but the families. The same families worked in these


stopes over generations. Was it really hard work?


The deeper you go, the hotter it gets, so it's obviously very, very


hot down there in places. The oxygen is low so the humidity is


high and, of course, you're working physically. I don't think there's a


harder job in the world than mining. How did it feel when you knew it


was going to come to an end? Oh, gutted. I think everybody did,


the whole community did, not just the miners. Everybody was really


gutted. We organised a march led by the town bands and it was good, but


it was also very emotional. There were old ladies in the doorways,


crying. Their families had worked there for generations and they just


couldn't believe it that, you know, it had actually come to an end.


'But today, tin prices are five times higher 'than when South


Crofty closed. 'There's a chance the mine might not be condemned to


darkness forever.' The prospectors are back and I'm on my way to meet


them, half a mile down this tunnel. 'But first, John is suited up in


Lincolnshire, 'investigating a growing concern for anyone who


likes chicken.' In the UK, we have an enormous appetite for chicken.


Around 850 million birds like these are served up every year, and with


this massive consumer demand, food safety is the top priority. Poultry


is the world's fastest-growing meat sector.


Global consumption has nearly quadrupled since the 1960s, but


with an expanding industry comes a serious problem.


All chickens, whether they're reared in sheds like this one or in


outdoor systems, are prone to picking up campylobacter, a type of


bacteria that can then travel from the farm to the kitchen. 'The


result can make you seriously ill 'and that's what happened to Paul


Radcliffe 'after a night out.' How did you get it?


Myself and a number of friends were dining at a restaurant and we all


ate the same thing and a couple of days after, we started to feel


unwell. And what were the symptoms?


I started to get a fever, high temperature, and then, that evening,


I got stomach cramps, which felt pretty severe at the time and then


it was acute diarrhoea for about two weeks after that.


Could you actually pin it down to what had caused it?


Everyone who had it had had the chicken liver pate, so it looks


likely to be that. When it comes to fears over food


poisoning, we're probably more familiar with salmonella, but cases


of that are falling every year. Meanwhile, campylobacter incidents


are on the increase. Hundreds of thousands of us go down with it


every year in the UK and most cases are like Paul's - very nasty at the


time, but over in a week or so. But in some rare, extreme cases,


campylobacter can be deadly. 'About 80 people die every year, 'so I've


come to the University of Liverpool's veterinary school,


'where Professor Tom Humphrey is Is there more campylobacter around


than ever before? There is, John. Last year was a


record year. There were 75,000 reported cases, which means


probably about 700,000 cases in the UK in total.


And what's causing it? Why is there so much of it?


There are a number of ways we can catch it, from unpasteurised milk,


for example, drinking or bathing in contaminated water, contact with


pets that have got diarrhoea, but the biggest vehicle across the EU,


according to surveys, is chicken. Does it affect chickens as well?


It doesn't. That is what makes it so much more difficult to control,


because it's in the chicken gut as well but it does the animal no harm.


You find it in pigs, you find it in sheep, you find it in cows...


And they're all OK? 'When the Food Standards Agency


tested samples of chicken 'on sale in the shops, they found that two-


thirds were contaminated. It's not clear if levels of bacteria are


increasing. We do know we're eating more chicken 'and the odds of


getting campylobacter are up. It starts off on the farm, and that's


a big challenge for chicken producers like Graham Porter. Bio-


security is their best defence. This is all pretty familiar to me


on farms, you know, this disinfectant, the protective


clothing and wellies, but how does it especially help in the fight


against campylobacter? Campylobacter's everywhere. It's


ubiquitous. And most diseases, John, are brought in on your feet. We


wear these overclothes so we don't bring things in on our clothes and


we also put our hoods on... Put these on as well?


..to keep it out of our hair! Shall we go in? Yes. This is quite


a sight, isn't it? How many chickens altogether are on this


farm? There's about 250,000.


So you must be concerned about the rising levels of campylobacter,


then? Yes, John. We're doing all we can,


and all we can is basically not introducing the bacterium into the


house. The chicks arrive clean, we use clean feed and we make sure we


have clean water. Because you're dealing with an invisible foe,


aren't you? Absolutely, which is always


terrifying. Things you can't see are more worrying than things you


can. Despite all the precautions,


campylobacter still gets into the sheds and into the chickens. It's


estimated 70% of indoor flocks carry the bacteria. By the time


they reach the processing plants, campylobacter could be anywhere.


1.6 million birds go through this factory alone every week.


What are the problems that campylobacter poses in a chicken-


processing plant like this one? Campylobacter is in the gut of the


bird, so it's when we're eviscerating the bird that there's


a risk area. Taking the insides out?


Yes, but also potentially on the feathers. We have systems in place


for any processing plant designed to reduce and deal with any hazards


there might be. Campylobacter is one of those areas, one of those


risks that we're not succeeding at The war against campylobacter is


being fought all the way to the kitchen. If the bacteria manages to


get through the farm and through the meat-processing plant, the


final defence is with whoever's doing the cooking. At home, the


responsibility lies with us. When we eat out, we rely on others to


cook our food safely. Proper cooking kills campylobacter, but


the Food Standards Agency is worried that the message isn't


being taken seriously enough, 'especially in some parts of the


In recent years, there's been a huge increase 'in the number of


outbreaks and the majority of those' can be traced back to


undercooked chicken liver pate. I'm sure this has been prepared


properly. This is perfectly safe. Yes, yes. Unfortunately, there


tends to be a trend with chefs to flash-fry the chicken livers so


that the inside is undercooked, they seem to like the nice, softer


texture, but the problem is the undercooking. You're not going to


kill off the campylobacter bacteria. How much of a priority is


campylobacter to the agency? Campylobacter is one of the top


priorities for the Food Standards It's now pretty clear that the


danger of being affected by campylobacter goes hand-in-hand


with eating meat. And the boom in demand for chicken has certainly


added to the problem. So what can be done to try to stop the risk?


That's what I will be asking later All across the UK farmers are


attending to their lambs but some of the new arrivals have been


affected by abide as which can have a devastating impact. There are


images in this film you may find distressing. We have got about 750


ewes. They will lamb on the farm. It is getting to be a busy time of


year. We want them all to be in very good health as they give birth


and one of the things we do is vaccinate them against areas a


bacterial diseases. That in unity goes through their blood into their


colostrum, the first milk that the Lambs drink. That protection will


go through to the Lambs. Healthy sheep are productive sheep. While


this vaccination protects against most common diseases, I am


concerned that a new virus that has recently hit the UK could affect my


livestock. It has the serious symptoms in sheep, cattle and goats.


The main one is deformed lambs and caffs. I am on my way to East


Sussex which has recently had an outbreak of this bias. I want to


know what impact it is having. Thank you for letting me come to


visit you. You have a lovely flock of lambs but you have been struck


by this buyers? Yes, we have lost about 40 lambs. So many have died


or been born dead or we have had to put them down. Have you ever seen


anything like it before? Never. I find the whole thing most


distressing. I have been lambing sheep for 50 years and have never


had anything like it. Financially it will be quite devastating but


that is the wave farming goes. could just be the beginning of


something that could be quite horrendous right at the start of


the farming season. It sends a shiver down my spine. Horrible. It


is not easy having to deal with the victims of this spiders. They


suffer from the areas deformities and often have to be put down. This


contract climber knows best or only too well but some lambs she has


delivered have had that. There were triplets. One was very deformed and


born dead. This one has come a minor deformity. It has a very


strange job, it appears to be parrot mouth where its job does not


quite come together. The Jozsef should meet but they are not so


presumably suppling problems? -- the jaws should meet. Yes, suckling


problems. Best lamb has quite deformed front legs than do not


straighten up properly. I can see that. It has problems walking?


Doing fine but smaller than his sibling. When you are Lamming are


you they should be presented properly with their front feet


first. With deformities it must be really weird. A wet the first lamb


I delivered I wondered what it was and I thought I was dealing with a


breach but then I find the head. You have two very carefully deliver


these lambs from news and it is not easy. You do your absolute best and


there is nothing we can do about these lambs. There is no saving


them and it is really hard. Around 1,000 farms have been affected in


Europe come up over 60 in the UK. I am keen to find out how it has


spread and what precautions I can take. I am spreading -- heading to


North cookware and number of other cases have been discovered. I have


come to meet a veterinarian who has been dealing with the virus since


it first hit our shores in January. Where did this by his come from?


seems to have originated in northern Europe, we think it was


spread by midges and must have arrived here around


September/October. The problem comes when pregnant animals are


infected by the animals and particularly when they are affected


in the first third of the pregnancy. The virus can have devastating


effects on the Thetis at that stage. -- the foetus. Because the sheep


has a five month pregnancy and the cow has a nine-month pregnancy we


would not expect to be seeing problems for four months after we


see the problems in the sheep. farmer, of what should we be doing?


Do we have to notified the Government? Are there movement


restrictions? You are not legally obliged to notify anybody but it is


important that we know where this disease is, we get is spreading and


who is likely to see it next. Contact your local veterinarian.


There are no movement restrictions because we think it is spread by


midges, we do not think there is animal to animal restrictions so


there is no point in movement restriction. A new will not know if


these animals have the virus until lambing starts. It is a concern for


the farmer because he is used give birth in the fields. How difficult


could it be for you? I lamb them out in the field so it is difficult


because you have to have straight legs to get them to come out. I do


not know what is going to happen. I worry about it. The idea of having


to leave out you not knowing what will happen. They do not warrant


expensive caesarian operations. If I have difficult ones in the middle


of the night they will probably have to be destroyed. I really hope


his flock escape the virus. While there is a risk to sheep, cattle


and goats, what about humans? is no evidence that this will


affect humans. Because it is a new buyer is we cannot say


categorically but we do not think it will affect people. With blue


tongue we vaccinated quickly, how quickly will there be a vaccination


for this? My guess is that you are looking at a 12 month delay minimum,


maybe two years. A It is early days and it will be a while before we


know the true extent of this. I just hope that livestock farmers do


not get hit too hard and that I escaped this terrible virus with my


animals. Earlier we heard how the cases of a type of food poisoning


caused by cooking -- eating undercooked chicken are on the rise


but is there more we can do to make the food we eat safer? Worldwide,


this is the number one food born bacteria. It is the most common


cause of food poisoning in the UK. Cases are on the increase. It is


more commonplace in poultry which accounts for almost half of all the


meat we eat in the UK. There are calls for a tougher action to fight


this out deer. It poses a cost to our health and a huge cost to the


economy. That is the opinion of this food safety expert. 300 to 400


people per year fall ill with this bounteous. They take time off work,


some will need medical attention, they go into hospital, some will


have long-term medical complications. Can we put a price


on it? The problem is underestimated but we can say half


a billion to start with. The feeling is a lot of this bacterial


infection is preventable but not enough people are paying attention


to it. There is so much uncertainty about bet that it will not be a


rapid response we get but as law Hall. The poultry industry is


funding research but until an answer such as an effective vaccine


is found chicken farmers like this one say there is always so much


they can do. We are hoping some bright spark will come up with a


solution. We hope there is a solution out there, we just have to


find it. Is it possible to her magically seal a place like this so


that nothing could get in during the length of a bird's life?


idea is technically correct but one thing we would lose his welfare.


The minimum we need to see the Chequers is twice per day and the


more attention you get them the better they perform. -- CD check-


ins. What about that seemed like that for backs and Ella? That is


what we are hoping for it. Perhaps solutions can be found in the


processing plants? In the United States carcasses are washed with a


chlorine based rents to tell of ITF but that practices banned here


because of EU regulations. There are certain techniques in place


right now that we are trying. You could freeze the Cheka, that would


kill it but most people want to buy their chicken fresh. Perhaps so per


gelling the outside of the skin. Or eating ate like in milk. Washing


the bird as well. The demand for check-in seems to get bigger every


year, will it ever get easier to control this bacteria? We are


learning more about it all the time. We are doing everything we can to


make it as safe product that everyone can enjoy. Research into


bad Teale resistant check-ins is about to get under way in Scotland.


-- bacterial resistant chickens. Every link in the chain must play


its part, that includes us. What time the golden rules to staying


safe? To cook the chicken thoroughly so that the juices run


clear. Despite Tiare spreads very easily around the kitchen so good


hygiene practices in the home are essential. You need to wash your


hands thoroughly once you have handled any chicken or raw meat.


You need to wash utensils and the chopping board but one practice we


would really like to stamp out is the washing of check-in at home. --


By washing it, you're potentially spreading those germs that have


been on the chicken around the kitchen, on two surfaces and food


that may not be cooked. That is the problem. The chances are you're


going to come down with a nasty In the end, we have to remember


that bacteria like campylobacter, are all around us all the time.


Pressure is mounting to try to reduce the risks, but in the


meantime, all of us who enjoy eating chicken have to play a our


part by making sure that campylobacter it is beaten before


Beautiful cliffs and craggy calls line Cornwall's shores. I have been


deep beneath the land in a disused tin mine. At 300 ft down there I am


about to enter a new drilling chamber where the search for


precious metals has begun again. It is from these depths that a team of


miners and prospectors are exploring what is buried in the


surrounding rock. Gareth is a geologist in charge of the team.


What is it you're looking for. We're looking for 10, as well as


copper, zinc and other metals. That the is what the team behind us are


busy with? That is right. We are drilling into


the rock to find samples and Seeboard is there.


And it is a diamond drill? For yes, if I show you a drill bit,


it is circular, and impregnated in it are different diamonds.


That will cut in two the rock and we get a tube of rock down the


middle, and after each three metres we pull the rug out, empty boat


into a box and see what is in it. We have lots of different minerals


here, Garnett, and sometimes within these we will set -- see a mineral


load. So far, at the diamond drill has


cut 75,000 ft of core and will do again before the project is


finished. All of this ends up in this warehouse.


Won't see what we have here. Nice minerals. We can look at our


portable X-ray analyzer, and it will tell us what elements are in


there and how much. OK, better get out the way then, eh? Yes, if you


stand behind me. Let's have a look, see what's there.


We've got 2.5% copper, about 4% zinc and almost 1% tin. Copper,


zinc and tin are the main minerals here. Those are the main minerals


we're mining. There's lots of smaller, more precious metals and


more valuable metals that we find here as well. Things like tungsten.


Indium, which has got quite a high value. It's used in modern


technologies, flatscreens, things like that. We've even found small


traces of gold and silver. Have you?


We have. Very small amounts, but we might be able to take some of it,


yeah. All of this information then is entered into a computer system.


We'll take all the zones of mineralization In a big 3D model


and Seaborough we can call mining. 'Investing �60 million over the


next three years, 'this mine is hoping to pick up where it left


off.' It would be a huge boost to the area.


Everyone you talk to locally, you say you work at South Crofty, "Oh,


when's it opening? What's going on?" There is a sense of real


excitement. Modern technology is now driving


the price of precious metals through the roof and it could well


breathe new life into the old tin mines of Cornwall. In a moment,


Ellie will be going in search of hidden gems of her own beneath the


sea. But first, here's the Countryfile weather forecast for


Our late winter weather has had more of a lick and feel of early


spring about it, recently. Especially on Thursday. Tony Watson


took this picture in Warwickshire, and it is here on Thursday in that


sunshine the temperature got close to 19 Celsius, the warmest February


day since 1992. -- 1998. This week there will not be much sunshine,


but very mild where the sun comes out. On the flipside, where we meet


the rain, -- where we need at the rain, the drought-hit parts of


central and eastern England, hardly any on offer. This weather front,


going into Tuesday, will introduce some vet -- mild oxygen once again.


Tomorrow, another weather system brings rain to Northern Ireland and


western Scotland, brisk winds, moving south during the day.


Through the afternoon in Scotland it will West, damp in Northern


Ireland. In north-eastern Scotland, it brightens up and will become


mild, but gusty winds. Rain moving down across northern England into


the Midlands will stop ahead of that there will be brighter


conditions, perking up across East Anglia into the south-east staying


at rather grey and damp across Wales and the far south-west. The


weather system moving again on Monday night, weakening when it


reaches the areas that needed most. Temperatures around the Moray Firth


could hold up into double figures, very unusual for the time of year


on Tuesday night. We have high pressure close by, but a rent that


we are bringing up this very mild air. Not everyone will get the same


degree of warmth and sunshine, because in to the west there will


be lots of cloud, Phil fog, patchy rain and drizzle, especially in


western Scotland. Further south, there will be sunnier breaks in the


east. This is where temperatures will climb in the sunshine. 17,


possibly 18 Celsius is possible. If we get there, in Scotland on


Tuesday that will be significant. The temperature we record --


temperature records for February in Scotland is near 18 stealthiest in


Aberdeen. This year we have an extra day, it is the 29th on


Wednesday, but it will hardly be any different than Tuesday. It will


be mild on Wednesday, but we're not expecting the same giddy heights


the day before. On Thursday, more of the same, the weather fronts are


still trying to come in. Ahead of that, still cloud coming into the


West, drizzle, brighter brakes on high ground and still mild. Another


weather system running through the South possibly going into Friday.


By a lot of uncertainty about the end of the week, this next weather


system could come in late Friday into the weekend. For Friday, wet


weather for a time, and the South variable weather elsewhere. It will


be warm coming back, but for rain in the gardens, where it is most


The Cornwall has got it on. Sleepy villages, beautiful beaches and


oppressive clefs. I have been discovering its rich coastline.


Mount a Just round the coast from here, offshore at the bottom of the


sea, lies a wreck. But it's not just any old wreck, because it's


become one of our most significant marine life dive sites. I want to


experience it for myself. 'Paul Cox from the National Marine Aquarium


'is going to bring me up to speed with HMS Scylla.' So, tell me about


the back story of this wreck then. She was launched in 1968 and went


into service. She was in service for 25 years. Served in the cod


wars with Iceland, also was involved in hurricane relief in


Cayman Brac. She was then decommissioned in 1993. Must have


been a spectacular sight, the day that she was put down. The crowds


that appeared on the day were phenomenal. Thousands of people


lined the cliffs and it generated so much attention. Even now, when


you talk about it locally, people remember that day. 'A specialist


diving team is taking us out to the site, 'but I must admit I'm a


little apprehensive.' I remember when I first learned to dive years


ago, it was freezing cold and it was snowing. There were a few wreck


items to look at under the water. I came away thinking, "Why would you


ever do this?" Then I discovered marine life, went diving in the


real world and had my lightbulb moment. I've got that same sense of


trepidation today,. It's perishingly cold. It may look


beautiful, but it's bitter. We're going to look at a wreck, which has


got that slightly sinister feel to It's not long before we're floating


directly above the wreck. There we go. Rarr! I'm in. So it's obviously


very good for diving here. What about the marine life on this new


reef? When you put something like this in, life just attracts to it


and you get new colonisation. That's what we've been interested


in in the seven years since Scylla's been there. Watching that


colonisation and how it progresses and how animals out-compete each


other for space on the reef. it's not just a jolly today.


There's some bad news going on down there, isn't there? Yeah, we've had


reports that there's a net, some reports before Christmas that a net


had become attached to the reef. So we're going to have a look at that


today and see what kind of damage that's causing to the animals


living in and around the reef. what kind of net is it that's


caught down there? It's a fine monofilament. I've got a bit of it


down here that some divers removed previously. Oh, right. You can see


it's really tangly. I mean, if you can imagine it. Put it on here and


it just kind of snags. Catches on everything. Actually I can't get


that off. Oh, my word. There we go. What marine life have you seen


caught up in this? We've seen several fish, some crabs, lots of


crabs just kind of caught onto it with their claws. Also a cormorant.


There was a cormorant that had obviously been diving for food and


had got itself entangled in it. It's important that it gets taken


off? Yeah, as soon as possible. Also the diving season's coming up.


We don't want any divers getting entangled, so we need to get it of.


So, work to be done. Yeah. Paul and his team have counted almost 300


different species on the wreck. I First of all, Paul's taking me to


one of the only parts of the reef that isn't engulfed in netting. And


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