In a livestock special, Adam looks back through the archives at some of the team's favourite encounters with farm animals.
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Fields of sheep, as far as the eye can see.
Cattle chewing the cud in lush pastures.
While pigs shelter from the sun in a real des-res.
Livestock farming has shaped much of the British countryside.
Not only do they influence the surroundings,
but the animals I keep are also an important part of my livelihood.
These wonderful rolling Cotswold hills were once covered in forest
that was cleared and then grazed for centuries.
Even these dry-stone walls were an important feature,
but they're also a boundary and keep the sheep in.
In today's Farm Animal Special of Countryfile,
I'll be busy on my farm, giving some of my livestock a thorough MOT.
Come on, then, girls!
We're also revisiting some of the team's favourite encounters with animals, big and small.
Back home in County Durham, the whole of Matt's family are helping out with lambing.
Does it look like I've got green chicken pox?
It does look like you've got green chicken pox, yes!
While Julia joins some goats at the dentist.
DRILLING That's not a good noise, wherever you hear it!
And Ellie's in Lincolnshire, with a local favourite.
Come on, girls.
Oooh! Come back!
-They don't like it when you get in the way of their breakfast!
-No, well, quite. Who does?
On my farm, the work never stops, even in the summer months.
Today, we've got quite a big job, rounding up a flock of sheep.
We've got 190 ewes and about 350 lambs.
We've got to get them across the road and into the pens
and sort the lambs out from the ewes and some of the lambs will be going to market.
I've got Mike, my livestock manager, and his assistant, Dave, to help out.
So hopefully, we'll make light work of it.
Good girl! Good girl!
We've got three Border Collies,
my dog Pearl down there,
and then we've got Millie that we use in the yard,
she's got a bit of Kelpie in her. And Mike's other Border Collie that's run off round there.
There's quite a lot of hollows and dips in this field,
so we just need to check that we've got them all.
Don't want to leave any behind.
It's actually a pleasure being out on a day like today,
working with the dogs. I just love it.
Even though it's hard work, it's great fun.
Neither the dogs or the sheep like running round too much when it gets hot,
so we're starting quite early in the morning, before the sun gets up too high.
These lambs were all born in March, April time.
And this is the first time that we've got them in the pens
to weigh them to see if they're fit and ready to go to market.
There should be about 20 or 30.
It's quite exciting, really, because it's payback time,
this is when we start earning some money from our sheep!
Come on, then!
Good girl. Bring them on!
We'll also be going through the ewes and doing an overall health check
and taking out any old ewes that are past their day,
and they'll also go to market for mutton.
Bring them on, Pearl. Good girl. Good girl.
Right, now we've got them in, we can start to sort the ewes from the lambs.
It's really quite exciting at this time of year,
because you find out how well the lambs have done through the growing season
and work out what the crop is like.
You've got your ewe lambs that we're keeping round for next year,
and then the lambs that are going for market, for meat.
And it's busy and hot work and quite hard.
But nothing really compares to lambing.
Back in the spring, Matt went home to County Durham.
Joining him amongst the moors and rugged hillsides were his family,
not for the peace and quiet, but to get stuck in!
It's lambing time on our family farm.
So this weekend, we're all back to help out.
Bright and early, we're all out feeding the new mums.
My wife Nicola is here with our two children, Luke and Molly.
Come on, sheep!
Come and get it!
My mum runs a flock of pedigree Hampshire Downs,
they're the most northerly flock of organic Hampshires in the country.
Mum's been lambing for just over a month, and they're still popping out! SHEEP BLEATS
We have a very expectant mum here.
-Waters have gone.
-We need to pen her up, don't we?
We'll just give her this pen, just so that the little lambs
aren't really in danger of being trampled or anything like that.
It also stops them from wandering too far.
But there's always one adventurous soul keen to explore!
Come on, Number 41!
Back you go.
My little ones love to help out,
even if Molly can't quite reach the hayrack.
The newborns need numbering and I'm about to let Luke loose with a marker spray.
-I know, it's amazing, isn't it? Go for it.
Good! That's it. Just put the little bottom on because you didn't quite see that.
Great. That's a number four. Perfect.
-Now you know how it feels. All right? Do you want to do it for real?
That's it. And then a line along the bottom. That's it, good.
And then one... that's it, all the way down.
Good. That's perfect! Good.
You've got quite a lot of it on your cheek!
Does it look like I've got green chicken pox?
It does look like you've got green chicken pox, yes!
I don't think the other spectators are as impressed as me!
Up at the farmhouse, my dad is starting the next round of feeding.
You may be wondering why we have an outdoor freezer in the garden.
Well, this, believe it or not, is where me dad keeps all his bird seed.
We've got such a variety just because of all the different species of birds that we have.
So all the different seeds are tailored to each of the birds.
We've got nuts here, just general peanuts, various different sunflower seeds as well.
And these are like thistle seeds, so naturally in the wild,
goldfinches would pop down and take the little seeds off the seed heads.
But we've got bucket-loads of that as well and, um, yeah.
Let me show you the next stage, because it gets more impressive!
And here we are at the live aviary.
Basically, we've set up this bird activity centre,
right opposite the kitchen window.
So why feed all these birds and then not see them?
I've counted over 20 different species out here.
-Look, do you want to... I tell you what, I'll pour that in there.
That's it. Good lad.
Go and grab that.
Can you manage?
Go on, have a go.
'As well as the rarer species of birds,
'pheasants also pay a visit to the bird buffet.'
We've put a load of wheat in the top.
The pheasant comes underneath, with its beak.
Give it a little tap with your foot again, Luke.
That's it, Luke. And it all pops out.
How many pheasants did you say we had here the other day?
20. All at one time.
We've turned into bird farmers! Look at this!
-This is a daily occurrence for me dad!
-It is, yeah!
All ideal for a super view whilst doing the washing-up.
Or even a spot of kitchen-window photography.
We don't normally...
We don't normally climb into the sink!
This is how we do it when cameras are here!
Well, now the birds have had their fill,
it's time to get back to the sheep.
The ewe from earlier still hasn't given birth.
She finally did a few hours later.
The film crew have gone.
This ewe is now minutes away from giving birth, if not seconds.
Thankfully I've got this little handi-cam
so we can give you an idea of what happens from here.
There we go. That's not a big lamb.
I don't know what all that fuss was about.
Thankfully, her twins were fighting fit,
but there's always a few weaker ones, like this one,
that need a helping hand.
There we go. You are a little thing, aren't you? Hmm?
Yeah, you're thirsty. All right.
Feeding time at the Baker zoo.
Wow. He's hungry, isn't he?
That's it, sweetheart. Good girl.
Over the border from County Durham,
to another county famous for its sheep.
But when Katie visited Cumbria,
it was to see another kind of farming,
and business is booming for a new brood of farmers.
14.5 million eggs come through this packing plant every year,
and most of them come from farms that are less than 30 miles away.
It's a huge, high-tech operation, but in this story,
it's not the egg, but the chicken that comes first.
That's because all the eggs come from free-range chickens.
But just what does it take to be free range?
Well, these beauties must be free to roam with at least an acre
for every 800 hens.
Like these girls in here.
There aren't any cages, just water, food,
and a lot of room to move around.
Now, it might look a little bit packed,
but they do have the option to go outside.
They just don't always choose to do that,
and that's because of nurture rather than nature.
The chicken is a descendent of the red jungle fowl,
originally from north-east India and southern China.
They're happiest in the protective cover the jungle provides.
So, that's where these come in.
-Should I hold the tree?
-I'll hold it.
So here we are essentially trying to create a jungle, is that right?
Well, not exactly a jungle but yes, it's the principle of a jungle.
And why are you doing that?
Well, it's too improve the welfare of the hens, really,
to try and de-stress them a little bit.
Have you found any results yet?
Have you found that these chickens
are enjoying having more trees to roam around?
That doesn't seem to be a lot of feather pecking going on,
which is a sign that they are not stressed
and that they're quite contented and generally happy.
Feather pecking is when they peck each other.
They peck the feathers out of each other, yes.
That's not something we've got a problem with.
This isn't just a scheme dreamt up by Patricia.
Free-range egg producers right across Cumbria
are planting trees to provide happier habitats for their hens,
and it's backed up by scientists and big egg buyers too.
Joy Clackon is a farmer and a scientist.
Her research is part of a nationwide study
backed by one of the biggest purchasers of free-range eggs,
Our research found that they feel at home in this environment.
It provides everything they need, the shade, the shelter,
the protection, and as you can see, the birds just absolutely love it
and express so much natural behaviour.
Is it not, sorry to sound a bit cynical,
a PR exercise for McDonald's?
Not at all, no.
For us, it's about proving that commitment to improving animal welfare,
working in collaboration with our suppliers and their producers.
The egg explosion in Cumbria is a triumph that came from adversity.
The county was one of the worst hit by the outbreak of foot and mouth.
It forced many livestock farmers, like Patricia, into a rethink.
We decided we needed to think about other options
so that we didn't have all of our eggs in one basket,
and we decided to look into another...means of farming
-and this is what we decided on.
-So how many hens do you have now?
-And you started with?
4,000 the first year,
and we liked it so much that we decided to expand.
Once collected, the eggs from Patricia
and 37 other farms from all over Cumbria come through here.
It's a high-tech operation,
and owner Dave Brass is giving me a guided tour.
This is where the eggs have just come in.
This machine takes a picture of all the eggs.
It also senses which way around the egg is,
because we want to put all the eggs into the egg box point down.
Do any eggs ever break in all of this?
It's going very fast, this machine.
In half a million eggs a day, we lose maybe a couple of dozen.
Next piece of equipment is a crack detector.
There's lots of little hammers in there,
and they hit the eggshell very gently and listen to the echo.
Now, the computer knows where every faulty egg is and every good egg is.
This is the bee's knees, state-of-the-art machinery.
We're using car-building robots to put eggs in boxes.
If all eggs in this country were produced in a free-range way,
would there be enough eggs for the whole country?
In theory, yes, but you've got to remember that free-range takes land,
and an area the size of Dorset would be required for all of that.
So it's fitting that within with the rest of agriculture the UK.
While the egg-packing technology may be thoroughly modern,
it's thanks to ancient Asian ancestors
that the egg producers of Cumbria
are giving their hens a free-range future.
Today on the farm, we're rounding up all our ewes and lambs
for the first time this year.
Now we've got them in,
we sort them out to decide which ones we're keeping
and which ones are going to market. Come on, girls.
We're just emptying a pen
so that they've got a pen to sort the lambs out into.
They finished being dependent on their mothers,
and now they enter the big wide world of living on their own.
Go on, then. Steady, steady.
As they come into the scales, they have an electronic chip
in their ear, and it can identify the lamb on the computer,
knows when it was born and how quickly it's been growing things,
and it also gives us its live weight now,
and this lamb is 40 kilos,
which is perfect for going to market, for going for the table.
We then also feel its back,
make sure it's got a good meat coverage.
This one's ready to go. It's all right, Mike, isn't it?
Give it a red dot. It'll be gone tomorrow morning.
Only those of 40 kilos or over will be sold.
So this little lamb is only 29 kilos.
Got another couple of months to go.
What's that's? 40...
-44. Very good.
It's ready to go.
As well as sifting through the lambs,
we're also separating off some ewes before they cause us any problems.
With the ewes,
on top of the information we've got from the electronic tags,
finding out if they've had any problems during the year,
we also need to physically check them.
We check udders to make sure they've had no mastitis.
Trying to feel for lumps or any infection. Feels fine.
And then they also need to have good teeth
so that they can graze on for another year
to keep themselves in good condition during pregnancy
and to rear lambs next spring.
They say that 10% of your flock is 90% of your hassle,
so I want to clear out any ewes that are causing any problems,
and that hopefully will improve the quality of my flock
and the amount of work we have to do with them.
If she was a cull, she would go for mutton,
and the lambs go for meat for the table too,
and really, modern-day sheep production is all about meat.
It's a shame their wool isn't worth more.
It's been a source of frustration for me for years.
Thankfully, things have improved,
but sometimes the cost of shearing each sheep
is still more than the price you get for the wool.
That's just not sustainable.
So a while back, I decided to get a British wool suit made,
using some fleece from my own sheep.
Get out of it, dog.
(LAUGHS) Great help you are.
Job done. Now, on with my mission.
Right. Time to get the ball rolling.
I've smartened myself up,
and now I'm going to take this wool to a pretty special place.
This farm boy is off to the heady heights of the big city.
I'm going to see how good old British wool like mine can be transformed
into a top class suit, and where better than Savile Row?
It's exciting to be in the most famous street of tailors in the world,
some of whom are as passionate about British wool as I am.
Patrick Grant is the youngest governor on Savile Row.
His firm has made suits for royalty, Winston Churchill,
and even Frank Sinatra.
Like me, he's a champion of British wool.
-Good morning, Adam. How are you?
-Very well, thank you.
Weather all right for you? Make you feel at home.
Thank you very much for inviting me along.
This is wool straight off the sheep's back,
and I just brought you a little selection.
Here we are. This is Romney wool in its raw state.
Dangle and all. A bit of muck and rubbish on there.
-Quite a commercial breed.
-Quite fine, actually.
-Reasonably fine wool.
I've got quite a lot of those.
Now, one of my favourite breeds
is the castle milk moorit, which is a very rare breed.
You can't produce beautiful browns in these shades using chemical dyes,
and some of these rarer breeds
produce such beautiful, natural colours,
that the cloths that you produce are just wonderful to wear.
Increasingly now, there's a small section of the market
that's getting into the idea of producing British cloths
from British wools, which is a really important breakthrough.
I'm intrigued to see what kind of cloth can be made
from this wonderful resource.
-You're fitting people with suits all the time.
What should we be looking for?
I think the thing, especially with tweeds and British wools,
you're looking for something with a soft handle that you enjoy wearing.
Clothes from Savile Row are expensive.
You want it to last 20, 25 years.
You want a cloth that's reasonably robust in handle.
Something that just grabs your eye that you're going to want to wear.
Something that works with the clothes you wear on a daily basis.
Just something that you like the look of. These are wonderful.
I would choose any of these.
-I suppose the first thing...
-Get you measured up.
Now I need to take some of my raw fleeces
to a specialist in spinning British wool,
to find out if it's good enough to make a suit.
I'm here to meet Sue Blacker, and I'm showing her my Jacob wool,
with its distinct colours. I hope she likes it.
What we have here is weaving yarn.
It's on cones, ready for them to pull it off in the mills.
-This is quite fine.
-It is, isn't it? Very fine.
Now I'm wondering how much Jacob wool Sue needs
to make enough yarn for a suit.
So ten sheep, about 12 cones, and we're there. Sounds easy.
Well, quite easy.
It's taken 2,000 years to get there in technical terms.
I'm taking some of Sue's yarn to the weaver's workshop.
It needs to go somewhere that really appreciates the natural colours
and textures of British wool.
That's the challenge for designer Rosemary Boone.
Hi, Rosemary. Now, I've got some of these yarns for you,
and goodness knows whether you can make a suit from it, but...
-What do you think?
-That feels great. It's lovely.
Very, very strong. Brilliant. We can certainly weave some of that.
I've got no idea how much we need or what the process is,
but you've got some lovely cloths here.
It depends what you're wanting to leave.
For a suit length, you probably need 3.5 metres, about four kilos,
so we'll see how much we've got.
We've recently woven a few British wools
into fabrics for Paris and Milan exhibitions,
and they were very popular.
Rosemary thinks we're in business.
That's not bad. That's nearly enough. That's fine.
Your wool ends up here,
and then every single end of the wool needs to be drawn by Allison,
depending on what design you're after.
If you're after herringbone or Prince of Wales,
it's a different set of pulls.
So this'll happen to my wool.
These fibres will get drawn through Allison to make up the pattern.
-Incredible, isn't it? Very labour-intensive.
-It is, yeah.
People forget that. It's a very time-consuming process.
Keep up the good work, Allison. My wool is coming your way.
This small weaving company, with all its tradition,
is now led by entrepreneur Deborah Meaden,
because she shares my passion for wool.
I stepped across the threshold.
I smelled it, I heard the sound and I loved it.
But my business side was able to come absolutely bang on together
with my heart, because it's a good business
and it's in a fabulous industry. It's just great to work in.
At one time, the nation was built on wool, wasn't it?
It was such a valuable product, and if we can pull that back...
I don't think that we'll ever dominate the world with wool again.
Actually, we don't have the space. We can't.
But what we can do is find our place in that market,
and we are not fulfilling that at the moment.
We've kind of walked away, we've said,
"Well, we don't do wool any more." Actually, we do. We should.
-And we should do it and we do do it well.
Well, I'm very excited about you weaving some of my wool here,
and then eventually, might end up as a suit.
So we should get it off the ground.
Should, absolutely. You're in good hands.
Later on, we'll discover how my mission and my suit turned out.
And also still to come on Countryfile...
-Oh, my Lord!
-..Julia meets the goats at the cutting edge of science.
Straight for it.
Jules is surrounded by some unusual big beasts...
-Watch that one behind you.
-Thank you very much, yes!
..and we'll have the Countryfile weather forecast for the bank holiday
and the week ahead.
Lincolnshire is famed for its crop-filled fields
and it's big skies.
When Ellie visited, it was to find out about another claim to fame -
its proud tradition of pig-rearing.
About 100 years ago, most families around here
would have had a pig or two in the backyard.
They fed on scraps, so they were pretty easy and cheap to keep
and when it came to the eating, you could use every single bit.
But Lincolnshire's most famous pork product is of course a sausage.
The renowned Lincolnshire sausage has been produced here
for well over 100 years.
Not on a commercial scale,
but as good old-fashioned home-made grub to feed the family.
Terry and Jane Tomlinson
are working to keep that artisan tradition alive.
-Are they hungry ladies?
Come on, girls.
Ooh, stand back.
-They don't like it when you get in the way of their breakfast.
-No, well quite. Who does?
Let's be honest.
Their pig farm may be a tad larger than the old-style family setup,
but they're staying true to the free-range tradition.
The pigs live entirely outdoors,
sheltering and sleeping in these huts.
And this is to keep it all nice and dry, really.
Keep it all dry, so they clean their feet before they go into the huts.
So what breed are these, Terry, these pigs?
The pigs we have here, they're duroc cross landrace.
That's why you get the different colours.
Why have you chosen those breeds?
Well, the duroc because it's a very, very hardy animal,
fantastic mothers and the eating quality is brilliant as well.
Their 72 sows have two litters a year,
so the farm has a constant flow of pigs of all ages.
Look how small they are!
These guys here are about a fortnight old.
They like to come out and do a little bit of exploring.
But we like to keep them in,
initially for about the first fortnight.
If they're let out altogether, you get a lot of cross-suckling,
so the big boys get all the milk and little ones get pushed out.
The farm produces 700 kilos of sausages a week,
which they sell at market.
Jane is obsessed with keeping the tradition
of real Lincolnshire sausages alive.
So much so that for the last seven years, she's been backing a campaign
to get them protected status under European law.
The PGI status is to protect
the geographical indication of our Lincolnshire sausages,
which means they can only be made in Lincolnshire
and also, to protect the specification.
-They're made like this, they're natural skins.
They're course open texture,
so they're not overly minced.
Why does it matter to YOU to get PGI status?
It's all part of our heritage
and it stays within the county for generations to come.
I'm going to leave Jane and Terry to it now,
because I'm off to make a Lincolnshire sausage the old-fashioned way
with a woman who's so passionate,
she's written a whole book about them.
Every family in Lincolnshire
has its own closely-guarded sausage recipe
handed down through the generations.
But I've found a lady who's prepared to divulge her family secrets.
Local chef, Rachel Green.
Go on then, how do we do it?
You need some coarsely-ground shoulder,
rusk, or it could be breadcrumbs if you want to use breadcrumbs.
And I've got sage,
lots of, because that's really what Lincolnshire sausages are all about.
-Is this your secret family recipe?
-Well, it is, actually.
It's from my great-great-grandmother,
so there's one ingredient people generally don't put into Lincolnshire sausages
-and that is going to be freshly ground nutmeg.
-Something a little bit different.
-Quite a bit?
-Yes, quite a bit.
I remember as a little girl,
you'd have pig parts... we kept pigs obviously
and we'd make sausages and I'd make them with my grandmother
and the head would be there and the trotters there
and you know, it would be a real family thing.
I think making the sausages was always a really fun bit for me,
because I could relate to that as a little girl. Get passionate with it.
You've got to really work hard at it, actually.
-Harder, Ellie, harder.
-Come on. Put your back in to it.
Do you want to stuff a bit in, then, first?
The skins are made of pig intestines,
so the end product is entirely natural.
I'm doing Lincolnshire a very bad service here!
Do you know why they were called bangers?
-Because of the way I made them.
No, after the Second World War,
they used to put a lot more water in,
so the moment you cooked them, they'd explode.
Here we go.
-You've just got a bit of air in them.
-Bit of air!?
-Bit of air in the bottom.
-Oh, dear! I'm so sorry, Lincolnshire.
Thankfully, I don't have to eat my handiwork.
Rachel's got some of her own, ready and waiting.
The best thing in the world,
a really good Lincolnshire sausage, before the dogs get it.
You can take that texture really well and lots of sage.
-Mmm, really good. Thank you very much.
There's a good little girl.
Today, the sun may be shining, but combine that with the rain we had
earlier in the summer and you have the perfect conditions for insects.
And they can be more than just an irritation.
I'm putting a chemical on the backs of my white parks here
to protect them against biting lice and flies
that can cause them harm.
Just have to put on a bit of waterproof clothing.
And some gloves.
And the flies can affect them in various ways.
It can give them summer mastitis,
which affects the udder
and can cause an infection and also the flies get around their eyes
and can cause a thing called New Forest disease or pinkeye,
when they get an infection inside the eye.
And one thing I'm hoping it will also do
is protect them partly against a horrible new disease
that we've got in this country called Schmallenberg.
So far, upwards of 275 farms have been infected by Schmallenberg.
It causes calves and lambs born from infected mothers
to have birth defects.
It's thought to have been brought over by infected midges
blown across the Channel.
And that's not the only disease to bother us.
We lost some cows and some bulls to TB,
but thankfully, we're now starting to rebuild the herd.
This fly protection,
it's just a small dribble down their backs
and a little bit on their heads, but it works over the whole body
and will last about eight weeks.
And it's now that the flies really start to trouble these cattle.
There you go.
There's currently no vaccine or cure for Schmallenberg,
so the chemical treatment is the best I can do.
I love my white parks and old-fashioned breeds.
But there are other magnificent cattle on some British farms.
Jules visited Laverstoke Park Farm in Hampshire,
where there's a farm with a different breed of beast in their fields.
Now, at first glance, this farm is pretty much like any other.
Ploughed fields, rolling hills, hedgerows, animals grazing.
It's exactly what you'd expect to find anywhere in the county.
Except these are water buffalo.
This is the largest herd in the UK.
And dairy manager Nigel Arrowsmith looks after these curious beasts.
Here we are in the heart of Hampshire,
surrounded by... How many water buffalo have we got here?
In this field, there's about 160.
How is it to look after them?
Do you husband them the same as you would beef cattle?
Well, these are all milking cows in here.
From a stockmanship point of view,
-they're absolutely easy to look after.
They're incredibly curious creatures, aren't they?
Yes, they react to people really well.
Some would say that they're quite,
sort of intimidating with these horns and so forth,
but they are all quite relaxed, aren't they?
Yes, watch that one behind you.
Yes, thank you very much, yes! I'm looking all over the place now.
They do, they respond to people really, really well.
Now, what's the big difference though?
Because we'd associate them with big pools of water and wallowing in mud.
Do they do that here or are they just grazing normally?
They absolutely love wallowing.
If there's any puddles about,
they'll build it into a swimming pool-sized hole and wallow in that.
They do it because in the summer, it's their way of losing heat.
You've obviously got a great deal of affection for them, Nigel.
I love them.
I loved working with dairy cows for 40-odd years,
but these are just so refreshing.
And the water buffalo aren't the only thing
that sets this farm apart.
COMMENTATOR: Jody Scheckter wins...
Back in the 1970s, Jody was a Formula 1 driver,
becoming world champion in 1979.
Since then, he's swapped the race track for a 2,500 acre farm.
The life of a farmer is a far cry from the fast lane of motor racing.
How did it all start for you?
Well, I've always been a foodie
and I've always done a lot of exercise and been keen on health
and so I said OK, I'll produce the best and healthiest food for myself and my family.
It's not just a hobby, is it?
Well, I had to try and understand how it could become sustainable
and you needed some volume and that's why it got bigger and bigger really.
Why am I organic? Because I believe that's the way
you produce the best, healthiest food.
FORMULA 1 THEME TUNE
Come on, then!
Back at the dairy, they're gearing up for milking time.
Over 1,000 buffalo have to be milked twice a day.
Compared with a standard dairy cow,
water buffalo produce two-thirds less milk
at around 2,000 litres a year.
Milking is now well under way, but of course the big question is,
what do they do with all of this milk?
Well, here, they're one of the few places in Britain
that set about the task of trying to make a classic Italian cheese.
The on-farm dairy produces 69 tonnes of mozzarella a year
from its buffalo herd.
They're one of the first serious producers in the UK
and as you expect on this farm, that means getting in an expert.
Italian Thomas Vallenzano has been making mozzarella for years.
This curd, we use for making mozzarella.
Do you know, it almost looks like mozzarella now, doesn't it?
First, the curd is separated from the whey.
We have the curd, just the curd for stretching
and wash up in the stretching machine.
And once it's been melted and stretched,
its into the moulds.
So, this is the finished product?
The mozzarella, we take the salt in this section.
It's then cooled in salt water and finito.
I'm not just saying this... That is absolutely delicious.
I'm just going to keep eating.
On the salad, it's fantastic.
Well, if an Italian is helping to make the cheese,
it's only right you get another one in to try it.
Top chef Aldo Zilli loves mozzarella. But British?
Well, we're about to find out what he thinks.
There you go, look. A nice plateful of buffalo mozzarella.
Buffalo mozzarella, in Italy, it's still a little bit of a luxury.
People eat it on a Sunday when they're round a table
and they want something a little bit special.
Otherwise they'll have the cow's milk mozzarella.
Mozzarella, it's a staple part of the Italian diet.
Absolutely and buffalo mozzarella, you don't cut it with a knife,
you just break it with your fingers. Look at that.
I'll serve it with this wonderful mixture
of roasted tomatoes and some red onion.
-Look at this.
-You're just letting it breathe, aren't you?
Just beautiful food at its best.
-Couple of tomatoes, colours, basil on top.
Extra virgin olive oil and there's your lunch...
If you've ever seen one.
And it's only fair the boss gets to taste it too.
I want you to try this with the tomatoes on it, see what you think.
That is lovely.
You just brought me back 30 years.
And I'm growing up in my farm again.
Is it as good as Italian buffalo mozzarella or better?
-If nothing else, it's as good.
-It is fabulous, isn't it?
I would be very happy to serve this in my restaurant.
There you have it.
English buffalo mozzarella, approved by an Italian.
All my animals spend much of their time on their feet.
If you don't keep an eye on things, it can lead to bigger trouble
further down the line.
We've just got a farrier in to foot-trim our baby donkeys
that were born on the farm.
-I'll just hold its head for you. How are they behaving?
-Yeah, not too bad. They're doing all right.
There's a good baby. COCKEREL CROWS
Do you do many donkeys?
Um, yeah, quite a few, mainly yours.
We do a few elsewhere but not too many. More horses.
And are they different to horses?
Yeah, they've got more sort of upright feet and...
yeah, their soles don't exfoliate, so you've got to do that for them.
-Right. It's quite a skill, isn't it?
These are two baby donkeys that we've sold,
so just giving them a bit of an MOT, trimming their feet up.
And I'll give them a bit of a brush to get rid of their winter coat,
they're looking a bit moth-eaten, before they go to their new home.
And trimming feet of equines,
horses and donkeys is a fairly regular occurrence, so you have
to keep on top of it, and we employ a professional farrier to do it.
-Yeah, that's fine. Cheers, Alan.
-All right, see you later.
-See you soon.
'It's not just donkeys that need a pedicure today.'
With all the wet weather we had back in the early summer,
my golden Guernsey goats have really been having problems
with their feet.
If I just put this down, I should be able to catch them.
I bought these nannies a few years ago and they're lovely and friendly
and quiet... They don't like being tipped up much.
There you go.
And then they've got clees, they're called. So, two toes.
So I'm just trimming the toenail back...
so that there's no infection.
And one bit of toe can become very overgrown
and you can get infection in between.
So I'll just trim this back.
There you go. Hello, mate. I won't be tipping you up to do your feet!
And then I just put on a little bit of this antiseptic spray
that stops any infection.
And with all the different animals we've got on the farm,
looking after them takes up a huge amount of time and effort.
Sadly not everybody takes as much care with their livestock.
When Julia was in Kent,
she went to Buttercups Goat Sanctuary near Maidstone.
It's home to about 150 abused and abandoned animals,
but they don't just give the goats much-needed TLC.
It's also a place that's changing opinion about how smart
these animals actually are.
Take a look at this.
This video was taken here last summer.
It shows an experiment to test goat intelligence.
The animal has worked out how to get food out of a sealed box.
Doctor Elodie Briefer from Queen Mary University London
ran that test. She's running the same test again today.
And it looks like this lot know what's going on.
Now, Elodie, we saw in the film the goats operating
this piece of machinery. Explain exactly what you've designed here.
So we've designed a complicated, two-step process
where they have to pull that out
and then pull it up, and then the pasta comes.
So what's the point of testing again, six months later?
To see if they have the long-term memory of this task.
-So you're going to put the same goats through the test?
The goat we're after is called Willow.
It's been a few months since she did the test.
Will she still remember how to open the box? Let's find out.
-Here we go.
-She's really motivated.
-Definitely motivated. Right.
Straight... Oh, my lord, look at that!
-Straight for it.
-That's it. THEY LAUGH
'It's the speed with which Willow solved the puzzle
'that's evidence she remembered.'
So this proves they have a memory, proves they're very intelligent.
She will destroy the box if we leave.
-I think next we should try a crossword(!)
So why do we need to know how smart goats are?
It informs us in terms of at least being able to show people
that the animals show quite complex behaviours
and they are intelligent animals, so if you want to keep goats,
you should really give them the best possible welfare that you can.
A basic thing is goats should never be kept on their own,
they should always be kept in a group or at least a pair.
So showing how complicated their behaviours can be
-actually helps inform people.
-And the handling and the treatment.
It's something they pay heed to here at Buttercups.
All these animals are rescues and they get the best of attention.
-What are you up to, Gillian?
-I'm leg-scratching Bobby.
Leg-scratching, is this an official duty?
Not exactly, no, but one that he likes and enjoys anyway! Don't you?
All right, can I have a go now? Thank you.
Oh. Ooh, right a bit, yeah, lovely.
Volunteers staff the sanctuary but there are regular visits
from the vet. Today he's got his dentist's hat on.
It's like standing in line for the doctor, isn't it?
-Yes, trying to close his ears.
-Aw, don't worry, it won't hurt!
-Look at all that stuff coming out of there.
-The stuff comes out...
They don't mind that too much. And then I'll have a good look inside.
I can see a nasty point in there which I'm going to rasp off
with a little power tool. I don't know if the camera can get in there.
Have a look, Steve, get in here. Get in there!
Right at the back, can you see a sort of needle
sticking down from the upper jaw, the back teeth there?
-Yeah, I think so.
-Yeah, there we go.
-We'll just try and buzz that down.
That's not a good noise wherever you hear it.
-Poor Hattie's hiding.
-Oh, look at this.
We've got Hattie, who's next in line, not looking forward to it!
Not looking forward to it.
'Buttercups has been going for over 20 years.
'Let's meet the man behind it.' How many have you got here now, Bob?
We've got about 140 in the sanctuary
and about another 95 in foster homes around the county.
We take them from as far afield as Cornwall and the Midlands and...
And what are the reasons that people abandon them?
So variable, I could tell you so many different forms of cruelty,
but also not only cruelty but where they've been abandoned
or people who of course can't manage them any more.
Now we know that goats go bonkers for food.
I hope Matt's prepared for a feeding frenzy.
-How are you doing?
-I'm very well.
-Have you missed me?
-I have, yes.
Good day with the goats? Stay where you are, you don't need to move.
-I've got something for you. Bob?
I just think that, you know, really...
-you should do a little job for me.
So if you can just help me out, cos I've been doing it all day.
This is Bob. Here you go, big boy. So, what I need you to do...
-I'm sensing a stitch-up.
I've been doing this all day, I'm exhausted.
It's been goats, goats and more goats.
Go on, sprinkle away and I'll tell you when to stop.
-Am I just having to sprinkle, yeah?
-Over there and head to the...
-Where they can see it. Have fun.
-Yep. Not too much, not too much.
-One, two, three...
-Come on then!
-Come on then! Come on then!
Come on then! Come on then! Go, go, go, go!
What a beautiful sight!
Come on then, girls. Get that down your chops!
Girls and boys!
In a few moments, you can find out
how my crusade to champion British wool turned out.
But first, let's go to the Countryfile weather forecast
for the week ahead.
In this edition of Countryfile,
we're looking back at some favourite farm visits
and celebrating how the livestock we farm has shaped our countryside.
I have about 1,500 sheep on my farm, and back in 2010 I went on a crusade.
I wanted to help breathe new life into the British wool industry.
I've got an array of different breeds on my farm,
therefore all sorts of different wool types,
and over the last few years I've been getting on average
about £1.50 a fleece, which doesn't even cover the cost of shearing.
I find it absolutely infuriating.
I've always been concerned about the value of British wool to our farmers.
I've been on a mission to find out why we don't make more of our wool.
I just can't imagine why it isn't just getting snapped up
to make fantastic clothing.
So, I left the serene surrounds of the Cotswold Hills
for the hustle and bustle of the big city.
The idea - to make a suit from British wool.
And today my crusade comes to a woolly climax.
And Patrick has arrived with my new suit.
-Good morning, Adam.
-How are you?
-Very well indeed.
-Lovely to see you.
-Well, lovely to be here.
-I'm sorry about the muddy farmyard.
Well, it's a little different to the usual Savile Row delivery,
but it's a pleasure to be here.
I've got a changing room in here, something you're quite used to.
I thought we'd get into one of our stables here.
-What do you reckon?
And the chickens are here to help tie your tie, are they?
They are, yeah.
I'm really looking forward to putting it on.
So, if you'll excuse me...
Now for the second piece, the jacket.
Wow, look at that.
-That is lovely.
-What do you think?
It's a very, very handsome-looking cloth.
I mean, I think the colour's fantastic, it looks light,
I think people have this perception of British cloths being very heavy, but...
It's smooth, it's soft, it's comfortable, I really like it.
-You're a new man.
-I am, I'm very proud of that, thank you so much.
You're the smartest farmer in Gloucestershire.
What we're going to do now is show it off.
Oh, look out, ducks.
And where better to do that than my local town of Stow-on-the-Wold.
This place was built on the wool trade.
Hundreds of years ago, as many as 20,000 sheep would have been
brought to market here from all over the Cotswolds.
I've invited everyone involved in the process of making the suit.
-What do you reckon?
Well, everybody's done a wonderful job.
-What was the wool like to work with?
-It was easy.
To be honest, it was good. It ran very smoothly through.
-And making the cloth?
-They loved it, they all loved making it.
It took a long time going through the mill, but it's fabulous.
It's a beautiful colour, isn't it?
Yeah, I mean, it's testament to what can be done
when you get great British product and some great British craftspeople
and get them all together.
I think it's a fabulous advertisement for the best of British cloth.
Well, I reckon it's fit for the catwalks of Milan or Paris.
And even the local paparazzi are out in force, but not just to catch
a glimpse of my suit, they're here to see the real stars of the show -
my sheep, who I've brought along in honour of days gone by.
Supermodels of British wool.
Well, what could be better?
A farmer, a spinner, a weaver and a tailor walking sheep
through Stow-on-the-Wold to champion British wool.
But not all the sheep are interested in going for a walk.
This has been a wonderful crusade for me to champion,
and I can really feel the adrenaline running through me now
thinking we've achieved something.
We've got a wonderful suit made from British wool
from these fantastic animals, and I really hope it makes a difference
and more people will buy products made from our wool.
Come on then.
Well, here it is, and thankfully it still fits.
And not only that, the price of wool has gone up significantly
over the last few months, which is great news for the British sheep farmer.
Well, that's it from Countryfile tonight,
but there's more tomorrow when Matt, Julia, Ellie, John and I
head to the Norfolk coast for some fun at the seaside.
I hope you can join us then. Bye-bye.
Subtitles by Red Bee Media Ltd
On this week's livestock special edition of Countryfile, Adam is on his farm in the Cotwolds looking back through the archives at some of the team's favourite encounters with farm animals big and small. In County Durham, Matt Baker is being helped by the whole family at lambing time. Julia Bradbury is in North Kent meeting the goats as they make their regular visit to the dentist. Ellie Harrison is in Lincolnshire finding out about the county's proud tradition of pork production and Jules Hudson is in Hampshire with some rather large buffalo who make rather delicious cheese.
Meanwhile, on his own farm, it's time for the first of Adam's lambs to be weaned from their mothers and sent to market, his White Park cattle need protecting against flies and his donkeys and goats get a pedicure.