John Craven takes to the water in Pembrokeshire to find out about the area's boating heritage, painting boats and learning sea shanties along the way.
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Breathtaking beauty and boats for as far as the eye can see.
This is the picturesque coast of Pembrokeshire.
And every couple of years a flotilla of boats gathers
here for a very special celebration of this area's marine heritage.
This is just part of that flotilla,
and later on I'll be going on board to discover more about it.
Helen's cooking up a seaweed-y storm in a surfer's paradise.
I add it to baked beans now, I add it to porridge,
I add it to everything.
-You are so in love with seaweed,
it is scary.
Tom's looking at why gas emissions from farms are causing such
-Agriculture and land use change account for between
a fifth and a quarter of the world's greenhouse gas emissions.
And Adam's transporting some of his cattle to pastures new.
It is not a simple process, moving animals -
something you can't do on a whim.
OK, girls. This is your new home.
Pembrokeshire's spectacular shores are famously scenic -
one of our landscape's richest treasures.
But the coastline is cleft in two by this vast estuary, where four
rivers meet and drain into the Celtic Sea.
It's called the Daugleddau, and on its banks
lies the Port of Milford Haven.
A twisting ribbon of wide, deep water,
the estuary has shaped local livelihoods and industries.
It's one of the world's greatest natural harbours.
It's rightly called the Haven,
and for as long as there have been boats,
they've found shelter on this waterway.
David James of the West Wales Maritime Heritage Society
takes great pride in the history of his local patch.
-Hello, John, how are you?
-Fine, thank you.
This place has got an amazing seafaring history, hasn't it?
Oh, absolutely tremendous.
Legend has it the stones for Stonehenge were
transported down this very waterway.
And at least one prehistoric boat has been discovered in Milford.
A lot of the island names have Viking names,
like Skomer, Skokholm, and Hubba, a suburb of Milford Haven.
And of course it's always been boat building here, shipbuilding.
Oh, absolutely. There were two royal dockyards in Pembrokeshire.
There was one in Milford that built seven ships for Nelson's navy.
But they built a great number of ships right here in Pembroke Dock.
Including five Royal yachts for Her Majesty Queen Victoria.
And has the sea attracted you since you were a boy?
Oh, yes, I've always pottered about on the beach and fished and sailed,
and my dad's taught me seamanship, and his dad taught him
seamanship, so we go back a long way in Pembroke Dock.
So you're obviously very passionate about this place.
Well, who cannot be passionate about Pembrokeshire?
This is the best place in the world to live.
But not all the vessels that pass through
here are as grand as royal yachts.
A little humbler are the small, local craft
that the heritage society rescue and preserve.
Brian King is a retired pilot who's swapped planes for boats.
-Some restoration work going on here.
-What kind of boat is it?
It's a Pembroke One Design.
We don't know the exact history of this one - she was donated to us -
but they were built in the late '30s and they were used for racing.
-So what have you had to do to this one, then?
-Quite a lot of work.
If you look in the boat there, you can
see the lighter-coloured planks that have been replaced.
And what's an airline pilot doing restoring boats?
It's an ideal spot to get involved with boats.
I've always liked woodwork and I really
enjoy sailing the heritage boats, as well.
And lots of new skills to learn.
Lots of new skills to learn.
We've got lots of different members, we've all got different skill sets.
We've got about 20 people who turn up every week.
The heritage society's volunteers come here for many different
reasons. Luke is one of the regulars.
It's easy to come here because I only live up the road.
-And so I can come in most days.
-And what sort of work do you do?
Well, mending the boats, there's mowing the lawn, the angle grinder.
I like it here.
And there's some very interesting people here who...
And intelligent conversation most of the time.
And is the plan eventually to have it back in the water
and sailing and competing?
Yes, she's been painted up to go back in the water.
And a fantastic sight she will look.
Yes, she will, she will be a big sail, big crew and a big sight.
Well, a lick of paint is giving this old girl a new lease of life.
Hopefully she'll soon be back in the water where she belongs -
a working reminder of the rich history of this estuary.
Now, it's claimed that agriculture emits more greenhouse gases
than traffic. So, what's been done to solve the problem? Here's Tom.
It's hard to believe, when you look at this pastoral
scene, that these animals could be harming the environment.
But when it comes to climate change, in fact they are.
Now, that's because around the world, growing
and producing the food we eat is responsible for around a
third of dangerous greenhouse gas emissions.
Now a new report says that
if farm-related emissions aren't tackled, then the first legally
binding global climate plan agreed in Paris last year will be breached.
And the world would be unable to avoid catastrophic climate change.
So, what's causing these harmful agricultural emissions?
This has to be the most hi-tech cow shed I've ever seen.
Yes, these are respiration chambers.
We use them to measure the oxygen that a cow consumes
and the methane and other gases she produces.
Professor Chris Reynolds of the University of Reading says
that cows are a major emitter of methane, a potent greenhouse gas.
One thought, we've come up to the front-end.
Is that the right place to be?
Well, it is in terms of where the methane is emitted from the cow.
Virtually all the methane a cow produces is eructated, or belched,
as opposed to coming from the back end of the cow.
Why is it that cows and sheep, I gather, produce so much methane?
So, the cow's stomach has billions of microorganisms that help
her digest her feed.
Specific microbes that account for that methane production.
Right, and that's just a pretty much inevitable
fact of the biology of ruminants like cows.
It's part of what makes a ruminant a ruminant.
On average, the estimate is that, for a lactating dairy cow,
she would be producing about 600 litres of methane a day.
That means in one year,
a cow emits enough energy to drive an average car about 2,000 miles.
But that's just part of the problem.
Alongside methane, mainly from cattle and sheep, nitrous oxide is
emitted into our environment, largely from heavily
Overall, agricultural emissions are far more than
jokes about farting cows.
Professor Lord Krebs certainly isn't amused.
He advises the government on tackling climate change
and says that farm-related emissions are a serious problem.
Why is it important that farming now gets to grips with its
climate change responsibility?
Well, if we're serious about the Paris Agreement,
we've got to tackle all greenhouse gas emissions, and agriculture
and land use change account for between a fifth
and a quarter of the world's greenhouse gas emission.
We are farming, after all, to feed people,
and we're going to have many more people on this planet.
How much more difficult does that make this problem?
It's what some people have called the perfect storm.
We've got a growing population, going up to
probably 9½ billion by mid-century.
As people get richer from countries like China,
they switch from a plant-based diet to a meat-based diet.
And meat has a much bigger
environmental footprint than a plant-based diet does.
Everybody needs food, and we want delicious and nutritious food,
we've got to produce it with a lower environmental impact.
In total, agricultural emissions make up around 9% of the UK's
The question of how to minimise these emissions
while still being able to feed a growing population is
something agriculture has been grappling with for some time.
And six years ago, the industry introduced voluntary action plans.
So far, two thirds of farmers have changed the way they work.
-You really get an idea of the scale of it when you come round.
This must have cost you a wee bit.
Julian Gold is one of them. Across his 1,500 acres of arable
land in Oxfordshire, he's gone big to become more efficient.
We're standing next to an extraordinary machine here,
but how does something like this help you
reduce your greenhouse gas emissions?
All our machines are ten metres wide,
including our combine harvester,
and everything operates on the same set of wheelings.
About 80% of the soil in our fields
never, ever gets trafficked by any machines.
And that's really important to preserve the soil's natural
structure. By not disrupting the earth,
gases stored in the growing cycle can remain locked in the ground.
So that means the nitrogen can be doing its work in terms
of growing better crops, rather than leaking into the atmosphere
-and contributing to climate change.
I think it's a win-win because
you've got to think long-term in farming.
When we get weather events like this, droughts and storms,
your crop yields are much more robust if you've got quality soils.
Also we're using less diesel in the tractors. It's cutting our costs.
So you don't think you have to be a sort of climate change-fighting
evangelist to go down this route.
No, because it's going to pay back eventually.
It might take a few years, but it's going to pay back eventually.
Despite farmers like Julian taking action, a perfect storm is brewing.
Since 1990, the UK has seen just a 16% drop in emissions
from agriculture, which is poor compared to other sectors.
So to really make a difference,
do we need to put more radical options on the menu?
Maybe reducing the amount of red meat and dairy in our diets,
or a complete overhaul of how we farm.
Later on - after my lunch, of course - I'll be finding out.
Mile upon mile of dramatic coastline.
Rolling fields and acres of woodland.
Pembrokeshire's landscape is glorious.
But look a little deeper
and you'll see the British countryside isn't perfect.
It's beset by issues from tree disease to climate change,
from affordable housing to rural jobs.
But here, in a quiet corner of Pembrokeshire,
there's a group of people who are dealing with all of those.
Western Solar is a small company of passionate individuals
doing their bit to make the world a better place.
And this is the perfect location to start.
Even on a grey day, it's one of the best places in the UK to
harvest energy from the sun.
So the company built Wales' first solar farm.
It not only produces electricity,
it also generates funding for their next big project.
For that, they've taken advantage of another local resource -
These are large.
Now, across Wales, six million are being felled
because of larch tree disease.
It's a disaster for the landscape, but it also presents an opportunity.
Some of those trees ended up here at the company's own rural saw mill.
There we go!
Just because it's diseased doesn't mean it can't be used.
So you've got wood, you've got solar energy,
a need for affordable homes and rural jobs
and a bit of investment, so what do you do?
What the company did was build a prototype, affordable eco-house.
It's called Ty Solar - Welsh, of course - for "solar house".
The member of the team responsible for the design was architect
-Hello, Helen, how are you, all right?
-I'm very good.
-Nice to meet you. Right, so here it is.
-It is, Ty Solar.
So tell me about Ty Solar.
There's two things we're trying to do with the design.
One is make the cost of living in it drastically lower
than in a conventional house.
But also the cost of the build has to come down.
So it has to be a very efficient sort of shape.
Basically, Ty Solar is a box made from prefabricated wooden panels.
It's insulated with recycled newspaper.
Solar panels on the roof produce twice as much electricity
than is needed.
And large windows face the sun for light and warmth.
I've tried desperately to make the house quietly clever.
So it shouldn't be any more complicated to live in this
house than it should in a standard estate house.
Hopefully this will prove something,
improve the quality of life for the people that live in them.
It's got the potential to take people who are in energy poverty -
you know, not being able to afford to heat old properties.
I mean, who wouldn't be happy with that?
The prototype has been a success.
Now the first homes are being built on wasteland in the tiny
hamlet of Glanrhyd.
-Hello, I'm ready.
-Excellent, we've got some boards to put back here.
Jens Schroeder has lived in Pembrokeshire for more
than 20 years.
He's made everything from wooden houses to musical instruments,
so is the perfect member of the team to
be in charge of constructing these revolutionary houses.
That does not sound right, have I done something wrong?
-So how's it going?
-It's going very well.
There are a lot of elements to this, aren't there?
There's the environmental benefit, the local supply chain,
the local workforce. Which bit are you most proud of?
Actually, I'm really proud of the fact that we
are actually building a new, traditional house
right here, right now.
Because if you think that the cottages around here,
they would have been built from stone and slate,
when that was the local material. You know.
But now that's no longer local material.
If there's new roofs going up now,
the slate will come from Spain or China or Brazil.
This is the new local material.
And we're trying to get everything right with this project.
You know, use the correct materials, build an amazing house and then
make it so it can be produced by semiskilled local people.
The company have organised training to build the houses.
Four apprentices are very much part of the team.
17-year-old Adam Derbyshire is getting stuck in.
So what would you be doing if you weren't doing this apprenticeship?
That's a good question. With apprenticeships
at the moment, there's not too many out there.
So when this came up I wanted to snatch it
-up as quickly as possible, really.
-Are you enjoying it?
Oh, yes, it's great fun. Great fun.
And to be working alongside such skilled carpenters as well.
When people hear eco-houses, you know,
you expecting them to say, "Oh, you know,
"there's tyres stuffed full of wood and the walls are bumpy."
You know. These are quite modern so
I would love to live in one of these.
This is big thinking on a small scale.
It's hoped that these homes will be the first of many across rural
Britain, providing affordable housing for local people.
The first of these eco-houses will become homes in October.
Well, I'm pretty confident whoever ends up living in these
houses is going to get a good night's sleep, especially
when you know you're doing your bit for the environment,
you're helping support the local economy and, let's be honest,
their energy bills are going to be absolutely slashed.
There is still quite a bit of work to do,
though, so maybe I can help out.
I'm not exactly sure how this works, but I'll figure it out.
Now, just around the headland from where the Daugeleddau estuary meets
the sea lies the island of Skomer.
Zoologist Sanjida O'Connell is on the trail of a wildlife spectacle
that's really put this place on the map.
Approaching the most westerly point of Wales,
the rugged island of Skomer is whipped by wind
and wrestled by waves.
It's world-famous for one thing. And that's why I'm here.
Skomer is home to over a million sea birds.
Can't wait to get there.
At this time of the year they're nesting.
And as visitor numbers to the island are strictly controlled,
I'm really lucky to be on my way to see them.
I've only just got off the boat and already I'm
surrounded by the sights, smells and sounds of all these sea birds.
And in fact, I've just spotted a little colony of guillemots
And I think they might have some chicks.
There are a staggering number of birds here.
One woman has the daunting job of counting them.
Bee Bueche is one of the head wardens on Skomer.
You are really counting all the birds on this island?
-Yeah, I count every single bird.
-Every single one.
And what is the purpose of counting all of the birds?
The bird numbers fluctuate over the years.
And we've got such a long data so you can really see which bird
species are doing well and which aren't doing well.
And then because they get out and forage
and live most of their lives out at sea,
they come back with all this information of how the sea is doing.
So if the birds aren't doing well, the ocean isn't doing well.
And we all need the oceans to survive.
So there's kittiwakes, guillemots out there?
So, kittiwakes, you can even hear the noisy gulls at the bottom.
Then you've got guillemots and then you've got the razorbills,
and then you've got some herring gulls dotted around, as well.
Bee's got something special in store for me. The Manx shearwater.
50% of the world's population live on this island during the summer.
But as they make their nests underground,
counting them could be a bit of a challenge.
OK, what we're looking for are these.
This looks like a rabbit burrow.
It might have been once a rabbit burrow,
or the shearwater might have dug it itself.
They've got really sharp claws and they dig with their beaks, as well.
So if there was a ready-made old rabbit burrow that is empty,
they will happily have it.
We can't see the birds, so we have to listen for them,
and that means getting to grips with some rather outdated technology.
We've always used these tapes - they're from the '70s -
and these tape recorders,
so if we use something new now, the shearwaters might respond to
new recordings or to new equipment differently
and then we can't compare the data any more.
So you basically play this call to the shearwater and see what happens?
Just need to press the play button and then hold it to the entrance.
And then stop it.
That would be a no.
And then your volunteers will write down whether it was a yes or a no?
-So that means that there's no shearwater in here?
It still could be a bird inside.
It could be a female, and even the males always reply,
so only about 40% of the times they're going to reply.
I can see another burrow over here.
Here we go. There's one.
-Oh, can I come over and have a listen to that one?
You have a go.
Play your tape and see what happens.
That is brilliant.
Oh, I can hardly believe I'm just kneeling above a shearwater.
-One more here.
Yes! Brilliant! Found another one.
-There's one! Brilliant!
That's a no.
-So how many shearwaters have we found here?
-What do we have?
We've got five yeses and five noes.
In this little segment, five shearwaters,
what would that translate to for the whole island?
So the extrapolation we've got is 316,070 pairs for the entire island.
Over 600,000 shearwaters on this island?
Which is the largest colony on the planet.
Amazing to think that beneath my feet are hundreds of thousands
of birds sitting tightly on their nests.
Thanks to Bea's study, I've heard a lot about Manx shearwater calls,
but if I want to see one, I need to catch up with Oxford University
research student Sarah Bond.
What's going on here?
So we've got Manx shearwaters underground in their burrows
everywhere on the island,
but these particular burrows are study burrows.
So we've dug a hole in the roof of the burrow
and we've put a hatch on top to protect the bird.
Today I'm weighing the birds - we weigh them every day to
look at the condition of the bird whilst they're incubating the eggs.
This is burrow 30.
Make sure I write it...
If we tip this back, you can see that the bird is just underground.
And if I lift it up...
-Aw, so beautiful.
-..then you can see the egg underneath.
So it's the size of a chicken egg.
What we do is we pop the bird's head in the bag
because they're not used to be out in the day, so we keep them dark.
-And then we'll read the ring number.
-Male or female?
-This bird is male.
If we weigh it...
Why are you collecting this data?
So we're interested in what's controlling the incubation stints -
how long they go for, how much weight they're losing
and where they're going.
This one has been out for a while now, should we put it back?
Yeah, we'll pop it back.
Understanding how shearwaters use the ocean
could help protect them for the future.
-Back on its nest, probably.
-Yeah. Should be straight back on the egg.
These birds are very resilient to us handling them
and actually getting them out once a day doesn't disturb them at all.
Fingers crossed, in a few weeks' time, he'll hatch a new chick.
Another addition to the incredible
bird life that makes Skomer so special.
Earlier we heard that agricultural emissions must be slashed
to help prevent climate change.
So what can be done to address the problem?
Here's Tom again.
Modern agriculture is already a pretty efficient machine.
But, as I've been hearing,
if we can't find new ways to feed the world's growing population
then it's likely greenhouse gas emissions
will rise over the threshold of safety.
So if we are to prevent the planet by warming more than two degrees
over the next century, do we need to change what we eat?
Dr Peter Scarborough of Oxford Martin School thinks so.
He says we need to cut our consumption of red meat and dairy.
-What have we got here, Peter?
-We've got steak, we've got
our vegetarian meal over here with this kind of Ploughman's lunch.
And we've got a vegan meal.
You're looking at these three different meals.
The one with the lowest carbon footprint
is definitely the vegan one.
Are you able to put any kind of proportion on that?
Any kind of figure on that?
The greenhouse gas emissions for a diet for a British vegan
is about half of the greenhouse gas emissions of a British meat eater.
-But it's difficult, isn't it?
A friend of mine said to me the other day, I'm delighted that other
people are vegans when it comes to the climate, because I love it.
If you want to reduce your carbon footprint, you don't need to go
so drastic as saying,
"Let's just become vegan, or let's become vegetarian."
If you reduce the amount of meat
that you eat you'll definitely be reducing your carbon footprint.
What would you say to livestock farmers,
of which there are plenty in this country?
Obviously if we're telling people to eat less meat then we're
talking about less meat being produced.
A lot of meat being produced at the moment is being
produced on lands that could be converted into cereal production,
which can be used for human consumption.
Cutting back on meat
and dairy could have a big impact on the countryside
and also the livelihoods of our farmers.
Ultimately it's down to us to choose what and how much we eat.
-How big is your herd, overall?
But could we be changing the diets of the cattle themselves?
We've done a lot of work looking at different types of forages.
Go on, you. You're too keen.
Let's have a look. Carry on.
Different forages - so, for example, we've got some grass silage here
and we know that when we feed cows maize silage-based diets,
the amount of methane they produce per unit of feed that they eat
is lower than when they feed grass silage.
This cow seems keen on eating you at the moment.
Certainly licking you.
What are you saying is, this one -
if you feed them this one, you get lower methane than that one?
That's absolutely right, in general.
There are differences of, like, 10-15% that could be achieved
through fairly simple changes to the diet.
Would these methods cost the farmer more?
Some of these supplements could be fairly expensive.
So it depends on the potential value to the farmer
of that reduction in methane.
Along with changing cows' diets, Chris believes that genetic
improvements could also play a part in reducing emissions.
However, such an approach would take a decade or two
before we see much effect.
But what can be done to reduce emissions from arable farming?
What's clear is that a radical approach needs to be taken,
and some say we should completely transform the way we farm.
Many people who back an organic approach say it could be
the only way to save the planet.
This is organic spring barley with some nice weeds coming through
cos it hasn't been sprayed.
But Professor Lord Krebs believes the opposite.
He says that intensive arable farming means lowers emissions,
for the same amount of food produced, than organic.
Why do you think more intensive farming could offer
part of the solution?
Some people might think that's rather counterintuitive.
It does seem counterintuitive, but when I talk about intensive
farming, I mean sustainable intensification.
Not simply doing more of the same,
but thinking smart - using, for example, precision agriculture
so we can reduce fertiliser input. I know it's controversial,
but GM crops may play a role because you might be able to engineer them
so they don't need nitrogenous fertiliser added to them.
And in that way we can use the same amount of land - or less land,
even - to produce the food we need,
and use the rest of the land to suck carbon out of the atmosphere
-to use it to store carbon.
so the key point of this argument is in effect what you do with
-the land that you are no longer using for farming?
How would this work? Would it be local areas -
you'd have more forests alongside intensive farming?
Or would it, maybe in Britain's case, be intensive east, wild west?
I think you'd probably have to view it on a landscape scale,
rather than the individual farm scale, for a number of reasons.
One thing is that some parts of the country are more productive in terms
of agricultural soils than other parts,
and other parts which are less productive may be more
suitable for growing trees or other forms of wilding.
Do we need to get a bit tougher with farming
and begin to put in sort of hard targets?
Definitely. I think the voluntary approach hasn't worked.
It's not producing the reductions that we need.
In fact, if you look between 2009 and 2014,
greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture have gone up
in this country, so we're actually heading in the wrong direction
and I think that's evidence that the voluntary approach
at the moment isn't working.
Cutting emissions from farming raises some very thorny dilemmas -
with potential changes to our landscape, our diets,
farmers' livelihoods and even animal welfare.
Achieving low carbon farming might be possible,
but only with tough regulations that may well prove unpopular.
There's no doubt about it - Pembrokeshire is a striking county
with lots to capture the imagination of any photographer.
And if you think you've got a keen eye for a good picture, well,
here's a reminder of how to enter this year's Countryfile
Our theme is from dawn till dusk,
and the very best entries will feature in next year's
As always, we'll have an overall winner
voted for by Countryfile viewers.
Not only will their picture take pride of place on the cover of the
calendar - they'll also get to choose
photographic equipment worth £1,000.
Whoever takes the judge's favourite photo will be able to pick
photographic equipment to the value of £500.
To enter the competition, please write your name, address
and a daytime and evening phone number on the back of each photo
with a note of where it was taken, which must be in the UK.
Then send your entries to...
The competition isn't open to professionals
and your photos mustn't have won any other national prize.
We can only accept hard copies, not computer files.
And I'm sorry, but we won't be able to return any of your entries.
The full terms and conditions are on our website, where you'll also find
details of the BBC's code of conduct for competitions.
The competition closes at...
Which means you've got just under three weeks to send in your entries.
Pictures that reflect the British countryside from dawn till dusk.
Well, as a farmer, Adam's used to early starts,
and today is no different.
He's heading down to Cornwall with a very special delivery.
From our farm we're lucky enough to get requests
from people all over the country wanting to buy our livestock.
And the one I'm heading to now is really interesting, so I couldn't
resist the temptation of coming down myself and getting them settled in
and have a look round while I'm here, too.
The Heligan Estate is best known for its stunning Victorian gardens,
which were left abandoned and derelict for nearly 75 years.
They've now been restored to their former glory.
But there's something else Heligan is equally proud of,
something very close to my heart.
It's great being able to sell good-quality rare-breed stock
to other enthusiasts.
This spreads them out geographically,
so if a disease hits one area,
and that's where all the animals are, it could wipe them out.
But once they're spread out across the country, they're a lot safer.
It's also good if a breeder is taking on a new breed
because that helps raise the numbers.
And also, the added bonus of Heligan is they've got the general
public coming around,
so that's really raising awareness of rare-breeds conservation.
So I'm delighted they've taken some on.
Ian Davies and Andy Finch from the estate
are helping to move the new arrivals
they chose from my farm earlier this year.
-Hello, Adam. How are you doing?
-All right, thanks. Hi, Andy.
So we've got the sheep out the back.
-Into here first, it is?
-Just get them into this pen here.
Do you want to cross that?
OK, I think we're ready to go.
It's not a simple process, moving animals - something you can't
do on a whim - so the cattle have to be pre-movement TB tested.
They've got a passport they travel with.
There's lots movement licenses for the sheep.
We need to employ a professional haulier who's qualified.
And then there's all the logistics of getting them here
and getting them unloaded. It's no easy feat, really.
As well as the sheep, I'm also delivering two White Park cows
with their calves and a pregnant Highland.
There we are, Andy - what do you reckon?
Lovely. They're travelled well, haven't they?
-They're looking good. Really pleased with them.
-Why these, Ian?
Well, you know, we came up to have a look
and we were actually looking the Highlands, really.
When I was up there, seeing the White Parks in their environment
got me thinking about how else we could support the rare breeds.
I could see how they would really fit in here.
We'll breed form them and hopefully get a bigger and bigger herd.
The beef from them is tremendous, as well.
I think they're stunning animals.
I know the kings of England and the people who had grand houses
and parkland had these animals in the parks because of their
stunning faces, with their black noses and black eyes and black ears.
The Highland are a tough breed.
And they live outdoors all year round.
She should be calving in about a month or so's time
Yeah, they're going to do well here.
They can go in the woodlands, plenty of shelter for them,
and they'd do really well. Really fit in well here.
-And the Kerry Hills?
-Kerry Hills, fantastic-looking sheep.
It's one of those breeds that when I saw them
up on the farm there I thought that they'd just suit Heligan so well.
The Kerry produce a decent-size lamb.
And stunning to look at, with the black points, the black ears,
-the black noses and black feet. Shall we turn them out?
-Out through this gate.
This is your new home. Come on. Out.
There's good girls. Come on, then.
Come on, Mrs.
It's interesting, they're just checking the field out there.
Yeah, they seem to be going right round, having a good look about,
but it's really good to see the calves skipping about.
In the Cotswolds we're completely landlocked,
and here they are, spoilt with a sea view.
Part of their mission at Heligan to try to replicate
what would have existed on the estate in its heyday.
Ian's giving me a tour of the site.
Here we've got our Cornish Lops.
We know that they were in the area.
There's a real strong possibility that they were here at Heligan.
And on Heligan way back they would have had to have had
-animals for producing food for the house.
I mean, if you think the turn of the last century,
Heligan Estate was about 1,000 acres.
They would have all of the dairy, pigs,
going right through to the different breeds of the sheep.
So, actually, buyers bringing them
back here - it's going back in history.
-How many piglets you got?
-What a good litter.
It's really good. They're irresistible, aren't they?
You can just watch them all day.
And there are some other pigs here that get very excited
when they have visitors.
Especially if they're bringing lunch.
Ian, I think Tamworths are brilliant.
We've got some at home, partly
because my dad was very involved in saving them from
extinction by bringing bloodlines back from Australia.
They're just great pigs, aren't they?
Such characters and such energetic things and they go through doing
things that would take quite a few gardeners to keep on top of this.
They can rip out the bracken and the bramble, can't they?
-Get right into the roots.
-They get right down underneath,
strimming across a piece of land like this within two weeks.
They don't give up until they've had that last little bit,
which is fantastic. And it is a practice that nearly got lost.
Well, Ian, it's been fascinating looking round,
you've got so much going on.
Good luck with the new additions. Any problems, then let me know.
As well as all the livestock,
Heligan hosts an array of weird and wonderful gardens.
From tropical jungles
and vast poppy lawns
to pristine veg patches.
They even grow their own pineapples.
Nicola Bradley is in charge of the kitchen gardens.
-Good to see you.
I've had a look round the farm,
but I had no idea the gardens
-were so extensive. Beautiful, aren't they?
-They are, yeah.
And what's really lovely, it's all fully productive,
we're back up and running as a traditional kitchen garden
would have been in its heyday.
So how many different crops
or varieties of things are you growing out here?
We grow well over 300 varieties of heritage fruit and vegetables -
and flowers, as well, so a huge range.
How many people have you got working here?
We have eight people working in our productive gardens alone.
It is hugely labour-intensive -
if you're going to do that attention to detail,
you know, you need that labour force.
The classic Victorian kitchen garden is all about exactitude and
precision, and we do have visitors laugh at us because we do sometimes,
you know, have tape measures and - "Two seeds every two inches"...
But there's a practical reason behind that,
it's not just about, you know, looking perfect.
I see a lot of people working by hand. Is that part of the ethos?
Absolutely, yeah, very much so,
it's all about keeping those traditional skills alive.
What we're really aiming to achieve is to have that
fully working estate again.
The animals and the meat that's produced,
and the vegetables that we grow,
all goes to feed our visitors rather than the big house now.
Can I taste one of your strawberries or do they go to the kitchen?
Absolutely, you're more than welcome because these are just delicious.
Old variety called Royal Sovereign.
-They are amazing, aren't they?!
So juicy. Delicious, aren't they?
-They are really good.
Well, it's been great to meet you,
and what a wonderful place you've got here.
-I think I'll have this one for the road. Thanks very much!
It's been a real revelation
coming to a place that's so passionate
about celebrating the past.
Whether it's heritage varieties of fruit and veg,
forgotten farm practices,
or supporting rare livestock.
Well, I think my animals look very content in their beautiful new home.
And what's more here at Heligan is they're educating the public
about the value of these rare and traditional breeds,
and what they bring to the British countryside.
Crashing waves and a beach almost a mile long -
Freshwater West in Pembrokeshire is a surfer's paradise.
But today, I'm not here to catch a wave. I'm here for the food.
There's an award-winning restaurant overlooking the beach, and...
I say restaurant in the loosest sense of the word,
this is a public face of a man who's doing something different.
-Lovely to see you. This is so cool!
Yeah, do you fancy doing some shopping and a bit of cooking?
-Lead the way!
-I love this.
Just five years ago, Jonathan Williams was
sitting at a desk in Swindon, wondering what to do with his life.
Well, basically I was having a tough day in the office,
so just got back that night and decided to write down
what I really loved in life,
and the top three things were "Beach, Pembrokeshire, food."
I thought if I started a business incorporating those three things,
-I'd be on to a winner.
-And your business IS winning -
but it relies on a very specific ingredient,
which you have in abundance here.
Yeah. It's the most fantastic seaweed,
and you can see all the beautiful colours from up here and er...
I treat it as my shop and my kitchen and...just experiment away, really.
What are we actually looking for, Jonathan?
OK, we're looking for laver seaweed,
and you can see all around us
this kind of browny-black...
It's quite thin.
So how does this compare to this? Because, I mean,
there's a real kaleidoscope of greens and browns here.
There's three different types of seaweeds,
there's the browns, the reds and the greens.
And can you eat all three types of seaweed?
You can eat all three types, there are round about 720 in the UK
you can eat. It's just a question of whether it's worth eating.
But laver seaweed's my favourite.
Laver in Wales has always been traditional, and
it's fascinating seeing different cultures around the world
and they've picked up one or two seaweeds.
It's strange in Wales when you've got this huge array of seaweeds,
they chose to eat this.
You come down here, pick all this stuff once a week -
how careful do you have to be about
how much you take from different areas?
Well, that's really interesting, because no-one really knows,
there's no book you can go to saying you could pick X amount per beach.
To ensure laver survives here,
and to find a way to farm it commercially,
Jonathan is part-funding
a PhD student from Swansea University - Jessica Knoop.
Jessica, sorry to interrupt,
you look like you're at a crucial moment there...
'Today, she's counting and measuring.'
Can I be of any use, can I help?
Yeah, sure you can. You can actually try to measure it if you want.
-So if you just pick one maybe of the larger ones...
-Maybe this one.
So that is measuring
-Just note that...
And then we also try to measure the width.
-So this is a good part here...
Er... That's eight centimetres.
-And what are you going to do with that information?
So this information will help us to use this resource
in a more sustainable way and to ensure a sustainable harvest.
Because at the moment nobody knows what's happening around here -
we have so many gaps of knowledge.
We don't know, for example, when the seaweed is reproducing.
Which would be crucial to know, for example,
if the seaweed would just reproduce in March to May and then we pick it.
-It's not a good way to do it!
It's mad, isn't it, that people have been coming down here picking
this seaweed for hundreds and hundreds of years,
yet nobody actually knows
when's the best time to pick it, how it reproduces -
-nobody knows what impact that's having, really, do they?
-And your PhD is how long, three years?
-Three years, yeah.
-So that's a lot of measuring seaweed, isn't?
-Yeah, it is.
-How are you finding it?
-I love it.
Eating this seaweed is nothing new -
the Welsh have been making it into laverbread for centuries.
As gorgeous as it is, I'm not exactly sure
I'd want this on a burger.
That said, laverbread is the most famous of Welsh delicacies,
and it isn't made anywhere else in the world.
And I'm not really surprised.
The seaweed is boiled for hours.
Back in the 1960s,
that was the standard way to cook most vegetables.
But laverbread is still made this way today.
In laverbread's heyday,
the seaweed was left to dry in huts like this for about a week,
before being sent off to places like Swansea for processing.
Now, it serves as a reminder of times gone by, and by comparison,
Jonathan's seaweed shed is very, very modern indeed.
He's showing me how versatile seaweed can be.
Let's go cook it.
-So we start off with a bit of chilli...
-Bit of garlic. Do you like garlic?
-Yes. Good for the heart.
'He's making a seaweed pasta dish, with a twist.
'The twist is, it doesn't actually include any pasta.'
-Sea spaghetti - we're going to use this as a pasta.
Put that straight in there.
Bit of crab. Lovely lobster going in there.
-Do you want to put a bit of dulse in here?
-So dulse is...
-That's a red seaweed.
'Most of the seaweed Jonathan sells is simply washed and dried
'and turned into condiments that will add flavour to any dish.'
So if you were making a stir-fry or a risotto you would just add a bit
-I add it to baked beans now,
I add it to porridge, I add it to everything.
-You are so in love with seaweed, it is scary!
Well, I think, Helen, your dish...
is almost ready. OK?
Well, I'll tell you what,
it's the fanciest dish I'VE ever had from a burger van.
-That's really good.
-Is it all right?
-It's salty, isn't it?
The crew would love this,
but there's not that much to go around, so I'll just tuck in.
There's some egg sandwiches in the car.
Anyway - we've had fabulous weather on the Pembrokeshire coastline -
let's see what's in store this week.
Here's the Countryfile forecast for the week ahead. ..Divine!
-I'm on the Daugleddau estuary in Pembrokeshire,
discovering how this serpentine stretch of deep water
is a marine magnet for all things boat-related.
The sailing tradition here goes back many centuries,
and every couple of years
it's celebrated with a special festival called Seafair Haven.
And I've been invited on board.
Boats of all kinds, and their owners,
travel from near and far to mark the occasion,
and to explore the local waterways.
Steve Latham and his son Ciaran
are sailing the Layla.
Hello, Steve. Can I come aboard?
-Hello, John. Come aboard, and welcome.
-Good to see you.
-And Ciaran, you too.
-What a lovely boat, isn't?
-Make yourself at home.
-What's the story?
I built Layla back in the 1990s.
I designed her, built her, and sailed away.
I grew up taking this dinghy,
used to sail on up the estuary with a tent and a sleeping bag
in the dinghy, with my brother, and we'd camp on the shores.
That was sailing for me, it was a way of getting to somewhere
and having an adventure once you got there,
which is exactly what we're doing 30 years on.
Well, let's start THIS bit of the adventure now, shall we?
-Let's have an adventure.
The bustling seaport of Milford Haven is just a short distance away,
but today the Festival flotilla
is heading along one of its tributaries - the River Cresswell.
And it couldn't be more different.
This meandering backwater runs through pristine countryside.
Well, this is the life, isn't it? Sailing through the countryside.
That is the great attraction, isn't it?
It's endlessly interesting, and so many of these little creeks
that go up, and each one's a bit different.
There's still corners that we haven't explored NOW.
-We're being overtaken by your family!
-We are, they're overtaking.
So we're not racing...
-unless we win.
And it is a wonderful sight, isn't it?
-All these little boats with their sails...
-This is really something,
and this doesn't happen very often.
This doesn't happen often -
a group of boats like this all closely sailing along,
all very different.
Catamarans back there, tiny dinghies...
-Even rowing boats.
-Even rowing boat, yeah, somewhere.
Steve, what, to you, then,
is the true purpose of this Seafair Festival?
You come out here and suddenly there's a sense of community.
A lot of shared ideas, shared experience,
shared pints of beer...
Everybody thinks their boat is best!
-THEY ALL LAUGH
They're all wrong - apart from us, of course.
After a great day's sailing, we're back on shore again.
But the fun goes on.
Well, as this is a festival of the sea,
what could be more appropriate than what I can hear now - a sea shanty?
Can I just stop you for a moment?
-You look fantastic!
-What do you call your group?
-We're called Mor Ladron y Borth.
And that's the Borth Pirates.
And what are you going to sing?
We're going sing Drunken Sailor.
With a pirate hat, as well! Wow. Member of the crew.
# What shall we do with the drunken sailor
# What shall we do with the drunken sailor
# What shall we do with the drunken sailor, ear-lie in the morning?
# Way, hey, and up she rises
# Way, hey, and up she rises
# Way, hey, and up she rises ear-lie in the morning
# Tie him to the mast with Captain Craven
# Tie him to the mast with Captain Craven
# Tie him to the mast with Captain Craven, ear-lie in the morning
# Way, hey, and up she rises
# Way, hey, and up she rises
# Way, hey, and up she rises
# Ear-lie in the mor...ning. #
-Look, It's Captain Craven!
-I know. How about that?
You look and sound fantastic - great job, guys.
I thought I'd step in before it was time to...
# Shave your belly with a rusty razor... #
-That's the next line.
-But good fun.
-Great fun. Good job, guys.
That's all we've got time for, I'm afraid, from Wales.
Next week we're in Kent,
where Matt will be looking more
into that Wimbledon favourite - the strawberry.
-And Naomi is going to be taking on a watery challenge.
-How about that?
-OK, one more verse, can I join in this time?
-Thanks for your company. What's next?
-Bye-bye. See you next week.
# That's what we do with the drunken sailor
# That's what we do with the drunken sailor
# That's what we do with the drunken sailor, ear-lie in the morning... #
This episode comes from Pembrokeshire. John Craven takes to the water to find out about the area's boating heritage, painting boats and learning sea shanties along the way. Helen Skelton is foraging on Freshwater West beach and cooking up a seaweed feast. She also meets the team building the ultimate ecohouse using locally sourced materials. Sanjida O'Connell is on Skomer helping to count the Manx shearwaters who call this island home.
And Adam Henson is in Cornwall making a special delivery of rare-breed cattle to the Heligan estate, while Tom Heap is looking at what is being done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on farms after claims that agriculture produces larger quantities of gases than traffic.