John Craven races a hill runner to the summit of Snowdon and meets the volunteers protecting the area's ospreys.
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'and send them tumbling down rivers and into shimmering lakes.
'Snowdonia has beauty at every turn.'
This is the view from the top of Mount Snowdon on a clear day.
It's what thousands of people come to this dramatic
corner of Wales every year hoping to see.
I'll give you 50 minutes today, how does that sound?
I'm not quite sure about that but we'll give it a go.
'Anita may be miles from the sea, but, for her, surf is up.'
'On a much more serious note, Tom's investigating
'what the EU referendum will mean for rural Britain.'
far-reaching consequences for our countryside,
of the debate why they think they deserve your vote.
SHEEP BLEAT ADAM WHISTLES
'And down on Adam's farm, it may be a bit wet and wild,
Great, that's them all in the pens. I'll let Peg go and have a drink,
and then we'll get to work on these lambs.
'Snowdonia National Park is one of Britain's largest
'protected areas, covering more than 800 square miles.
'It's home to the highest peak in Wales - Mount Snowdon.
'I'm in Dolgarrog in the River Conwy Valley
'right on the eastern edge of the park.'
This part of the country has some of Britain's most dramatic
and mountainous landscapes, attracting visitors all year round,
and I'm here to check out one of its latest attractions.
That is Surf Snowdonia, the world's first artificial surf lagoon,
and on this gloriously sunny and dry day,
'This extraordinary place has been built on the site of a former
'Where some just saw a derelict wasteland, Andy Ainscough
'and his dad Martin saw an opportunity to ride the waves.'
The idea is insane, but just looking at it, you sort of think,
"Well, of course this should be here."
So why did you and your dad decide to do it?
We're not too close from the big populations
but we're in a beautiful part of Snowdonia,
we've power next door from a power station,
and surfing is probably the UK's biggest growing water sport,
and it was something I was really passionate about,
so we did it, and six months of development
turned into 12 months, and then we opened in 2015.
It is absolutely fantastic. What's the technology, then?
We've got a big motor at one end and a return wheel at the far end,
and it almost looks like a snowplough that
runs between the middle and creates the wave.
We create a wave of two metres in height every 90 seconds,
so the same wave every time at the push of a button.
'This old industrial site has undergone a complete transformation
'to turn it into an ecologically sensitive surfer's paradise.'
How much of a consideration has the environment been,
because you are in this very spectacular part of the world?
Yeah, this was a factory for almost 100 years,
and when it closed in 2007, it was left derelict.
We came in and cleaned up the land, pumped out all the oils
and solvents, erm, completely broke up all the concrete
and used it in our construction to make the bases for our buildings.
Yeah, we recycled pretty much all the concrete on site.
The water's recycled, that comes from the hydro power station,
from the pipes down from the mountains.
And I've noticed it's not bright blue,
it's kind of a sandy colour underneath it.
Yeah, we always wanted a liner to match the River Conwy.
We're only about half a mile from the River Conwy, which is tidal,
which is sand colour at low tide, so we had to match that.
We're just on the edge of the National Park
so the way this looks is sort of very important.
Cos when you do have a look at it from up high,
Honestly, I thought it would be somewhere like Costa Rica,
I guess I'm going to have to give it a go at some point.
'But before I dip my toe in the water, I want to find out
'about something else on this site that's pretty special.'
It's not just the surfers who are making the most of this environment.
'The landscape and wildlife around the surf lake is also being
'Tucked away in a quiet corner of the site is one of the habitats
'being managed by a team from Natural Resources Wales.'
'have been involved with the project from the start,
'working closely with Andy to help protect the natural environment.'
environmental considerations for this area?
Obviously we've got the main River Conwy just over here,
there's important mussel beds in the estuary,
and also bathing water there as well,
so it was really important for us to protect the water quality
and also the biodiversity in the area.
We've got a nature reserve next door,
a Site of Special Scientific Interest here as well.
And why is it important to have kept this bit of the factory?
This part of the factory supports the lesser horseshoe bat.
It's a very important area for the lesser horseshoe bat is
the Conwy Valley, with a number of nationally important roosts.
And this was used by the bats for hibernation.
So this is an example of what they look like.
Oh, they're so cute. Oh, they're fantastic. Aren't they?
And what kind of environments does a lesser horseshoe bat like to be in?
Lesser horseshoe bats like a connected landscape with
a mosaic of habitats which includes woodlands, hedgerows, er, streams...
Do they mind surfers? They don't mind surfers at all.
And have you both had a go at surfing?
Soon? You've got to! It's right there!
A nice day today, I'm quite tempted.
'It's great to see how this unique facility has breathed new life
'into the region, transforming a heavily polluted industrial site
'into a haven for wildlife and people.'
Now, over the next few weeks, Britain will be facing arguably
as we vote on whether to stay or leave the European Union.
It's a choice that will be felt keenly in rural Britain,
'From craggy fells to meandering rivers,
'our countryside feels quintessentially British.'
Though we are involved in the decision-making process, many of
the levers of power that affect our farms and wildlife are pulled
across the Channel, and have been for more than 40 years.
'When it comes to shaping our countryside, laws drafted
'by the European Union come a close second to the laws of nature.'
So, in this week's programme and the next,
we're going to look at the key issues in the EU referendum debate.
'We'll ask the key players on both sides,
'Prime Minister David Cameron for Britain Stronger In Europe...'
Look, I love the British countryside,
I think it's one of our national treasures.
'..and from the Vote Leave campaign, Boris Johnson...'
The countryside is absolutely central to ourselves,
our sense of identity in this country.
'..why backing them promises a rosier future for rural Britain.
'to a sheep farm in his constituency of Witney in Oxfordshire.'
So you've been connected with Oxfordshire a while,
you got married here, obviously you've got your constituency...
That's right. Yeah, well, I've been MP here since 2001,
and I was brought up in West Berkshire...
'Money is key to any business, but for some British farms,
'subsidies from the EU are a vital lifeline.
'Currently, under the Common Agricultural Policy,
'or CAP, UK farmers receive nearly ?3 billion a year.'
But through CAP, the EU decides how much of Britain's farming operates,
and some believe the UK will be better off looking after
its own affairs, like Norway, where the government does decide
to subsidise its farmers, or New Zealand,
'That's what Berkshire farmer Colin Rayner thinks,
'and that's why he's voting to leave.'
It's about time we should put our sovereignty
and control of our own destiny before subsidy.
I will not omit it, it will be three or four years of pain,
they are so pleased they went through that pain
cos they're stronger, and also they're independent,
and they're brave people, and I think we can be brave.
'should a British government support our farmers?
When it comes to the Common Agricultural Policy,
currently we pay more in than we get back, so if we were on our own,
we could still support the farmers at no more cost to the public.
Well, I think what would happen if we left the EU is it would impact
our economy, our economy would be smaller,
and we'd be less able to support our health service or schools
or indeed farmers, so I think it's a bad idea to leave,
actually the National Farmers Union, the Scottish Farmers Union,
the Welsh Farmers Union all say we're better off in,
currently we put more into the CAP than we get back,
so we would have money to spend on farming even if we left the EU.
Well, I don't think our farming simply depends on, er,
Common Agricultural payments - they're important to farmers -
our farming also depends on having Europe's markets open to us,
500 million people buying our produce.
And if you leave the EU and leave the single market,
you lose automatic access to that market.
You have said, "If we leave the EU, so long as I'm Prime Minister,
I just want to get a bit more detail on that.
Does that mean there would be financial support?
We'd have to, if I was Prime Minister.
As I say, I believe in the living, working countryside,
If you ask me, "Can you tell me exactly what that will consist of?"
No, I can't. I'm saying vote to stay in,
keep the Common Agricultural Policy payments that we get now,
keep Europe's markets open, let's make sure
we keep improving the regulatory situation that we face,
It's improved a lot over our, you know, recent lifetimes,
but there's more to be done to improve it.
I would worry for our farmers if we left the EU,
because you wouldn't get automatic access to the market.
You might well have tariffs, you might have quotas
and our industry would suffer as a result.
But is that not spreading a little bit of a scare on trade?
Because they want to trade with us in farm food produce
and there's no real reason to assume that couldn't continue?
Well, I think the people who want us to leave
say they want to leave the single market, they want a trade deal.
Europe has not signed any trade deal with any country
anywhere in the world that gives full access for farming produce.
That's a fact. And you can't hide from...
I think the Leave campaigners do have a real problem here.
They don't want to stay in the single market, they've told us that,
they want a trade deal, that would be bad for Britain's farmers.
Why would European countries give us a better deal
'So, the Prime Minister believes the single market is key to our future.
'Though for many, the burden of regulation that comes with it
'But what about one contentious subject that troubles
'some in our rural heartlands? Migration.'
British farming relies heavily on migrant workers from the EU.
Some estimates say over 34,000 non-UK born workers
'the number of migrant workers has more than trebled in ten years.
'Some think, like independent councillor Angela Newton,
'that this is changing many rural communities.'
now that there's a lot more migrant workers,
you will see a lot of Polish and Lithuanian shops,
which is good, so there's diversity there.
Unfortunately, some of the migrant workers
They tend to hang about more in groups and gangs
and that makes some of our older people,
our local residents, more afraid to go out at night.
If you're living in a village or a small town
you've seen the population of your place change dramatically.
What can you say to those people if we...about what will happen
to their community if we stay in the EU?
If we choose to stay in the European Union, first of all,
the deal I've done means that people coming here from Europe to work will
not get full access to our welfare system for four years,
they have to pay in before they get out. I think that's very important.
But they're not coming for welfare, they're coming to work on our farms!
Absolutely, that's why I say the other side of it is we must
make sure that we're investing in the apprenticeships
and the training to get more British people to do these jobs.
But if we look at agriculture, you know, nine out of ten people
working in it are British and the people who do come from other
European countries to work, you know,
are making an important contribution.
But it seems to me you can't really offer any comfort
to someone who's worried about the culture of their village
having already changed and may well change more.
That's just going to be the way it is?
We support people being able to live and work in
different European countries, just as we do.
That is part of being in the single market.
the single market is not just trade in goods and services.
It's the idea that actually different people, it's the...
You can work in different countries as well.
It's part of a package and you either stay in the package,
which I think is the right thing to do, or you get out of the package,
in which case, I think you've got some real economic problems.
'So that's what the Prime Minister for the Stronger In campaign
'thinks the future holds for the British countryside.
'But what does the other side think?'
Well, later on, I'll be putting those same key thoughts
to Boris Johnson of the Vote Leave campaign.
JOHN: 'The rugged, mountainous landscape of Snowdonia
'And many come back time and time again.'
One group of visitors who return here every year
have themselves become a great attraction.
'Ospreys are fish-eating, migratory birds of prey
'Persecution and egg collecting wiped them out in the UK,
'but in the 1950s, a pair started to breed in Scotland and now,
'there are more than 200 pairs across Britain.
'Ospreys were first seen here at Glaslyn in 2004.
'There were protected by the RSPB until three years ago
'when a local volunteer group, Glaslyn Wildlife, took over.
Well, this is a great spot for ospreys, isn't it?
because we've got the estuary for them to fish in,
And what's the sort of idea behind all this?
Well, the aim originally, of course, is to protect the ospreys,
but we need to recognise that the ospreys provide a service
They bring people to the area, they educate
and they inspire people to get outside and enjoy themselves.
'A good example are these local children who are helping
'Darren Moore from Friends of the Ospreys to build a nest.
'It'll be installed, like this one, on a pole.
'A ready-made home for any of this year's young returning from Africa.'
It probably needs a bit more bedding in there, kids. Yeah.
How important do you think it is to be helping ospreys like this?
Yeah. You're helping them not dying. Yeah.
I think it's very important to help all type of birds, any nature.
Cos it's very important to us and we should do more of that, I think.
So what happens when the birds find a nest like this?
Throughout the year, they actually add more material into the nest,
and with that, there's too much weight in there.
Can it fall off the tree? Easily, yeah.
When they come back, we've actually scraped all that material out.
They come back to a pristine nest? They do, yeah.
Do they not wonder, "Well, we left it in a bit of a state,
"how's it like this?" I often think of that
and I wonder what's going through their head.
They've just got to lay their eggs and get on with life.
'There's a nest site just a couple of miles away.
'And as the Welsh Mountain Railway happens rather conveniently
'to run close by, I'm hitching a lift on one of its classic trains.'
'The first osprey to nest at Glaslyn in 2004
'Known as Mrs G, she and her partner Aran have a nest
'which is protected 24/7 by Glaslyn Wildlife volunteers.'
And you're one of the local volunteers, aren't you,
who keeps watch on the nest? Yes. How did you get involved?
Erm... Well, I've got a love of birds and nature
and just decided to drop in there and offer to volunteer.
Right, if you look straight ahead... Yeah.
..where the tall conifers are... Yeah? ..and you'll see the perch.
The female will be on it, on the eggs right now.
'A batch of hidden cameras focus on the nest
'and the pictures are carefully monitored from this caravan.
'They're also beamed back to the visitor centre.'
Wow, that is a fantastic shot, isn't it?
That's the female on the nest. And there we go, we can see the eggs.
You can see the eggs there, underneath, two of them.
Sort of white with brown speckles. And she's... What's she doing there?
She's just turning them. Turning them round? Yeah.
And if you notice as well, her talons,
that she pulls them in so that she doesn't pierce the eggs. Aw.
And has she had many chicks? Yeah, she's had 28 chicks since 2004. Wow.
Fearsome-looking birds, aren't they? Yeah.
But beautiful at the same time. Stunning.
And here comes Aran, back again. Yeah. Yeah.
Do you think he'll take over now, on the nest? Yeah.
He'll incubate the eggs while she stretches her wings,
but she seems to have a lot of trust in Aran... Certainly.
..and lets him... He gets the job. Yeah. And off she's flown now! Yeah.
What I've been seeing here is a truly local
and very successful wildlife conservation project which is
aiming to protect one of our nation's most important birds
and all of the volunteers here are determined that the ospreys,
their ospreys, will feel at home in their valley.
If you've been inspired by these volunteers,
check out the BBC's Do Something Great website and do the quiz.
You'll get personalised suggestions to help you find a volunteering
We all love to walk through picturesque landscape
but do we really appreciate all that we encounter?
Well, I've come here to Snowdonia to meet an artist whose work is
truly connected to the landscape and intended to give passers-by
an enhanced vision of the world around them.
'Anthony Garratt is a contemporary artist who's
'renowned for his large-scale outdoor installations.
'He creates these dramatic works in the landscapes where
'He's taking on his greatest challenge to date.
'Two paintings, High and Low, will be exhibited in two contrasting
Anthony, how are you doing? Hi, Joe, very well, how are you?
Good to see you. And you. This looks amazing.
And an epic backdrop as well. It is an epic backdrop, yeah.
You've got those beautiful mountains at the top
and then this aggressive quarry at the bottom. It's an exciting spot.
It's very rare to see a painting exhibited outdoors,
and it's a unique way of seeing a painting because the weather changes
each day, it has a life of its own, and it's open to everyone as well,
so there's no hiding it away in a white box
So these will be exhibited outside for how long, for weeks, for months?
So this project is called High and Low,
and it is going to be exhibited for about five months.
One on the flanks of Mount Snowdon, on a lake, and this one
is going to be hanging down in a slate cavern 500 feet underground.
So they explore the highs and the lows of Snowdonia.
And the heritage of the mining as well, so on Snowdon you've got
the old copper mine, and here you've got the slate mining industry.
I want to see you work... Yeah, get stuck in. ..so I can get paint.
'For Anthony, it's important to use natural materials
'connected to the landscape, such as copper and slate.'
Perfect, there we go. I'd hang it up now, it looks great.
Are you OK there for a couple of hours?
Yeah, this is probably where I'm most useful, I think.
'This painting represents the Low part of the project
'and will be displayed in the belly of Llechwedd slate mine.
'It's not just Anthony working on these installations.
'He has a team of more than 20 people helping him realise
'Anthony's other painting, High, is finished and ready to put in place.
'We're carrying it to its final destination,
'floating on the lake Llyn Llydaw under the shadow of Mount Snowdon.'
This is your moving team. It is indeed.
Hello, everyone. ALL: Hi.
So how far has it got to go? Half a mile. Half a mile.
'200 years ago, miners walked this track,
'and being true to the history of the place, the team are following in
'their footsteps, transporting the painting to its new home.'
Brilliant, thanks very much, everyone. And we're down. Good job.
Anthony, carrying it around there really hits home that this is
a team effort, this isn't about a solo artist.
The painting's a small element of the whole project.
I mean, there's a couple of shipwrights, Mark and Loz,
who have been designing and building this for months.
It has taken a lot of effort from a big team, which is great.
So the final thing is to launch a massive painting
into the middle of a lake. Indeed. Just beneath the summit of Snowdon.
You don't say that very often, do you? Exactly.
I'm excited. Right. Great, let's crack on.
'are getting ready for the launch at the water's edge.'
So this frame here that's going to hold the canvas
is your construction. It is, yeah. This was quite a big challenge.
Because we had to keep it light so that it could all be carried up.
And you've seen all the carrying that's gone on. Yeah.
We're going to get all this lot set up by the water's edge... OK.
..and then get ready to do some more lifting and carrying.
Should we have a go getting it down to the lake? Yeah.
Can we get some more help? Yeah, let's do, wave some people in.
So now we need the painting. Oh, yeah.
We're going to pick it up, take it down to the framework.
And then we'll stand it up and then we'll make the rest up
when we get there. And then who knows? Who knows, indeed?
This is such a surreal view, looking out across this giant artwork
and just seeing five heads around me.
'It's taken so much effort to get to this moment,
'It's a curious sight watching this giant canvas glide
'across the lake, and after all the hard work, it's finally in place.'
So, there it is. You must be very proud. Yeah, it feels amazing.
I'm sort of fed up of looking at the painting,
so it's quite nice to have it out there. But it looks amazing.
And it shows it had to be that big. It's the biggest
freestanding canvas you've ever worked on, isn't it? Yeah.
It's huge, but it does look small. Wow.
Well done. Thank you. Good work. Thanks for your help.
I'm pleased that's worked out so well, it's beautiful.
'This is a tremendous feat for Anthony and his team.
'Throughout the coming year, these remarkable paintings will be
'at one with Snowdonia's ever-changing conditions and light,
'allowing the viewer to engage with both the art
'and the landscape which inspired it.'
TOM: 'Earlier, we heard from the Prime Minister for the
Stronger In campaign on the key issues of farming, trade and
'staying in the European Union is the best option for rural Britain.'
But what do the Vote Leave campaign think about those issues?
Well, I've been invited to Boris Johnson's family farm,
What does it mean to you, this place?
It's holy, it's holy, it's holy, it's a place...
It's just the most beautiful, wonderful place in the world.
'one of the key issues for farmers is that currently,
'under the Common Agricultural Policy,
'they receive nearly ?3 billion from the EU in subsidies
'And like many, Welsh hill farmer John Davies
'is nervous about giving that up, so he's voting to stay.'
Being in the EU means being able to sell my lamb,
being able to sell my beef without any barriers to 500 million people.
And Common Agricultural Policy and support around that,
and I'm not convinced we'd have that if we left.
'So how does Boris Johnson answer those concerns?'
will we remain, or not, a member of the single market?
Well, we would have access to the single market,
but we wouldn't remain part of the whole empire of EU lawmaking.
That's a crucial point to understand. So that means that
everything, would no longer come under the jurisdiction
of the commission and the bubble of the European Court of Justice.
So, if I'm a sheep farmer or a beef farmer, you know,
some of those export very high percentages to the EU... Yes.
..the moment I hear you saying we're going to get out
of the single market, I'm alarmed. Well, no, you shouldn't be.
The crucial thing to understand from the point of view of agriculture
is that provided we'd complied, provided, you know,
good to eat, they were fit and proper and healthy
there'd be no difficulty at all selling in to the rest of the EU,
you just wouldn't have the same burden of regulation.
So, if you think about it, 94% of UK businesses
Most of them are within the domestic market,
but 100% have to comply with EU regulations.
I know I can sell into the rest of Europe,
just like I could sell to the farm, to the town next door... Yes.
..and that is something you cannot guarantee
if we get out of the single market. Well, yes, we can, because...
Only if you obey all their regulations
that they want to bring with it. Yeah, obviously,
but if you want to export any kind of product to
a country where they have certain rules, you're obviously going to
want to make sure that that product is acceptable to that market.
What some people might say is, "Well, what if they decide
And that is not going to happen, in my view. Obviously, you know...
But it's your view, you can't guarantee it.
You've metaphorically stuck up two fingers to the rest of Europe.
No... What makes you think they're going to play nice with us?
Not two fingers, not two fingers. We love the rest of Europe. Funny
way of showing it, voting to leave. No. Well, we're not leaving Europe,
we're leaving the EU system. they send us about
?18 billion worth of food, we pay about ?18 billion
to them for their food, and we sell about ?7 billion worth
to the continental Europe. So, from their point of view, what's
not to like? It's a great deal. Can you guarantee that farmers
would get the same level of subsidy after we'd left the EU
as they do now? Well, I can make that guarantee,
but people will say, well, I'm just a backbench Tory MP.
All I can say is, I think any government would be mad
not to make such a guarantee. It's much more important to get
a guarantee and get commitments from UK government, that you can
hold to account, that you can kick out of office and you can
elect. And I'm saying that our point of view on the Leave camp is we want
to fund and support agriculture. We've said that from
day one of this campaign. But furthermore, the extra
incentive for our farmers to go for Leave is getting
rid of that burden. It's the form filling, it's being
told that you've got to go back and do something again
or you won't qualify. It's being told that
if your sheep's got two teeth, it's got to be butchered
in a certain way, or that, you know, you can't bury
your own sheep on your own farm. 'So if we vote Leave, the claim is
we can look after our own affairs.' Our rural economy relies heavily
on workers from other EU countries, and flexible workforce is vital
to their business. That's certainly true for
Yorkshire farmer Guy Poskitt, He employs 300 staff,
70% of whom are migrant workers. We rely very,
very heavily on migrant labour. What that's brought
to our business is we've been able to attract customers because we've
then had a workforce that would If we come out, I don't get
the access to labour, I've had it, because, sadly, I cannot find
enough local labour to meet A number of farms in the UK
are dependent on migrant labour, Yeah. Well, obviously, people who
exist, who are here already under the Vienna treaty, they would have a
right to be here and to work. All we're saying is in taking back
control of immigration, we are saying to people, "If you want to
come and work here "and contribute to the agricultural
sector, fantastic. "there's got to be some sense
in which we know that you're not "just arriving without any
qualifications or any job." Basically, workers can come here
if there is a job for them. There could continue to be
an increasing number of people from the rest of the continent of
Europe in Britain, even if we leave. Because there's plenty of demand
for the labour. I think it would be up to the
government of the day, and if the rural industry was
saying, "Look, come on, "we're desperate, we can't get
the crops out of the field," then of course that's an argument
that people will listen to. But the great thing is, that will
have gone through a democratic process of consent
from the British people. 'So we've heard from both
sides on issues that will impact 'the future of
the British countryside.' But that's not
the end of the debate. Next week, we'll look at two more
issues of huge importance that So, what do the Prime Minister
and Boris Johnson think about the future of our fisheries
and environment? 'I'm in the Conwy Valley, on the
edge of the Snowdonia National Park, 'and I'm about to try the latest way
to enjoy the great outdoors. 'Jo Dennison is head
coach at Surf Snowdonia, 'the perfect person to help me
catch a wave.' THEY LAUGH
That's why I'm here. All right, are you going to teach
me? I am, yes. I'm very nervous. We're going to go through a few
things before we get in the water. I'll tell you everything
you need to know. Then we can catch a few waves.
And I know I'm in safe hands. Come on, give me your credentials,
don't be modest. Four times Welsh champion and
former British champion. Good girl. That's what we like to hear. And how
many years have you been surfing? I've been surfing
for about 12 years now. I mean, you've probably surfed
all around the world. How does this compare? This is such
a great training facility. You can catch so many waves here,
it's brilliant for practising. 'I've never done this before,
but I'm always up for a challenge. You'll probably see a wave
coming towards you. When it gets another board's
length away, So, look forwards, nice, long,
strong paddles, like that. And from here, I'm just
going to take two steps. OK. OK, so just try it.
That's not going to work! Do I look like I know
what I'm doing? Oh, it's so much fun doing
it in this incredible surroundings. But Adam is not faring much better
down on his farm. Right, surf's up. The days are getting longer
and the weather's getting warmer. We're still getting
a few of these spring showers, but that's a good thing because
warm, wet weather means the crops are growing really well,
and there's plenty of grass. That's good for the cows
that are producing milk to feed their calves,
and also good for the sheep. That's one of the jobs I've
got to do now. Get the flock in to find out how much weight
those lambs are putting on. 'It seems only a short time ago
that we were putting these lambs 'out to grass.
But, 12 weeks down the line, 'and we're already looking to
send some to market. 'My sheepdog, Peg,
has had most of the winter off, 'but she's now keen to get
reacquainted with the flock.' As soon as we put the rams
in with the ewes in the autumn, we have to be really
careful with the ewes because they're conceiving lambs,
and if we chase them around with the dog, they could
reabsorb those lambs or abort them. So the dogs get most of the winter
and early spring off, and they're running around after
their mothers and there's plenty of sheep jobs to be done, we're
getting the dogs back into action. And Peg here is going well,
although she's a little bit rusty. One of the difficulties of
working a flock like this with is that the lambs don't really
know what a dog is, and the ewes are incredibly
protective of their lambs so they'll often face the sheepdog
and try and chase them away There's quite a strong ewe here
that's stamping her foot and facing up to her.
A very good mother. But I want her to move on...
Come-bye. Steady. ..without there being
any aggression from the dog. And the lambs have got to learn what
being herded by a dog is all about. It's part of their natural instinct,
because deep down, at one time, wild sheep would have been
chased by wolves, but they're a bit chaotic,
they're like crazy teenagers 'but it's always tricky getting
the flock into the handling pens. 'Luckily, my stock hand,
Ellen, and her dog, Tweed, And then we'll get to work
on these lambs. 'The first job is to separate
the lambs from the ewes. 'It's a noisy business as
the lambs don't like being 'But it'll speed things up
when we start to weigh them.' These lambs are now 12 to 14 weeks
old, and all this lovely wet, warm weather is meaning the grass
is growing really well. And the lambs are grazing
on the grass, but they're also drinking
their mother's milk. so they're getting
all of their mother's milk. So a big lamb like that is doing
really well and growing very fast. That one, Ellen, how heavy's that?
45. 45 kilos,
so he's ready to go to market. The smaller ones,
like this lamb here, having to share their mother's
milk, because that's a twin, so it will be growing
slightly slower. 'Being able to monitor the growth
of each lamb means I can select 'the best animals to then breed
from and better manage my flock.' Each lamb has a tag in its ear and
in that tag is an electronic chip, and as it goes into the weigh
scales, there's a reader on the side and the
information about that lamb So when Ellen looks at it,
she can tell when the lamb was born and how many grams of meat
that lamb has been putting on every day, and therefore
how quickly it's growing. And we're selecting lambs to
breed from in the future that have these growth rates, as well
as all the maternal instincts and all those sorts of things
as well. So we can use this electronic book-keeping system to
improve the genetics of our flock. 'Selective breeding is something
we also do with our rare breeds. 'This is Commander,
a-year-old Gloucester bull But before I do that, he needs
to be inspected by a vet to make sure he's healthy, and then
all his papers have to go to the society, with some
photographs of him and his mum to make sure they think he's good
enough to go as a breeding bull. The vet will be checking Commander
over to make sure he's healthy. He'll be looking at his teeth,
his eyes, hearing his lungs and his heart, as well as checking
his markings to make sure he looks correct as a Gloucester.
And then the photographs and all that information
from the vet will be sent off to the Gloucester Cattle Society.
And fingers crossed, he'll pass. These white bits are a bit tricky
to get whiter than white, particularly seeing as
this is the dirty end. And that's good. So that's one
from each side, one from the back. Just got to take one from the front.
And I'll print those off... COMMANDER MOOS
..and send them to the society. I know, you look lovely,
don't you, mate? I think he's quite photogenic,
really. 'Photogenic he may be, but it's
the vet's tests that really matter.' 'There's been a lot of time
and effort gone into rearing 'but if he doesn't meet the
requirements of the breed society, 'rather than being sold
for breeding, 'he'll have to go for beef,
which will be a real shame.' So what's your overview
on the assessment of Commander? Yeah, so, all good. The checklist
is fine, so he's passed. So just a case of a DNA sample now.
Wonderful. So a DNA sample is just a case
of pulling out a few hairs from his tail and
sending them off to be tested. 'Fingers crossed, Commander
will be confirmed as a genuine 'I'm in Snowdonia
and the village of Llanberis. 'Its fortunes have been linked
with Snowdon ever 'since the mountain railway
opened 120 years ago. 'People come from all
over the world to ride, But one day, every year,
they come here to run. 'The Snowdon International Race
brings more than 700 runners 'and supporters to Llanberis
every July.' RACE ANNOUNCER: There's a popular
third place. 'Ben Mounsey finished third
last year 'and is one of the favourites
for this year's race. 'Today, I'm going to race him
to the top of Snowdon.' Normally, you run up to the top
and then back down again, don't you? But this morning, we're just
going to the summit. That's right. and you're going to be
climbing over 3,000 ft. Oh! How long does that normally
take you, then? Well, let's make it interesting.
I'll give you 50 minutes today. How does that sound?
I'm not quite sure about that. But we'll give it a go. Shall we?
Let's go. Right. 'You didn't really think I was going
to run up there, did you?' There's a train here that
goes to the top. 'I'm catching a ride with Wyddfa,
which is Welsh for Snowdon. 'She is one of the original
1896 steam locos. 'And I have good
company on the journey. '40 years ago, it was
Ken Jones who had that 'idea of racing from Llanberis
to the summit and back. First thing I did, really, was to
get in touch with the local carnival committee, and thought
they would like to have a race in front of the
carnival procession. Of course, the runner was up
and down in one hour and 12 minutes, by the time it took the carnival
procession to go round the village. And how many people took
part in that first race, then? And quite a lot of the local
lads took part. So with 80 odd runners taking part,
it was a big hit, wasn't it? Yes. Yes, it soon dawned on us the
following day, really, that people were already asking,
"Are you going to put "it on next year?" And that's what
happened. 'And here is Ken the very next year,
1977, 'with the race already attracting
television cameras and large crowds. 'There are no crowds for Ben today,
though. 'He's aiming to hit
the summit in around 50 minutes. 'But the course
record for the race up 'and down was set by Kenny Stuart
in 1985, 62:29 there and back from the
village of Llanberis. Goodness me. I mean, I've walked down this
mountain before now You went up
and down in just over an hour. I was racing against some
top international runners, including Italians.
So they pushed me on to that time. And when you got to the finishing
line, what was the feeling? I mean, were you exhausted?
No, I was pretty good, actually. but a winner always feels very good
when he finishes. 'Ben's not going to be troubling
Kenny's record today 'but he has got
a bit of a lead over us. 'Stephen Edwards has been organising
the Snowdon Race since 2009. 'Under his stewardship,
it's grown in importance.' I imagine that this race must be of
huge benefit to the local community. All the people who come here,
the people who come to watch, It's a huge social day, in a way,
for the people of the area. the community...the area around
Llanberis. Many people organise their summer
holidays around the Snowdon Race. A good money-earner for a lot
of people. It is. The cakes have been baked locally,
the marshals, the hotels are full. And it's usually,
now, around between ?200,000 and ?250,000 impact
to the area. So Ken's little idea, originally,
has turned into something quite big. It's quite big, really, but what's
nice - it looks a professional, commercial event but it's still been
organised by the community 'As we approach the summit,
we can see Ben just ahead. 'It's man versus train
and man looks like winning. 'And, for his efforts,
Ben gets to meet his hero, Kenny, 'whose long-standing record
he'd love to beat.' Sorry to leave you on your own
but I had a train ticket, you know. Was it a tough run? It was a tough
run. It was a good race. Well, you beat us.
Thank you very much. And can I introduce you to Kenny?
Hi. Who has the course record of,
what was it again? So that's what you've got to try
and beat this year. Big ask! 'it doesn't really matter
how you get to the top 'if you're lucky enough to
have views like this.' Well, the weather really couldn't
have been better for us on top of Mount Snowdon today.
It's absolutely glorious. But what's it going to be like right
across the UK in the week ahead? Good evening. It has been a largely
fine day across many parts of the country with low cloud for eastern
areas that was stubborn to break up, but for many of us it did, leaving
spells of sunshine such as this, as you can see here in County Durham.
The start of the week, a lot of fine, dry weather on the cards but
things turning unsettled late in the week. Certainly some rain on the
cards at times. The warmest weather and brightest weather will be
generally further west. Over the next 24 hours, we have high pressure
sitting out to the north-west of the UK and a slow-moving area of low
pressure towards the near continent, so the squeeze in the isobars means
some fairly breezy weather on the cards through back on the day Monday
across eastern parts in particular. -- three bank holiday. Things in
eastern Scotland starting cloudy with some sunshine breaking through
by the afternoon. But the lion's share of the sunshine is across
Wales, the south-west of England, where we are likely to see 20 or 21,
20 2 degrees. Cooler conditions across eastern and south-eastern
England. Especially over the more exposed coasts. A sunny, maybe dry
afternoon over Northern Ireland with the chance of an isolated shower and
a few showers for Scotland but not as heavy or frequent as those we had
today. As we enter tomorrow, most places staying dry though we still
have that wind for eastern areas and the cloud in the East gradually
drifting westwards as we head into the early hours of Tuesday, bringing
some outbreaks of rain, particularly heavy at times across East Anglia
and down towards the south-east. Tuesday will be influenced by this
area of low pressure sitting across northern France and the low
countries and that will be throwing weather fronts our way, coming in
from East, so some uncertainty how things will progress. Some fairly
heavy rain for eastern parts of England associated with that frontal
system, whereas further north and west, plenty of sunshine.
Temperatures in Glasgow at 20 or so and under the cloud, more like 14 in
Norwich. Some real contrast as we head into Wednesday. This area of
low pressure drifting northwards on Wednesday, as well as westwards, and
some uncertainty in the detail but likely to see spells of rain across
northern England, Wales and possibly down to the south-west. A few
showers south of that with the driest and brightest weather further
north, and that is down to this big area of high pressure dominating our
weather as we had to the end of the week. This frontal system still
hanging around on Thursday. It is likely to produce spots of rain and
cloud across southern areas. Further north, more sunshine, but across the
board, we see those temperatures dipping down compared to recent
days. And that is how we end the week. Into Friday, we still have
that high pressure to the north and with the winds circulating in a
clockwise direction, we will be drawing in the breeze from a north
or north-easterly direction. So fairly cool in the North. Looks like
we start and end the week on 'We've been exploring
the awe-inspiring 'landscapes of Snowdonia
in north Wales. 'the challenges of fell-running
on Mount Snowdon, 'I've been taking on
my own watery challenge.' 'I've definitely caught
the surfing bug. 'It's something all of us should be
able to experience. 'Here at Surf Snowdonia,
disability experts 'and surf enthusiasts Ben Clifford
and Ross Head have come to 'test a surfboard they've designed
for people with reduced mobility.' Hi, guys, how are you doing?
Hi there. Wow. Tell me about this.
What is this, Ross? This is a surfboard
that's been developed specifically for use
by disabled people. So whose idea was it? Ben came up
with the idea or the need for one. and we're a surfing
school for disabled people and we're working with a boy
regularly who didn't feel comfortable led down holding on
to the handles. So we tried sitting him on the board
and holding him but, again, he didn't feel comfortable,
so we looked at a bath seat and we were strapping that to the board
and that was an instant change. 'With the help of Ross
and a surfboard designer, 'Ben's home-made prototype was
transformed into a tandem surfboard, 'complete with
its own special chair.' It looks like a Grand Prix F1 seat,
doesn't it? It is, it is exactly that.
It's the seat out of a sports car. A racing go-kart.
But it doesn't have any straps. No, so...if we wipe out,
we want the participant to fall away from the board and then
we'll have catchers in the water. So we will have people to
support the participant So whoever you are,
wiping out is part of surfing. And who's going to be
testing it today? So we've got Tina with us today,
who's really keen really keen to have a go and
catch some waves here. Fantastic,
I can't wait to see it in action. 'Whilst the team practise
with their special surfboard... '..I'm going to meet self-confessed
adrenaline junkie Tina.' It looks awesome.
It does, doesn't it? Yeah. Does it make you want
to get out there? So how do you feel about getting
on this specially designed surfboard today?
Have you used it before? I've used it once before but, before
that time, what we used to use was a big, like, surfboard,
and I used to lie down on my belly. And after a while, it would
get tiring on my arms and my back. So with this new board,
it's quite awesome because I could ride
the waves all day. I think that the guy surfing
on the back is more tired than me. At 16, Tina was diagnosed
with a degenerative condition It affects her coordination
and movement. By the time she was 21,
she had to make a big decision. I went to university
and I was still walking wobbly and holding on to friends
and things. And then after university,
I thought, "Right, I'm going
to give in to the chair." "Right, I'm going to have to use
a wheelchair." But, actually,
once I started using the chair, I noticed it made me
less disabled than disabled. Because I felt I could do whatever
I wanted to do now without getting tired and things,
walking around. I was free. And free to do what,
exactly, Tina? Erm...I've been skydiving,
that was the first thing that I did. And I got my own kayak.
I've been abseiling. I just enjoy whatever's
possible for me to do. My motto in life is - I don't need
easy, I just need possible. So how do you feel about getting
on this man-made surf lagoon? 'The tandem surfboard has
worked perfectly 'and it looks like Tina has enjoyed
surfing here as much as I have. 'to this beautiful part
of the country.' Well, that looked like real fun.
John, it was exhilarating. I can highly recommend it.
You got on one knee as well. I did. Maybe if I practise a little bit
harder I can get on two. I think you got the easy option
getting the train. I did,
but I did jog to the station. Next week, Matt and I will be in
Montrose. Not Malibu, then? No, we're building up to Malibu.
Until then, bye-bye.
Countryfile is in Snowdonia. John Craven races a hill runner to the summit of Snowdon and meets the volunteers protecting the area's ospreys. Anita Rani dons her wetsuit to discover that you don't need to be near the sea to go surfing. Joe Crowley meets the artist whose work is taking centre stage in this landscape. And it's all going down on Adam Henson's farm as spring takes hold. The EU referendum is arguably the biggest decision facing our countryside for decades; Tom Heap meets up with the leading figures from both sides of the argument and asks the prime minister and Boris Johnson why rural Britain should vote with them.