Pennod 2 Iolo: Deifio yn y Barrier Reef


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Pennod 2

Bydd Iolo yn deifio i longddrylliad yr SS Yongala sydd wedi datblygu'n rîff artiffisial. Iolo dives to the remains of the SS Yongala, a shipwreck now transformed into an artific...


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-I'm Iolo Williams.

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-I've spent years studying wildlife

-on land and in the air.

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-This time,

-I'm venturing into a new world.

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-I'll be looking for creatures

-I've never seen before.

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-I'm travelling to Australia

-to dive under the sea...

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-..to see

-one of our planet's treasures.

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-This is the Great Barrier Reef.

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-It extends over 1,000 miles

-off the coast of northern Australia.

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-But this important part

-of our ecosystem...

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-..is in danger.

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-It's sad coming here

-and seeing this happen.

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-It could disappear...

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-..in 80 years.

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-Will the children of the future

-be able to enjoy this special place?

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-Captain Cook's ship,

-the Endeavour...

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-..was the first to hit the reef

-in 1770.

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-There are now over 800 shipwrecks

-dotted around the area.

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-I'm on my way to see

-the remains of the SS Yongala.

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-The shipwreck

-lies five miles off the coast.

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-It's now an artificial reef.

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-I've heard

-there's very special wildlife here.

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-It's also an opportunity for me to

-find out how a reef can mend itself.

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-I'm about to dive to look at

-a shipwreck, the SS Yongala.

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-It has a very interesting history.

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-It sunk in 1911 in a cyclone.

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-It was a terrible storm

-which killed all on board...

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-..122 people and a horse.

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-The body of the horse was found

-and a few fragments of the ship...

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-..but no-one knew

-what had happened to it...

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-..until it was found

-in the late 1950s.

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-Today,

-a lot of people dive to see it.

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-It's very interesting.

-It's become an artificial reef.

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-I want to go down because

-every time there's a cyclone...

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-..it seems to scour the ship...

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-..and kills

-a lot of the coral and wildlife.

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-However, the wildlife

-returns every time.

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-There is hope...

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-..that when the Great Barrier Reef

-is destroyed...

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-..the coral can return

-in the right conditions.

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-We'll go down. Anna, you're going

-to stay with the other two?

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-I'm not wearing the full facemask

-for this dive...

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-..because I want to go deeper

-than 20 metres.

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-It's too dangerous for me to wear

-the full mask as deep as this.

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-So I'm wearing a regulator

-and breathing through my mouth.

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-It was an incredible feeling

-to dive slowly into a sea of fish.

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-It was like diving

-through a hurricane...

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-..with leaves whipping around me.

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-These fish are trevallies.

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-They're the most numerous fish

-on the entire reef.

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-Diving to the SS Yongala was a dive

-to a very special place...

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-..even on the reef.

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-After hoping

-to see one on the reef...

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-..I saw a grey-brown snake

-looking for food among the coral.

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-Though the snake is poisonous

-and looks dangerous...

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-..it's tame enough

-for me to swim near her.

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-The flat tail

-enables her to swim easier.

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-Sea fans

-are thriving on the shipwreck too.

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-As I swam around,

-I realized very quickly...

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-..that nature

-had taken possession of the ship...

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-..and turned it into a living reef.

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-Look at this.

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-This is a bull ray,

-the stingray's big brother.

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-They're very rare.

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-We're very lucky to see one.

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-It's enormous.

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-It can weigh over 100kg.

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-Its size is obvious

-as I swim above it.

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-From this position,

-you can see the shape of the ship.

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-To think that dozens of skeletons

-lie within this shell.

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-It's so beautiful.

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-It's easy to forget...

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-..that a disaster caused such

-wildlife to thrive around the reef.

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-Colourful coral

-has covered the entire ship.

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-Fish and wildlife everywhere.

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-That was worth it!

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-An incredible dive.

-There were thousands of fish.

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-The best thing in terms of wildlife

-was as I went down...

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-..trevallies, quite large fish,

-went right around me.

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-After we went down...

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-..a huge giant black ray

-swam under me and had a look at me.

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-There was an olive sea snake too.

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-Its tail is flat.

-It's adapted to swim in the sea.

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-It was great.

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-They're very poisonous

-but they don't attack.

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-I could get very close.

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-She was looking in the holes

-for fish.

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-It feels odd

-seeing all the wildlife...

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-..knowing there are 122 bodies

-in that ship.

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-But what lifted my spirits

-was seeing all that wildlife.

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-It's an artificial reef after all.

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-As I said before going down...

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-..it's destroyed by the storms

-but it returns.

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-The wildlife was so rich down there.

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-It was incredible.

-One of the best dives of my life.

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-When I first came out here,

-I was very excited.

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-I was thinking, "Goodness me.

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-"I'm going to do something

-I've wanted to do since I was a boy.

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-"I'm going to dive

-on the Great Barrier Reef."

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-However, there was a part of me

-that was rather scared.

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-That might be an odd thing to say.

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-I was scared...

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-..because I didn't want

-to dive down and see a dead reef.

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-But that didn't happen -

-I saw a living reef.

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-There are problems.

-Of course there are.

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-There are parts of the reef

-where most of it has died.

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-However, I've had a lot of fun.

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-I've loved diving

-and seeing the sea turtles...

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-..and incredible

-multicoloured fish...

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-..that I've never seen before

-and never thought I would see.

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-I hope I'll see more, learn more...

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-..and I also hope

-I'll get a much better idea...

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-..of the solutions

-to the problems facing the reef.

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-I'm visiting

-the Great Barrier Reef...

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-..to find out about its health and

-to learn more about its wildlife.

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-I'm on my way to Cape Tribulation,

-famous for its mangroves...

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-..to discover the relationship

-between the mangroves and the reef.

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-Mangroves extend over 2,000

-square miles around the coast.

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-Very special wildlife

-lives within them.

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-It's hard to describe how hot, how

-stifling it is in the mangroves.

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-These trees are very specialized.

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-They're one of the few species

-that can live in seawater.

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-The mangroves and the Great Barrier

-Reef help to protect the land...

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-..because storms are quite common

-in this part of Australia.

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-The storms hit the reef, which

-saps some of the storm's energy...

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-..and then the mangroves,

-which reduces it further.

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-By the time it hits the land,

-there's hardly any energy left.

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-The link between the two

-goes deeper than that.

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-When the tide's in...

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-..the mangroves are a very important

-nursery for all sorts of fish.

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-A lot of them, as they mature...

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-..go on to live in the reef itself.

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-I couldn't wait to find out...

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-..what kind of wildlife I'd see

-in the mangroves around here.

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-There's so much food here

-for the fish.

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-The clear water

-washes the food downwards.

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-The sea washes food upwards.

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-It's full of plankton here.

-I can see it in the water.

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-Some of the fish feed on algae which

-grows on the rocks and the trees.

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-There's plenty of food here.

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-Coming down along the mangroves,

-you can see hundreds of tiny fish.

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-They think

-we're large predatory fish.

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-So they rush in

-between the branches.

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-It's a shelter.

-It's a safe place for them to be.

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-It's one of the big advantages for

-the fish, being among the mangroves.

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-It's a great place for them.

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-Wow! Did you see that?

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-I think it was a tawny reef shark...

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-..about a metre and a half

-in length.

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-It was coming down this side.

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-I think it's been hunting

-in the mangroves.

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-The mangroves

-are important to the sharks...

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-..especially

-the blacktip reef shark.

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-The juveniles stay here

-until they are confident enough...

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-..to swim out to sea.

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-They then live on the reefs.

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-It's great to see a shark here.

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-After seeing the small fish in the

-mangroves, I'm on my way out to sea.

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-I'm going to the far side

-of the reef to see larger fish.

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-I'm going to a place called

-Cod Hole.

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-The tide is rushing through.

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-It's dangerously fast here.

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-But it circles around the reef.

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-The hope is there'll be a section

-calm enough for us to go down.

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-We're looking for huge fish -

-groupers.

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-They're called potato cod

-in these parts.

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-Divers used to feed them.

-They're not allowed to any more.

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-But the fish still come up to you

-to see if you have any food.

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-So the hope is

-they'll come right up to us.

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-Before I came out, I'd heard that

-the reef was in a disastrous state.

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-It really worries me when I hear

-that large swathes have died.

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-Will this be a warning to us?

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-The reef

-is almost like the canary...

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-..that miners

-used to take underground.

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-It's a combination of excitement

-and fearing the worst as we dive.

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-As the potato cod

-don't move far from their habitat...

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-..they're dependent

-on their surroundings for food.

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-If I see a cod down here, it's a

-sign that the area's in good health.

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-There they are!

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-Groupers, or potato cod

-as they're called in these parts.

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-They're huge.

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-They like their food.

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-They're called potato cod

-because of the pattern.

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-A large yellow potato

-with black dots on it.

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-Hello!

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-Hello!

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-You're not the prettiest fish

-in the world.

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-Not the prettiest fish.

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-I remember catching a trout

-when I was a boy.

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-It was two or three pounds

-and I thought it was big.

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-How much do these weigh?!

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-They're enormous.

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-It's likely that this individual...

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-..will spend its entire life

-on and around this small reef.

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-I think it's welcoming me

-to the Great Barrier Reef.

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-Did you see the small fish

-on its back?

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-It's cleaning it.

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-It's removing parasites

-from its skin.

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-It's one of the most enjoyable dives

-I've ever had.

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-I just dived to the bottom,

-stayed around...

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-..and let the fish come to me.

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-I've made a new friend in Australia!

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-A giant potato cod, a grouper fish.

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-I'll call him Nigel.

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-I went down to the bottom

-and it came right up to me.

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-I think it was after food.

-It was looking around.

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-After a while, it was like when

-you meet a friend down the pub...

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-..you haven't seen for a while.

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-You get on fine to begin with...

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-..but after a little, you think,

-"I'll go out the back door."

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-I tried to do that

-but it followed me.

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-It was nice to be so close

-to such a large fish.

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-I've always wanted

-to dive on the reef.

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-I'm so thrilled

-to have the opportunity to do so.

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-Before I came out...

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-..I'd heard that the Great Barrier

-Reef was in a disastrous state.

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-I've travelled ten miles

-away from the coast...

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-..to see

-what the reef is like there.

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-I'm going to dive to one of the

-outer reefs right near the open sea.

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-What I hope to see here...

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-..is the destruction

-caused by the cyclone two years ago.

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-It was very strong.

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-It went through this narrow part

-and destroyed the reef.

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-It'll be interesting to see...

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-..if some of the coral

-are starting to grow back.

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-The rain's arrived.

-It's cold rain too.

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-Out here,

-the current is very strong.

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-It's like a river.

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-So we'll have to move

-200-300 yards, be let down...

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-..and we'll go down slowly

-with the current.

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-At the bottom, we'll be fine...

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-..but when we come up,

-we'll have to be very careful.

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-If we're carried away that way,

-it's the end of us.

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-I'm diving down to see

-what the coral's like here...

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-..after a cyclone

-destroyed the area.

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-I've been told

-that 90% of it has been destroyed.

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-I wonder if the situation

-is worse than I feared.

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-Wow, the current is strong.

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-Immediately after getting

-in the water, I can feel it.

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-All around me, you can see

-the effects of the cyclone.

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-Look at this.

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-This is a huge piece of rock coral.

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-It's been ripped out and thrown

-on the ground by the cyclone.

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-It happened two years ago.

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-It looks lifeless.

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-It looks as though

-there's been a war.

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-However, when you look closely...

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-..there are parts of it on the sides

-that are still growing, thankfully.

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-Hopefully, if it's left in peace,

-it'll return.

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-The cyclone

-wrecked the coral here...

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-..and stirred up the sediment

-from the seabed...

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-..which in turn covered the coral...

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-..so it couldn't get nourishment

-from the sun.

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-Without coral,

-there's no food for the fish.

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-Parts of the reef can die.

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-I'm amazed how little fish are here.

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-The coral here have died.

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-These here have all died.

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-Some of them

-are lying on the ground.

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-What's happened is there was

-a terrible cyclone a few years ago.

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-It smashed, wrecked and killed

-some of the coral.

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-This is a more positive scene.

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-I was becoming disheartened.

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-I turn the corner

-and I see all the little fish.

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-Here's a sign

-that the reef can revive itself...

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-..in the right conditions.

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-This rock coral

-is starting to grow back.

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-There are scars on it

-from the storm.

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-But it is growing.

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-If it's left in peace,

-it'll cover this whole area.

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-It'll take a long time.

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-The conditions must be right.

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-What's happened is that

-part of the reef has renewed itself.

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-The current is taking me

-from one place to another.

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-This isn't an enjoyable experience.

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-It's difficult swimming

-and staying in one spot.

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-I said the current was strong

-on the surface.

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-It's very strong down here too.

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-I'm finding it difficult holding on.

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-The current is so strong.

-I'm being pulled away.

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-I don't like grabbing the coral.

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-The coral's dead so it's OK.

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-It's the only way

-I can stay down here.

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-With the current

-getting more and more dangerous...

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-..we went back to the boat.

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-That was some experience.

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-I knew the current was strong

-on the surface.

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-I hoped that once we were down,

-it would be alright.

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-But it was just as strong

-down the bottom.

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-I don't like grabbing the coral...

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-..but if I didn't,

-I'd be over there somewhere now.

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-It was so strong.

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-It was as if there'd been a war...

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-..the way the storm had killed

-and destroyed everything.

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-There were little pockets of life.

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-That was one of the dives...

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-..where you're glad to get

-back on the ship in one piece.

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-This side, is it?

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-I'm going on a journey

-along the Great Barrier Reef...

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-..to see its current state...

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-..and to see the special wildlife

-that lives there.

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-I've now reached

-the Whitsunday Islands...

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-..where I'll find out...

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-..how the reef has dealt with

-environmental changes over time.

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-The place has suffered because

-of climate change in the past.

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-Before the last ice age...

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-..the water level

-was much lower than it is today.

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-Hundreds of miles

-of the Great Barrier Reef...

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-..would have been above sea level.

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-Look at this place.

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-It's up there with the most

-beautiful scenery in the world.

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-The whitest sand

-and the bluest sea I've ever seen.

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-The islands we see today

-were high mountains.

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-Around 15,000 years ago,

-the sea started coming in.

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-The level rose.

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-It's created dozens of islands,

-77 in all...

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-..and this lovely bay.

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-Standing here

-and looking out at this...

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-..blimey,

-it makes you feel very small.

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-It makes you appreciate

-the natural world at its best.

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-I'm in the bay on a kayak...

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-..because this is a great place

-for stingrays.

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-The best place to see them

-is from a kayak.

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-The water is so clear.

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-I can see three or four metres down.

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-I've seen about a dozen.

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-They're odd-looking creatures.

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-It's as if they're flying underwater

-with their tail...

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-..where the barb is located.

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-They can be dangerous

-but the bay is a nursery for them.

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-It's quite safe.

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-They like places

-with a sandy seabed.

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-They hunt on the sea floor...

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-..looking for crabs

-and other similar creatures.

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-Going across the clear blue water...

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-..I can see the stingrays under me

-landing in the sand here and there.

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-Some of them grow

-to be two metres long.

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-There are dozens of them in all.

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-The shallow water and mangroves

-are perfect for them.

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-With the white sandy beaches,

-the green vegetation...

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-..the blue sky

-and the crystal clear sea...

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-..this remote bay is one

-of the most beautiful places...

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-..I've ever been to

-in the whole world.

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-One of the main things I noticed

-while here...

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-..was the amount of people

-from all over the world...

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-..who come to see

-the Great Barrier Reef.

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-I wanted to find out how important

-the reef is to the local economy.

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-I'm on my way to Cairns...

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-..one of the main tourist cities

-in this part of Australia.

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-Looking around, I can see

-parts of the reef on both sides...

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-..extending

-as far as the eye can see.

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-It's a good sign.

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-It's not one large reef...

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-..but thousands of small ones.

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-There are small ones everywhere.

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-It's hard to imagine that the entire

-Great Barrier Reef at one time...

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-..was part of the mainland,

-until the ice age.

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-Flying over it...

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-..is a great opportunity to look

-down and see the individual reefs.

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-It gives you an idea, just an idea,

-of how enormous it is.

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-I'm aware that I'll only see

-a small part, even from the air.

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-I'm meeting a woman from Blaenau

-Ffestiniog who now lives here.

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-She and her family run a business

-taking visitors out to sea on boats.

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-I wanted to discover how important

-the reef is to the local economy...

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-..and what could happen

-if the reef disappeared.

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-How many people in this area,

-in Cairns...

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-..depend on the reef?

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-Lots?

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-Lots?

-

-Yes.

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-It's not just about

-the boats that go out.

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-There are businesses

-that do the bookings.

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-There are staff on the boats.

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-Yes, a lot of people depend on it.

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-If something happens to the reef,

-if the deterioration continues...

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-..this place would be empty.

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-It would.

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-It's one of the world's

-main attractions.

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-The reef, not only for you

-as a family, but to the area too...

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-..must be worth a fortune.

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-There's a lot of money in it.

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-At the moment, the business is busy.

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-The boats are full.

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-People still visit the reef

-and enjoy doing so.

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-But they also understand

-that things are changing.

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-It's only a matter of a few years

-before things deteriorate a lot.

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-When you think about

-the number of people...

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-..who come to Australia from across

-the world, where do they want to go?

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-Sydney to see the Opera House,

-Uluru to see Ayers Rock...

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-..and to the Great Barrier Reef.

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-It's on everyone's bucket list.

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-If you think about all the people

-who come here and the money made...

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-..it's one of the world's

-main attractions.

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-I like this place.

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-It's lively. It's Friday night.

-A lot of people are out.

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-It's odd being the other side

-of the world...

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-..and meeting a woman

-from Blaenau Ffestiniog...

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-..whose family runs boats

-out to the Great Barrier Reef.

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-Who'd have thought!

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-What's obvious to me...

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-..is that Cairns

-is totally dependent on tourism.

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-Over 95% of the tourists come here

-to see the Great Barrier Reef.

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-Without the Great Barrier Reef,

-there'd be no tourists.

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-Without the tourists,

-there'd be no Cairns.

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-There'd be no-one here. There'd be

-no reason for anyone to come here.

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-I wonder how many

-of the thousands out tonight...

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-..realize and appreciate that.

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-I wonder how many

-are worried about that.

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-Not many, I wouldn't think.

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-I feel rather guilty...

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-..because I've flown

-to come out here.

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-Flying is one of the worst things

-in terms of climate change.

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-But as one of the wardens

-out on the reef said...

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-.."If people like you don't come,

-there's no value to the reef.

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-"If there's no value to the reef...

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-"..the government aren't going

-to care about the place."

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-So it is important that people

-come here and pay to see the place.

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-That's what brings money

-to places like this.

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-It's what makes the Australian

-government look after the reef...

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-..because it brings in

-so much money.

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-After all, money talks.

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-S4C Subtitles by Testun Cyf.

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Bydd Iolo yn deifio i longddrylliad yr SS Yongala sydd wedi datblygu'n rîff artiffisial. Iolo dives to the remains of the SS Yongala, a shipwreck now transformed into an artificial reef.