Bydd Iolo yn deifio i longddrylliad yr SS Yongala sydd wedi datblygu'n rîff artiffisial. Iolo dives to the remains of the SS Yongala, a shipwreck now transformed into an artific...
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-I'm Iolo Williams.
-I've spent years studying wildlife
-on land and in the air.
-I'm venturing into a new world.
-I'll be looking for creatures
-I've never seen before.
-I'm travelling to Australia
-to dive under the sea...
-one of our planet's treasures.
-This is the Great Barrier Reef.
-It extends over 1,000 miles
-off the coast of northern Australia.
-But this important part
-of our ecosystem...
-..is in danger.
-It's sad coming here
-and seeing this happen.
-It could disappear...
-..in 80 years.
-Will the children of the future
-be able to enjoy this special place?
-Captain Cook's ship,
-..was the first to hit the reef
-There are now over 800 shipwrecks
-dotted around the area.
-I'm on my way to see
-the remains of the SS Yongala.
-lies five miles off the coast.
-It's now an artificial reef.
-there's very special wildlife here.
-It's also an opportunity for me to
-find out how a reef can mend itself.
-I'm about to dive to look at
-a shipwreck, the SS Yongala.
-It has a very interesting history.
-It sunk in 1911 in a cyclone.
-It was a terrible storm
-which killed all on board...
-..122 people and a horse.
-The body of the horse was found
-and a few fragments of the ship...
-..but no-one knew
-what had happened to it...
-..until it was found
-in the late 1950s.
-a lot of people dive to see it.
-It's very interesting.
-It's become an artificial reef.
-I want to go down because
-every time there's a cyclone...
-..it seems to scour the ship...
-a lot of the coral and wildlife.
-However, the wildlife
-returns every time.
-There is hope...
-..that when the Great Barrier Reef
-..the coral can return
-in the right conditions.
-We'll go down. Anna, you're going
-to stay with the other two?
-I'm not wearing the full facemask
-for this dive...
-..because I want to go deeper
-than 20 metres.
-It's too dangerous for me to wear
-the full mask as deep as this.
-So I'm wearing a regulator
-and breathing through my mouth.
-It was an incredible feeling
-to dive slowly into a sea of fish.
-It was like diving
-through a hurricane...
-..with leaves whipping around me.
-These fish are trevallies.
-They're the most numerous fish
-on the entire reef.
-Diving to the SS Yongala was a dive
-to a very special place...
-..even on the reef.
-to see one on the reef...
-..I saw a grey-brown snake
-looking for food among the coral.
-Though the snake is poisonous
-and looks dangerous...
-..it's tame enough
-for me to swim near her.
-The flat tail
-enables her to swim easier.
-are thriving on the shipwreck too.
-As I swam around,
-I realized very quickly...
-had taken possession of the ship...
-..and turned it into a living reef.
-Look at this.
-This is a bull ray,
-the stingray's big brother.
-They're very rare.
-We're very lucky to see one.
-It can weigh over 100kg.
-Its size is obvious
-as I swim above it.
-From this position,
-you can see the shape of the ship.
-To think that dozens of skeletons
-lie within this shell.
-It's so beautiful.
-It's easy to forget...
-..that a disaster caused such
-wildlife to thrive around the reef.
-has covered the entire ship.
-Fish and wildlife everywhere.
-That was worth it!
-An incredible dive.
-There were thousands of fish.
-The best thing in terms of wildlife
-was as I went down...
-..trevallies, quite large fish,
-went right around me.
-After we went down...
-..a huge giant black ray
-swam under me and had a look at me.
-There was an olive sea snake too.
-Its tail is flat.
-It's adapted to swim in the sea.
-It was great.
-They're very poisonous
-but they don't attack.
-I could get very close.
-She was looking in the holes
-It feels odd
-seeing all the wildlife...
-..knowing there are 122 bodies
-in that ship.
-But what lifted my spirits
-was seeing all that wildlife.
-It's an artificial reef after all.
-As I said before going down...
-..it's destroyed by the storms
-but it returns.
-The wildlife was so rich down there.
-It was incredible.
-One of the best dives of my life.
-When I first came out here,
-I was very excited.
-I was thinking, "Goodness me.
-"I'm going to do something
-I've wanted to do since I was a boy.
-"I'm going to dive
-on the Great Barrier Reef."
-However, there was a part of me
-that was rather scared.
-That might be an odd thing to say.
-I was scared...
-..because I didn't want
-to dive down and see a dead reef.
-But that didn't happen -
-I saw a living reef.
-There are problems.
-Of course there are.
-There are parts of the reef
-where most of it has died.
-However, I've had a lot of fun.
-I've loved diving
-and seeing the sea turtles...
-..that I've never seen before
-and never thought I would see.
-I hope I'll see more, learn more...
-..and I also hope
-I'll get a much better idea...
-..of the solutions
-to the problems facing the reef.
-the Great Barrier Reef...
-..to find out about its health and
-to learn more about its wildlife.
-I'm on my way to Cape Tribulation,
-famous for its mangroves...
-..to discover the relationship
-between the mangroves and the reef.
-Mangroves extend over 2,000
-square miles around the coast.
-Very special wildlife
-lives within them.
-It's hard to describe how hot, how
-stifling it is in the mangroves.
-These trees are very specialized.
-They're one of the few species
-that can live in seawater.
-The mangroves and the Great Barrier
-Reef help to protect the land...
-..because storms are quite common
-in this part of Australia.
-The storms hit the reef, which
-saps some of the storm's energy...
-..and then the mangroves,
-which reduces it further.
-By the time it hits the land,
-there's hardly any energy left.
-The link between the two
-goes deeper than that.
-When the tide's in...
-..the mangroves are a very important
-nursery for all sorts of fish.
-A lot of them, as they mature...
-..go on to live in the reef itself.
-I couldn't wait to find out...
-..what kind of wildlife I'd see
-in the mangroves around here.
-There's so much food here
-for the fish.
-The clear water
-washes the food downwards.
-The sea washes food upwards.
-It's full of plankton here.
-I can see it in the water.
-Some of the fish feed on algae which
-grows on the rocks and the trees.
-There's plenty of food here.
-Coming down along the mangroves,
-you can see hundreds of tiny fish.
-we're large predatory fish.
-So they rush in
-between the branches.
-It's a shelter.
-It's a safe place for them to be.
-It's one of the big advantages for
-the fish, being among the mangroves.
-It's a great place for them.
-Wow! Did you see that?
-I think it was a tawny reef shark...
-..about a metre and a half
-It was coming down this side.
-I think it's been hunting
-in the mangroves.
-are important to the sharks...
-the blacktip reef shark.
-The juveniles stay here
-until they are confident enough...
-..to swim out to sea.
-They then live on the reefs.
-It's great to see a shark here.
-After seeing the small fish in the
-mangroves, I'm on my way out to sea.
-I'm going to the far side
-of the reef to see larger fish.
-I'm going to a place called
-The tide is rushing through.
-It's dangerously fast here.
-But it circles around the reef.
-The hope is there'll be a section
-calm enough for us to go down.
-We're looking for huge fish -
-They're called potato cod
-in these parts.
-Divers used to feed them.
-They're not allowed to any more.
-But the fish still come up to you
-to see if you have any food.
-So the hope is
-they'll come right up to us.
-Before I came out, I'd heard that
-the reef was in a disastrous state.
-It really worries me when I hear
-that large swathes have died.
-Will this be a warning to us?
-is almost like the canary...
-used to take underground.
-It's a combination of excitement
-and fearing the worst as we dive.
-As the potato cod
-don't move far from their habitat...
-on their surroundings for food.
-If I see a cod down here, it's a
-sign that the area's in good health.
-There they are!
-Groupers, or potato cod
-as they're called in these parts.
-They like their food.
-They're called potato cod
-because of the pattern.
-A large yellow potato
-with black dots on it.
-You're not the prettiest fish
-in the world.
-Not the prettiest fish.
-I remember catching a trout
-when I was a boy.
-It was two or three pounds
-and I thought it was big.
-How much do these weigh?!
-It's likely that this individual...
-..will spend its entire life
-on and around this small reef.
-I think it's welcoming me
-to the Great Barrier Reef.
-Did you see the small fish
-on its back?
-It's cleaning it.
-It's removing parasites
-from its skin.
-It's one of the most enjoyable dives
-I've ever had.
-I just dived to the bottom,
-..and let the fish come to me.
-I've made a new friend in Australia!
-A giant potato cod, a grouper fish.
-I'll call him Nigel.
-I went down to the bottom
-and it came right up to me.
-I think it was after food.
-It was looking around.
-After a while, it was like when
-you meet a friend down the pub...
-..you haven't seen for a while.
-You get on fine to begin with...
-..but after a little, you think,
-"I'll go out the back door."
-I tried to do that
-but it followed me.
-It was nice to be so close
-to such a large fish.
-I've always wanted
-to dive on the reef.
-I'm so thrilled
-to have the opportunity to do so.
-Before I came out...
-..I'd heard that the Great Barrier
-Reef was in a disastrous state.
-I've travelled ten miles
-away from the coast...
-what the reef is like there.
-I'm going to dive to one of the
-outer reefs right near the open sea.
-What I hope to see here...
-..is the destruction
-caused by the cyclone two years ago.
-It was very strong.
-It went through this narrow part
-and destroyed the reef.
-It'll be interesting to see...
-..if some of the coral
-are starting to grow back.
-The rain's arrived.
-It's cold rain too.
-the current is very strong.
-It's like a river.
-So we'll have to move
-200-300 yards, be let down...
-..and we'll go down slowly
-with the current.
-At the bottom, we'll be fine...
-..but when we come up,
-we'll have to be very careful.
-If we're carried away that way,
-it's the end of us.
-I'm diving down to see
-what the coral's like here...
-..after a cyclone
-destroyed the area.
-I've been told
-that 90% of it has been destroyed.
-I wonder if the situation
-is worse than I feared.
-Wow, the current is strong.
-Immediately after getting
-in the water, I can feel it.
-All around me, you can see
-the effects of the cyclone.
-Look at this.
-This is a huge piece of rock coral.
-It's been ripped out and thrown
-on the ground by the cyclone.
-It happened two years ago.
-It looks lifeless.
-It looks as though
-there's been a war.
-However, when you look closely...
-..there are parts of it on the sides
-that are still growing, thankfully.
-Hopefully, if it's left in peace,
-wrecked the coral here...
-..and stirred up the sediment
-from the seabed...
-..which in turn covered the coral...
-..so it couldn't get nourishment
-from the sun.
-there's no food for the fish.
-Parts of the reef can die.
-I'm amazed how little fish are here.
-The coral here have died.
-These here have all died.
-Some of them
-are lying on the ground.
-What's happened is there was
-a terrible cyclone a few years ago.
-It smashed, wrecked and killed
-some of the coral.
-This is a more positive scene.
-I was becoming disheartened.
-I turn the corner
-and I see all the little fish.
-Here's a sign
-that the reef can revive itself...
-..in the right conditions.
-This rock coral
-is starting to grow back.
-There are scars on it
-from the storm.
-But it is growing.
-If it's left in peace,
-it'll cover this whole area.
-It'll take a long time.
-The conditions must be right.
-What's happened is that
-part of the reef has renewed itself.
-The current is taking me
-from one place to another.
-This isn't an enjoyable experience.
-It's difficult swimming
-and staying in one spot.
-I said the current was strong
-on the surface.
-It's very strong down here too.
-I'm finding it difficult holding on.
-The current is so strong.
-I'm being pulled away.
-I don't like grabbing the coral.
-The coral's dead so it's OK.
-It's the only way
-I can stay down here.
-With the current
-getting more and more dangerous...
-..we went back to the boat.
-That was some experience.
-I knew the current was strong
-on the surface.
-I hoped that once we were down,
-it would be alright.
-But it was just as strong
-down the bottom.
-I don't like grabbing the coral...
-..but if I didn't,
-I'd be over there somewhere now.
-It was so strong.
-It was as if there'd been a war...
-..the way the storm had killed
-and destroyed everything.
-There were little pockets of life.
-That was one of the dives...
-..where you're glad to get
-back on the ship in one piece.
-This side, is it?
-I'm going on a journey
-along the Great Barrier Reef...
-..to see its current state...
-..and to see the special wildlife
-that lives there.
-I've now reached
-the Whitsunday Islands...
-..where I'll find out...
-..how the reef has dealt with
-environmental changes over time.
-The place has suffered because
-of climate change in the past.
-Before the last ice age...
-..the water level
-was much lower than it is today.
-Hundreds of miles
-of the Great Barrier Reef...
-..would have been above sea level.
-Look at this place.
-It's up there with the most
-beautiful scenery in the world.
-The whitest sand
-and the bluest sea I've ever seen.
-The islands we see today
-were high mountains.
-Around 15,000 years ago,
-the sea started coming in.
-The level rose.
-It's created dozens of islands,
-77 in all...
-..and this lovely bay.
-and looking out at this...
-it makes you feel very small.
-It makes you appreciate
-the natural world at its best.
-I'm in the bay on a kayak...
-..because this is a great place
-The best place to see them
-is from a kayak.
-The water is so clear.
-I can see three or four metres down.
-I've seen about a dozen.
-They're odd-looking creatures.
-It's as if they're flying underwater
-with their tail...
-..where the barb is located.
-They can be dangerous
-but the bay is a nursery for them.
-It's quite safe.
-They like places
-with a sandy seabed.
-They hunt on the sea floor...
-..looking for crabs
-and other similar creatures.
-Going across the clear blue water...
-..I can see the stingrays under me
-landing in the sand here and there.
-Some of them grow
-to be two metres long.
-There are dozens of them in all.
-The shallow water and mangroves
-are perfect for them.
-With the white sandy beaches,
-the green vegetation...
-..the blue sky
-and the crystal clear sea...
-..this remote bay is one
-of the most beautiful places...
-..I've ever been to
-in the whole world.
-One of the main things I noticed
-..was the amount of people
-from all over the world...
-..who come to see
-the Great Barrier Reef.
-I wanted to find out how important
-the reef is to the local economy.
-I'm on my way to Cairns...
-..one of the main tourist cities
-in this part of Australia.
-Looking around, I can see
-parts of the reef on both sides...
-as far as the eye can see.
-It's a good sign.
-It's not one large reef...
-..but thousands of small ones.
-There are small ones everywhere.
-It's hard to imagine that the entire
-Great Barrier Reef at one time...
-..was part of the mainland,
-until the ice age.
-Flying over it...
-..is a great opportunity to look
-down and see the individual reefs.
-It gives you an idea, just an idea,
-of how enormous it is.
-I'm aware that I'll only see
-a small part, even from the air.
-I'm meeting a woman from Blaenau
-Ffestiniog who now lives here.
-She and her family run a business
-taking visitors out to sea on boats.
-I wanted to discover how important
-the reef is to the local economy...
-..and what could happen
-if the reef disappeared.
-How many people in this area,
-..depend on the reef?
-It's not just about
-the boats that go out.
-There are businesses
-that do the bookings.
-There are staff on the boats.
-Yes, a lot of people depend on it.
-If something happens to the reef,
-if the deterioration continues...
-..this place would be empty.
-It's one of the world's
-The reef, not only for you
-as a family, but to the area too...
-..must be worth a fortune.
-There's a lot of money in it.
-At the moment, the business is busy.
-The boats are full.
-People still visit the reef
-and enjoy doing so.
-But they also understand
-that things are changing.
-It's only a matter of a few years
-before things deteriorate a lot.
-When you think about
-the number of people...
-..who come to Australia from across
-the world, where do they want to go?
-Sydney to see the Opera House,
-Uluru to see Ayers Rock...
-..and to the Great Barrier Reef.
-It's on everyone's bucket list.
-If you think about all the people
-who come here and the money made...
-..it's one of the world's
-I like this place.
-It's lively. It's Friday night.
-A lot of people are out.
-It's odd being the other side
-of the world...
-..and meeting a woman
-from Blaenau Ffestiniog...
-..whose family runs boats
-out to the Great Barrier Reef.
-Who'd have thought!
-What's obvious to me...
-..is that Cairns
-is totally dependent on tourism.
-Over 95% of the tourists come here
-to see the Great Barrier Reef.
-Without the Great Barrier Reef,
-there'd be no tourists.
-Without the tourists,
-there'd be no Cairns.
-There'd be no-one here. There'd be
-no reason for anyone to come here.
-I wonder how many
-of the thousands out tonight...
-..realize and appreciate that.
-I wonder how many
-are worried about that.
-Not many, I wouldn't think.
-I feel rather guilty...
-..because I've flown
-to come out here.
-Flying is one of the worst things
-in terms of climate change.
-But as one of the wardens
-out on the reef said...
-.."If people like you don't come,
-there's no value to the reef.
-"If there's no value to the reef...
-"..the government aren't going
-to care about the place."
-So it is important that people
-come here and pay to see the place.
-That's what brings money
-to places like this.
-It's what makes the Australian
-government look after the reef...
-..because it brings in
-so much money.
-After all, money talks.
-S4C Subtitles by Testun Cyf.
Bydd Iolo yn deifio i longddrylliad yr SS Yongala sydd wedi datblygu'n rîff artiffisial. Iolo dives to the remains of the SS Yongala, a shipwreck now transformed into an artificial reef.