Episode 3 Wonderstuff


Episode 3

Series exploring the wonder in ordinary things. Jane Moore looks at some of the most trusted domestic life-savers, including drain cleaner and mobile phone batteries.


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Transcript


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This series gets inside stuff we just can't live without - the cleaners, the cosmetics,

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the convenience items that we use every single day.

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How do these things actually work?

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I'm Jane Moore and I'm on the hunt

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for the hidden science in my daily essentials.

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Oh, my God!

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I'm determined to get to the bottom of what's doing the clever work

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inside the stuff we buy and rely on

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and find the secret wonder stuffs that we take for granted.

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It will lead me to the brink of utter humiliation...

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Ugh!

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..test my senses to the extreme...

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I'm going to retch.

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..and push my nerves to breaking point.

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Argh!

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If I survive all that, I'm expecting to go down the supermarket aisle

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with a new-found confidence in what I'm looking for,

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having discovered what really does the job.

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So far, I've learned about some of the astonishing stuff

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that works its magic in keeping our homes spic and span,

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our clothes washed and scrubbed, and our bodies cleaned and preened.

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This time, I want to pull apart three of our most-trusted domestic life-savers,

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which I for one certainly wouldn't want to live without.

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Wow, look at that.

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I'm talking about drain unblocker, antifreeze and batteries.

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To help me in my quest, I'll be calling on the services of the professionals,

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including our resident Wonderstuff guru, Dr Mark Miodownik,

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head of the Materials Research Group at King's College, London.

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'Later, Mark will try to blind me with science once again...'

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Plastic!

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'..by attempting to recreate the world's oldest battery

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'from a jumble of bits from his toolbox.'

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This isn't going to explode, is it?

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But first, to tackling an item on our supermarket shopping list

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that we all hope we don't have to buy very often,

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but when we do, it's an absolute life safer.

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My Wonderstuff hunt starts

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with one of the most infuriating household problems of all,

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a blocked sink, loo or drain.

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When a bit of plunger action has no effect,

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I reach for one of the many chemical unblockers on the market.

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But what does your typical drain declogger actually do?

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Is there a particular wonder stuff that they have in common?

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To get to the bottom of what causes this nasty problem,

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I'm heading out on the rounds with professional drain unblocker, Terry Kaufman.

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So what's the most common problem that you get called out for, then?

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The most common problem, I would say, is Wet Wipes.

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A lot of people are using them.

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On telly they say that they dissolve and break down, but they don't.

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What's one of the funniest things that you've found down somebody's sink,

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when they've said, "Oh, I don't know what's down there"?

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With the sink, it normally is grease and hair,

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but drainage-wise you can find pretty much all sorts.

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One guy came home drunk one night

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and he flushed his underpants down the toilet.

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We had to fish them out.

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Oh, we've all done that, Terry! We've all done that. Oh, blimey.

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'Without working drains, any building quickly grinds to a halt.'

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Let's go.

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Right now, it's Orpington College that has a major blockage.

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OK!

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'I've changed some nappies in my time,

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'but nothing's prepared me for this.'

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This is normally the manhole that they have trouble with.

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If you're eating, look away now.

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Right, as you can see, that's...

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Ugh, that's... How do you do this job?

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You get used to it.

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'Fortunately my own blocked drain's never quite this bad.'

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So this is like a grand version of what you get in a domestic house?

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It is. It's the same thing.

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'This is just the overflow.

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'The - ahem - log jam must be somewhere downstream.'

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-If you come round here.

-Yeah? Ah!

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Look at the pipe. You can see that is the cause of the problem.

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-Oh, yeah! A good plug of goodness knows what.

-That's it.

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'It's just like what happens when grease, hair and other yucky stuff

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'builds up in our pipes at home.'

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-Right, OK, Terry, off you go.

-OK, then.

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It takes a lot of hard work with specialist equipment to shift it.

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Yay!

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SHE CHUCKLES

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We have lift-off!

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Thankfully, for your typical smaller-scale household blockage,

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there's somewhere to turn before calling in a big gun like Terry.

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Yes, I'm talking about the staggering choice of chemical drain cleaners.

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And judging by the labels, there must be something in here

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that's strong enough to do the dirty work.

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So what exactly is it?

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I've asked the University of Warwick's chemistry department

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to demonstrate what's in drain unblocker that makes it effective.

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So they've built the ultimate household blockage,

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a stomach-churning cocktail of melted lard, bits of old veg,

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and hair kindly donated by chemist Julie Ann Lough.

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You can't go in and have a good scrub at it.

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This is a case where we have to get chemicals to do all the hard work for us.

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Julie Ann is going to make some drain cleaner from scratch.

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Whatever you do, don't try this at home.

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I'm going to get you to put on a pair of gloves.

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What would it do if it went on my hands?

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It would eat through your skin, because your skin is fat.

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OK, I'll put gloves on!

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It eats through the fat in this drain, so how easily will it eat through the fat on your skin?

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That figures.

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We're going to make some caustic soda.

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-OK.

-I want you to hold onto this and I'm going to pour in some water.

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'Julie Ann's starting with sodium hydroxide

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'which apparently is the linchpin of many off-the-shelf drain cleaners.'

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'When it mixes with water, the result is hot stuff.'

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Wow!

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That is seriously hot. What's happening here?

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Isn't it? We'll have a look at how hot it is.

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It's flying up the thermometer here, coming up on 60.

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Julie Ann tells me that the particles in the mixture

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are violently attracted to one another

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and this chemistry is releasing a lot of heat that makes the thermometer shoot up.

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It feels like boiling water.

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It gets up to that stage. This heat will have an important role in how it cleans your grease.

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'To be on the safe side,

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'our self-styled blocked drain goes into a fume cupboard.'

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Starting to eat through it now.

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-Wow, look at that.

-Yep.

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You can visibly see it going down.

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On our thermal camera you can really see the sodium hydroxide at work.

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Already the mixture's as hot as a cup of tea

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and it's starting to melt the fat, but that's not all.

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You've got two really exciting things going on.

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The heat of it is helping with the cleaning,

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Also the sodium hydroxide is turning your fat into soap.

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Ah, yes. I remember that from my travels.

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Alkali plus fat equals soap

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and this will help clean your pipe. Amazing.

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Also, the sodium hydroxide is breaking down hairs.

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Hairs are long chairs of proteins which are made up of amino acids.

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The connection between each amino acid is very sensitive

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to big, strong alkalis, so that helps break down your hair as well.

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'But it's still not quite enough to shift our mega blockage.'

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You feel that you want to get in there and give it a good old oomph,

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which of course we couldn't do in a real pipe.

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What we need is a bit of agitation.

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Drain cleaner has another trick up its sleeve.

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It can also contain aluminium which reacts with the sodium hydroxide

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to give off lots of bubbles.

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Gosh, look at that.

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This is releasing a bit of hydrogen gas here.

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-Wow!

-Yep. You see?

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-Cor!

-So this is reacting with your sodium hydroxide.

-Amazing.

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Not only is it doing the bubbling, that's what you're getting.

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All these bubbles of hydrogen gas are released.

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-Wow!

-That's hydrogen gas there.

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All this gas is helping to agitate things and move stuff around.

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And finally it's time to say goodbye to our revolting blockage.

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Here we go, we have lift-off.

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-Urgh!

-Urgh! Perfect!

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We have a beautifully clean pipe. There we are.

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In the past, I've just got the old drain unblocker out

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and poured it down. I haven't given a second thought to how it works.

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I just know that it does what it does.

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But having done this, I'll never look at it in the same way again.

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It's absolutely incredible.

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To me this sodium hydroxide, or caustic soda, is a real wonder stuff.

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We've relied on its cleaning properties for thousands of years.

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It's indispensable in drain cleaner, but we also need it to make essentials like soap,

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paper, food, soft drinks and even CDs.

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And it's caustic enough to strip paint and decompose dead bodies.

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Urgh!

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When it comes to fixing or thwarting some of life's most infuriating binds,

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then we just had to throw the spotlight on this stuff - antifreeze.

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Time and again it rescues our cars from the worst excesses of the British winter,

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but how does it do it?

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# You're as cold as ice... #

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A good starting point for any chemist

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to solve a natural problem like freezing is to look at how nature tackles it.

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There are plenty of animals that manage to keep moving in sub-zero temperatures.

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Professor Lloyd Peck at the British Antarctic Survey

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has a veritable cold water menagerie,

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which includes these little bundles of delight.

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Oh, my!

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Argh!

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They're one of the big groups of crustaceans

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-and that's isopods.

-It's moving!

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-Woodlice are isopods.

-Take it!

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God, I can't bear it!

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'The sea louse can survive to just under freezing point,

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'but if I'm to find the science that keeps things moving

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'at much lower temperatures, this isn't it.

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'Down the corridor, Dr Roger Worland reckons he's got something

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'that can survive at record-breaking low temperatures.'

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-These are tiny. What are they?

-They're springtails.

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They're a type of primitive insect that live in the Antarctic.

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These little insects have to live there for summer and winter.

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'To put this to the test, some Antarctic springtails

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'will be put into a super deep freeze

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'kept at a constant minus 25 degrees.

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'I get cold just opening my fridge door,

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so it's back in the suit for me.'

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Look at that.

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Kitted up to walk round the supermarket freezer department.

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'The springtails, however, have their body chemistry to help them.'

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Blimey, the cold hits you straightaway.

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'At this temperature, most creatures would die in minutes.'

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So we have all this gear on obviously to help us retain heat,

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but if we weren't wearing this, how long would we survive?

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Without the clothing, at minus 25 you're not going to last long at all.

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-A few minutes.

-A few minutes? Gosh.

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'The tiny insects soon stop moving.

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'Despite their nickname, "snow fleas",

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'I have my doubts about this.'

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I'm really beginning to see the effects of being in here now.

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It's getting quite chilly.

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What's my beard like? Is it all right?

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Well, these little chaps have definitely stopped moving now.

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But back outside, Roger slowly warms up the springtails

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and we check for signs of life.

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This one's starting to move now.

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-He's twitching his antenna.

-Yeah.

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-His legs are starting to move very slowly.

-Yeah.

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So on this one here, is that ice I'm seeing, those droplets on it?

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I think so. It's beginning to melt.

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They stay in this dormant stage until conditions improve

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and they can become active and feed again.

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Their natural antifreeze kept them alive even at minus 25.

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What's happening in all that, chemically?

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They've been converting their food reserves, glycogen,

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into cryoprotective compounds such as glycerol and various sugars and sugar alcohols,

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which all act as cryoprotectants or antifreezes.

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They prevent the water from actually being able to crystallise and form ice.

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It's amazing that something that small can produce all of that.

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It is, yeah.

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But is this glycerol in springtails the same stuff we use to stop things freezing up?

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Just up the road at Cambridge University I'm hoping Dr Peter Wothers can enlighten me.

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He's promised to get his fancy gizmos out.

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-Look.

-Wow! Look at that.

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The ice man cometh.

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Let's have a look, shall we? Let's pour a bit out.

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This is the de-icer.

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'It turns out our de-icers and antifreezes commonly contain

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'something called glycols, which are a chemical relative

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'of the natural glycerol made by the springtails.'

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The key ingredient is called ethylene glycol.

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This is what we have in here, a bit of ethylene glycol.

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It's slightly thicker than water, slightly gloopy.

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But before we can see glycols in action,

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Peter wants to show me why putting antifreeze in your car radiator is so essential.

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So using this cast-iron flask, this is pretty solid.

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That's incredible. Look at the thickness of that.

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I have one here that we cut in two. You can see it's pretty thick.

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-But ice isn't going to damage that, surely?

-Let's see.

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The flask is filled with pure water, sealed, then dropped into a chemical bath

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at a staggeringly cold minus 80 degrees Centigrade.

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-Oh, my God!

-This is just cooling down now.

-Right.

-OK?

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That's like in Young Frankenstein.

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-Stand back a bit.

-It really does look like a bomb, doesn't it?

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'It doesn't take long

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'before the water in the flask starts to freeze.'

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BANG

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Oh, my God!

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SHE LAUGHS

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Well, that worked!

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Let's see what's left.

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Oh, my God! I think I've just had a heart attack.

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Cor, that was a spectacular explosion.

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-Look at that.

-That was quite a frisky one.

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It is absolutely astonishing that ice has got the power...

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I'm absolutely blown away by that, literally. Oh, I'm shaking.

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-So that could be a car engine.

-The pipes there can easily burst.

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Wow! Science is really exciting!

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OK, so we definitely need something to combat the wanton destruction that ice can cause,

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but can the man-made glycols beat springtails' natural antifreeze?

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Just how cold can ethylene glycol get?

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Let's give it a go. I'm going to ask you if you can record the temperature, please.

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-Ooh, right.

-OK? So you've got the reading there.

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I'm going to cool this in the bath. The temperature should be dropping.

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It's dropping like a stone.

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Two, one, zero. We're below zero now.

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It's getting gloopier. It's certainly more viscous.

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-How are we doing for temperature?

-11, 12.

-Minus 12.

-13.

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Ooh, we're getting crystals. So about minus 13-ish.

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We're definitely getting the liquid here. It's freezing, OK?

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If we kept it this temperature, this would all freeze.

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So, pure glycols are good down to minus 13.

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Not as impressive as springtail antifreeze, mind you, with their minus 25.

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But Peter promises me that glycols have an amazing trick up their sleeve.

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When mixed with water, the glycol molecules

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work to make the whole mixture resist freezing more effectively.

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-Let's cool it down.

-Minus 14.

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So we're already at temperatures lower than the pure ethylene glycol.

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Minus 20 now and it's still liquid. No sign of any crystals in here.

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Minus 30, still no sign of any crystals.

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That's past the springtails, but how much lower will it go?

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It's certainly getting thicker, but no crystals yet.

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-We're at 35 now!

-Minus 35.

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So this is really quite bizarre. The pure water freezes at zero,

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the pure ethylene glycol at minus 12,

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and the mixture at nearly minus 40.

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So it's still liquid there at minus 40.

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Minus 43. Ah, there we are.

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It's starting to now, just about. Yep, clever stuff.

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So a mixture of glycols and water gives us an antifreeze

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that can beat anything nature can come up with.

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What's brilliant is that glycols are doubly helpful in your car,

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because they also increase the boiling point of water,

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so they'll stop your radiator overheating in summer too.

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These wonder stuffs turn up all over the place,

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from shoe polish to dyes and preservatives.

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So far, I've tackled two of the major irritations that threaten to wreak domestic havoc on us,

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but what about something that has to be the ultimate life-safer,

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enabling me to live my busy life to the max?

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It's hard to think of something that we haven't invented a battery-powered gadget for.

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I know that batteries come in a dazzling array of shapes and sizes,

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but I've never stopped to think about how they actually work.

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So, armed with a - ahem - battery of questions,

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I'm off to meet my material scientist Mark Miodownik,

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who always has the energy for some answers.

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Let's get some drinks.

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Well, a battery is essentially a container of electricity.

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The difference between a battery and the electricity you get from home

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is that difference between a bottle of water and turning on the tap at home.

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They're essentially the same thing.

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The clever thing is how do you bottle electricity up into this tiny container?

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So what is electricity?

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Electricity is a flow of electrons.

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Electrons are going from one terminal, round this piece of wire,

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up here, through this tiny filament. This filament is resisting the flow,

0:19:400:19:44

just the way that the flow of a river, when you narrow its course, it goes faster.

0:19:440:19:50

It's so resistant that it gets red hot and glows,

0:19:500:19:53

and that's a bulb. That's how they work.

0:19:530:19:55

The electrons come from a chemical reaction inside the battery.

0:19:550:19:59

Every time you turn on a gadget and you're using a battery,

0:19:590:20:02

you're turning on a chemical reaction.

0:20:020:20:04

If you can get it to happen in a certain way, you're in business.

0:20:040:20:07

So if a battery is a carefully controlled chemical reaction,

0:20:070:20:11

what kind of ingredients are in there that are reacting with each other?

0:20:110:20:16

You can make a battery out of any chemical reaction and with a vast range of materials.

0:20:160:20:21

Let me show you. I've got some bits and bobs here

0:20:210:20:23

that I can make into a chemical reaction.

0:20:230:20:25

Well, I didn't... You know. Hold those for a minute.

0:20:280:20:30

-Plastic?

-No, no! HE GIGGLES NERVOUSLY

0:20:300:20:33

'Gee, thank, Mark(!)

0:20:350:20:36

'To prove you can make a battery from the simplest of materials,

0:20:360:20:40

'Mark's about to reconstruct something called the Baghdad battery.

0:20:400:20:45

'All you need is a jar, some acid - vinegar will do - and a piece of copper.'

0:20:450:20:48

I don't want it to touch the other bit of the battery.

0:20:480:20:53

Is this going to explode? Shall I stand back?

0:20:530:20:56

It usually doesn't but sometimes...

0:20:560:20:58

That's reassuring(!)

0:20:580:21:00

The last thing you need is some iron or steel,

0:21:000:21:03

like Mark's rather butch drill bit.

0:21:030:21:06

Jars like this one have been dug up in Iraq that are 2,000 years old,

0:21:060:21:11

suggesting our ancestors could have been dabbling with

0:21:110:21:14

the magic of electricity long before they knew what it was.

0:21:140:21:17

So, if I connect one side of the battery, which is the copper,

0:21:170:21:21

to the other side of the battery which is the steel...

0:21:210:21:24

-Yes.

-Yes! 0.3 of a volt.

0:21:240:21:26

So a normal battery is what, 1.5 volts?

0:21:260:21:30

-An AA battery is 1.5 volts, yes.

-So it is a bit piddley?

-Well...

0:21:300:21:35

# Danger, danger... #.

0:21:350:21:38

So hardly surprising that a pickle jar, some copper

0:21:380:21:41

and a drill bit generate a comparatively tame chemical reaction,

0:21:410:21:45

but all the same, we just made electricity!

0:21:450:21:48

So what I thought was incredibly complex, what's going on in here,

0:21:480:21:53

when I see it like that, it's very simple.

0:21:530:21:57

I'm beginning to understand that creating electricity

0:21:570:22:00

is all about the combination of different metals.

0:22:000:22:02

And from the wide range of batteries I see in the shops,

0:22:020:22:06

some metals seem more useful in batteries than others.

0:22:060:22:09

For a disposable battery, a popular choice is a zinc core, surrounded by manganese.

0:22:090:22:14

It's a reaction that can create a lot of power relatively cheaply, but there is a limitation.

0:22:140:22:19

'There's only a finite amount of power in these batteries before they run out.'

0:22:190:22:24

The problem with these types of batteries is that they sort of,

0:22:240:22:28

in a sense, gunge themselves up in the end.

0:22:280:22:30

That battery will last as long as there's zinc that hasn't reacted.

0:22:300:22:34

OK, so although disposable batteries are handy for things like

0:22:340:22:39

remote controls, torches and alarm clocks, they definitely

0:22:390:22:42

wouldn't be convenient for the one electronic gadget

0:22:420:22:45

that goes with me everywhere - my mobile phone.

0:22:450:22:49

What we want in those kind of gadgets is them to be rechargeable.

0:22:490:22:53

We want the chemical reaction to go one way to give us electricity

0:22:530:22:56

and then be reversed if you charge it on the mains.

0:22:560:22:59

You want the reaction to un-react.

0:22:590:23:01

Getting that to happen is the next revolution in batteries,

0:23:010:23:04

which happened not so long ago, actually.

0:23:040:23:06

So the state-of-the-art technology,

0:23:060:23:08

where the excitement is in batteries, is a metal called lithium.

0:23:080:23:12

Well, if Mark's excited about lithium, it must be worth a look.

0:23:130:23:16

So it's back to the chemistry department of Cambridge University.

0:23:160:23:21

At the very least, I'd better get an honorary degree out of this.

0:23:210:23:24

I'm going to meet Professor Claire Grey,

0:23:240:23:26

whose lab is at the cutting edge of lithium battery research.

0:23:260:23:31

So what makes lithium best for my mobile phone battery?

0:23:310:23:35

Basically, it's because the lithium irons are small and very light.

0:23:350:23:38

That means that they can move very fast and they are very reactive.

0:23:380:23:42

And that's a must-have, because technology,

0:23:420:23:44

we want it to get smaller and smaller.

0:23:440:23:47

Absolutely. Particularly in smart phones and applications like that.

0:23:470:23:51

So the amount of power that these little devices consume

0:23:510:23:55

demands something very reactive in their batteries.

0:23:550:23:58

Something like lithium, in fact.

0:23:580:24:00

To prove how desperate lithium is to react with other things,

0:24:000:24:04

anything at all, Professor Grey is about to drop some

0:24:040:24:07

into common or garden tap water.

0:24:070:24:09

-You might want to step back.

-Oh, yes! Wow!

0:24:090:24:13

You can see it moving around and it's giving off hydrogen

0:24:130:24:16

as it's reacting with the water.

0:24:160:24:17

Good grief. That's incredible.

0:24:170:24:20

It shows you how powerful this is.

0:24:200:24:23

Yes. It's actually fragmenting.

0:24:230:24:27

The one thing I notice is that it's metal and it's floating.

0:24:270:24:32

Yep. That's because it's such a light element.

0:24:320:24:34

So you can see, here is lithium,

0:24:340:24:36

you start off with the lightest element, hydrogen, helium.

0:24:360:24:39

And lithium is the third one, it's even lighter than oxygen.

0:24:390:24:44

A metal that's lighter than oxygen and even reacts with water,

0:24:440:24:48

how on earth do we turn something like that into a battery?

0:24:480:24:53

-So this is the inside of one of the...?

-Yes.

-Wow.

0:24:530:24:55

You can see, it's made up of this roll and the roll contains

0:24:550:25:00

different layers of components.

0:25:000:25:02

These three paper-thin layers work in much the same way

0:25:020:25:06

as the metals and liquids in ordinary disposable batteries,

0:25:060:25:09

the key difference here is that the metal itself

0:25:090:25:12

moves between the layers as it reacts.

0:25:120:25:14

And the really neat trick is that recharging the battery

0:25:140:25:17

pushes the lithium back where it started.

0:25:170:25:20

So when I charge, the lithiums will come out of this material,

0:25:200:25:23

go through the separator material and be trapped inside the carbon.

0:25:230:25:27

And when I discharge, they'll go back in the opposite direction.

0:25:270:25:31

So, as the lithium particles flow backwards and forwards

0:25:310:25:35

between the layers in the battery, the electrons channel

0:25:350:25:38

backwards and forwards too, but through our laptops and phones.

0:25:380:25:42

Professor Grey has a microscopic video to prove it.

0:25:420:25:46

So, these colours that I'm seeing here, is that the lithium

0:25:460:25:50

moving across the battery?

0:25:500:25:53

Yes, you're watching the lithiums being inserted into the carbons.

0:25:530:25:57

And because lithium is so small, it doesn't distort the materials.

0:25:570:26:01

# You can't kill the metal... #

0:26:010:26:03

So, lithium's minute size means it's not only light,

0:26:030:26:06

but it can flow quickly through a battery without damaging anything.

0:26:060:26:10

Meaning lithium batteries can be recharged again and again,

0:26:100:26:13

regardless of how full or empty they are.

0:26:130:26:16

OK, so I've really got the benefits of lithium now.

0:26:160:26:19

It's small, it's light. It's reactive, which gives it a great

0:26:190:26:22

power punch and also, you can constantly recharge it.

0:26:220:26:25

Yes, so lithium batteries are really a technology enabler,

0:26:250:26:29

without them, you wouldn't have your mobile phones, your laptops.

0:26:290:26:34

It's really revolutionised the whole area of portable electronics.

0:26:340:26:38

It really is the wonder material.

0:26:380:26:40

So, it is official.

0:26:400:26:42

Even a professor is calling lithium a wonderstuff.

0:26:420:26:46

As well as revolutionising our portable electronics,

0:26:460:26:49

lithium is finding all sorts of other futuristic applications

0:26:490:26:53

and is also the gold standard in mood stabilising medication.

0:26:530:26:56

It seems lithium is a tiny molecule that punches well above its weight.

0:26:560:27:02

When I set out to discover the wonder stuff behind the things

0:27:020:27:06

we use on a daily basis, I truly had no idea what I might find.

0:27:060:27:10

The bottles and packets were familiar to me, but I really

0:27:100:27:13

knew very little about what was going on inside, working its magic.

0:27:130:27:18

I love the simplicity behind some of these discoveries,

0:27:180:27:23

that the simplest solutions can often be the most powerful,

0:27:230:27:27

that just adding something as basic as water to sodium hydroxide

0:27:270:27:31

can create enough force to clear the worst of domestic crises.

0:27:310:27:35

And that the clue to solving the problem of a frozen car engine...

0:27:350:27:39

Oh, my God!

0:27:390:27:43

..lies in a tiny primitive insect that lives in the Antarctic.

0:27:430:27:46

Simply amazing!

0:27:460:27:50

Next time, I up the ante on my hunt for life-saving wonderstuff

0:27:540:27:59

as I uncover what protects us from the killer germs around our homes...

0:27:590:28:03

-That's pretty badly contaminated.

-That's off the scale.

0:28:030:28:06

..and in our toilets.

0:28:060:28:10

And Mark's technique goes from bad to worse as he attempts

0:28:100:28:13

to explain smells, using his trainer.

0:28:130:28:17

I don't have to smell it!

0:28:170:28:19

Oh, look at that, it's all damp and scuzzy!

0:28:190:28:24

Subtitles by Red Bee Media Ltd

0:28:390:28:41

E-mail [email protected]

0:28:410:28:44

In this episode, Jane Moore pulls apart three of the most trusted domestic life-savers. She reveals how the clue to fixing a frozen car engine lies in a tiny insect from the Antarctic and which ingredient in drain cleaner does the dirty work. She also unravels the amazing science at work inside mobile phone batteries.


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