A World of Wonder Planet Earth II


Download Subtitles

SRT

ASS


A World of Wonder

A compilation episode of the wildlife documentary series presented by David Attenborough, uncovering the secrets of animals across the globe.


Similar Content

Browse content similar to A World of Wonder. Check below for episodes and series from the same categories and more!

Transcript


LineFromTo

Looking down from two miles above the surface of the Earth,

0:00:100:00:14

it's impossible not to be impressed by the sheer grandeur and splendour

0:00:140:00:20

and power of the natural world.

0:00:200:00:23

Ten years ago, in a television series called Planet Earth,

0:00:260:00:30

we revealed many of those wonders.

0:00:300:00:32

Planet Earth II brings you even closer to the lives of animals

0:00:350:00:40

than ever before.

0:00:400:00:41

With new technology and new insight,

0:00:450:00:48

we can show wildlife dramas in completely new ways.

0:00:480:00:52

In this programme, we celebrate some of the highlights of the series.

0:01:010:01:06

Journeying to every corner of the globe...

0:01:150:01:17

..to reveal the extreme lengths animals go to in order to survive.

0:01:210:01:26

And we also visit the newest habitat on Earth -

0:01:400:01:45

our cities.

0:01:450:01:46

Now is a crucial time for the natural world,

0:01:520:01:55

when our connection with nature is more important than ever before.

0:01:550:02:00

This is Planet Earth II.

0:02:020:02:04

The snow leopard.

0:02:420:02:44

Seldom seen, the detail of their lives has long been a mystery.

0:02:480:02:53

But now, at last, helped by the latest remote camera technology,

0:02:570:03:02

we're getting closer to them than ever before.

0:03:020:03:05

They are very rare - as few as four of them in 40 square miles.

0:03:120:03:18

In the high mountains, there is simply not enough prey

0:03:180:03:21

to sustain them.

0:03:210:03:22

They live solitary lives.

0:03:270:03:30

Nonetheless, they are well aware of the presence and the movements

0:03:300:03:33

of their neighbours,

0:03:330:03:35

because they leave messages in a few special places.

0:03:350:03:38

They rub particular rocks with their cheeks...

0:03:410:03:44

..and then spray them with urine.

0:03:480:03:50

Their two perfumes create a unique signature.

0:03:530:03:56

Any other leopard can know which of its neighbours passed this way

0:04:010:04:06

without ever making direct contact.

0:04:060:04:08

Life at extreme altitudes has shaped some of the toughest animals

0:04:420:04:47

on the planet.

0:04:470:04:48

In the Alps, Europe's highest peaks,

0:04:520:04:55

it is winter and food is desperately short.

0:04:550:04:58

A golden eagle has to spend every daylight hour

0:05:120:05:16

scanning the slopes for something, somewhere to eat.

0:05:160:05:20

Her seven-foot wingspan allows her to glide effortlessly

0:05:300:05:34

for 100 miles in a single day.

0:05:340:05:37

Her extraordinary eyes enable her to spot prey from two miles away.

0:05:460:05:51

But she is not the only one who's looking for food.

0:06:000:06:03

When she spots a chance, she must move fast.

0:06:050:06:08

She can dive at 200mph -

0:06:130:06:16

only a peregrine is faster.

0:06:160:06:18

During winter, even eagles rely almost entirely on carrion.

0:06:520:06:56

It's a dead fox, and it could sustain her for days.

0:06:580:07:02

Other scavengers must defer.

0:07:050:07:07

The hungry crows soon regain their courage.

0:07:100:07:13

They'll try any trick to steal a morsel.

0:07:160:07:18

And they are annoyingly persistent.

0:07:270:07:29

But this mob are the least of her worries.

0:07:510:07:54

A bigger eagle takes control.

0:08:020:08:04

But this kill is too important to give up.

0:08:090:08:12

So she must fight.

0:08:150:08:16

For the moment, she has won the carcass back...

0:08:310:08:34

..but a kill like this will attract every eagle for miles around.

0:08:360:08:39

As ever, the strongest wins the lion's share.

0:09:070:09:11

Unable to defend the carcass any longer,

0:09:140:09:17

the first eagle must now continue its search.

0:09:170:09:20

It may be many days before she feeds again.

0:09:210:09:24

Compared to the sparseness of the highest mountains,

0:09:280:09:32

the jungle is full of opportunity.

0:09:320:09:34

It is Eden.

0:09:360:09:37

It covers less than 6% of the Earth's surface,

0:09:400:09:43

but it's home to half of all the plants and animals on land.

0:09:430:09:47

The challenge here is dealing with the competition.

0:09:570:10:00

And that has driven animals to do a raft of ingenious things.

0:10:060:10:12

For some, it is about trying to stand out.

0:10:140:10:17

While, for others, the key to survival is blending in.

0:10:210:10:25

And these streams in Costa Rica are home to one of the most remarkable

0:10:280:10:33

masters of disguise.

0:10:330:10:35

A glass frog.

0:10:480:10:50

A male, and tiny.

0:10:580:11:00

No bigger than your fingernail...

0:11:000:11:02

..and almost entirely transparent.

0:11:030:11:07

As he needs to be.

0:11:090:11:10

Almost everything that walks past here could eat him.

0:11:130:11:17

Even a cricket.

0:11:190:11:20

His best chance is to stay absolutely still and trust

0:11:250:11:30

that the cricket looks right through him.

0:11:300:11:32

Danger passed...

0:11:530:11:55

..and that's just as well.

0:11:560:11:58

Because he is a father...

0:12:000:12:03

..and he is guarding some very precious eggs.

0:12:060:12:08

For the last few weeks, females, one after the other,

0:12:130:12:16

have visited him and entrusted him with their offspring.

0:12:160:12:19

Some are now almost ready to hatch.

0:12:230:12:25

There are several clutches on the leaf, and those at the top,

0:12:300:12:33

the most recently laid, are barely a day old.

0:12:330:12:37

But, in the jungle, there is always someone out to get you.

0:12:430:12:46

This wasp is a specialist hunter of frogs' eggs.

0:12:530:12:57

It has noticed the wriggling tadpoles at the bottom of the leaf.

0:12:590:13:03

He mustn't move.

0:13:090:13:11

The youngest eggs are the most vulnerable,

0:13:110:13:14

and he can't guard them all.

0:13:140:13:16

But these tadpoles are not as helpless as they might appear.

0:13:360:13:40

Incredibly, the unhatched tadpoles can sense danger and the oldest

0:13:480:13:53

and strongest wriggle free and drop into the stream below.

0:13:530:13:57

The eggs at the top of the leaf, however,

0:14:150:14:18

are still too young to hatch...

0:14:180:14:20

..and now the wasps know they're there.

0:14:220:14:24

But the male's back looks very like the youngest cluster of eggs...

0:14:280:14:33

..and that seems to confuse the wasps.

0:14:370:14:40

Using his own body as a decoy is a huge risk.

0:15:020:15:07

The wasps' stings could kill him.

0:15:070:15:09

He has managed to save most of his young.

0:15:370:15:40

He'll have to remain on guard for another two weeks.

0:15:440:15:48

But, in the jungle, just surviving the day can count as a success.

0:15:490:15:54

Jungles are the richest places on Earth,

0:16:030:16:06

because of one remarkable fact.

0:16:060:16:08

They make their own weather.

0:16:110:16:13

Every day, water rises from the surface of the leaves as vapour.

0:16:190:16:23

It's as if the trees breathe out clouds.

0:16:260:16:29

They gather over the forest, until finally...

0:16:320:16:35

..they burst.

0:16:380:16:39

Rain is the lifeblood of every jungle...

0:16:540:16:57

..and all have to do their best to endure the daily downpour.

0:17:070:17:11

In some jungles, like here in Brazil,

0:17:500:17:54

it rains so much that, for part of the year, the trees

0:17:540:17:58

are almost totally submerged.

0:17:580:18:00

This is a mysterious world, a place few people have ever explored.

0:18:050:18:12

Here, 1,000 miles from the sea, are dolphins.

0:18:150:18:20

A newly-identified species of river dolphin found nowhere else on Earth.

0:18:240:18:29

At the shallow margins of the flooded jungle,

0:18:380:18:41

food is so abundant it supports giants.

0:18:410:18:44

Capybara - the biggest rodents in the world.

0:18:480:18:50

Giant otters, the size of a man.

0:18:550:18:58

And the rulers of these rivers...

0:19:030:19:05

..caiman.

0:19:060:19:07

They grow to 10 feet long

0:19:090:19:12

and kill anything they get between their jaws.

0:19:120:19:14

But there are more artful hunters,

0:19:190:19:22

drawn here from the surrounding forest.

0:19:220:19:25

A jaguar - the supreme jungle predator.

0:19:370:19:41

Capybara are strong and wary.

0:19:590:20:02

The key is stealth.

0:20:050:20:07

She needs to get within a metre if she is to pounce.

0:20:260:20:30

Not this time.

0:20:530:20:54

She's not the only female here.

0:21:050:21:07

Each part of this jungle's edge is ruled by a different queen.

0:21:090:21:13

Few places on Earth have enough food to support so many big cats.

0:21:240:21:29

The male hunts in a different way.

0:21:550:21:57

Weighing over 130 kilos, it's hard to be stealthy.

0:22:050:22:09

And with so many other jaguars around,

0:22:120:22:15

he doesn't bother with wary capybara.

0:22:150:22:18

He seeks a different prey.

0:22:250:22:27

He's become a killer...

0:22:500:22:51

..of killers.

0:22:530:22:54

Jaguars have the most powerful bite

0:23:200:23:24

of any cat.

0:23:240:23:25

And he knows the caiman's most vulnerable point.

0:23:280:23:31

The back of its skull.

0:23:340:23:35

For some, isolation has provided an escape from the competition.

0:23:580:24:03

The tiny island of Escudo, off the coast of Panama.

0:24:260:24:30

Home to the pygmy three-toed sloth.

0:24:320:24:36

This is a male, and life here suits him well.

0:24:400:24:43

Mangroves provide all the leaves he can eat,

0:24:470:24:51

and there are no predators to worry him.

0:24:510:24:53

Island life may seem idyllic, but it comes at a price.

0:24:550:25:00

There are only a few hundred pygmy sloths in existence...

0:25:020:25:06

..and he needs a mate.

0:25:070:25:09

HIGH-PITCHED SQUEAL

0:25:120:25:14

That is an enticing call...

0:25:140:25:16

..from a female...

0:25:180:25:19

..somewhere, out there.

0:25:220:25:24

And this, for a sloth,

0:25:270:25:29

is a quick reaction.

0:25:290:25:31

The problem is there's deep water between them.

0:25:540:25:58

So what should any red-blooded sloth do?

0:25:590:26:03

Swim, of course.

0:26:080:26:09

Could this be her?

0:26:400:26:42

He does his best to put on a turn of speed.

0:26:490:26:52

But she's not the one.

0:27:030:27:05

She already has a baby,

0:27:050:27:07

and she won't mate again until it leaves her

0:27:070:27:10

in about six months' time.

0:27:100:27:12

Even life on a paradise island can have its limitations.

0:27:190:27:23

But at least she can't be far away.

0:27:290:27:32

Islands can be sanctuaries for wildlife,

0:27:350:27:38

but that doesn't mean that life is easy.

0:27:380:27:41

Some can be very challenging places indeed.

0:27:410:27:45

There are islands still forming today,

0:28:000:28:03

built by volcanoes.

0:28:030:28:05

Some erupt explosively.

0:28:080:28:10

Others pour out rivers of molten rock -

0:28:170:28:21

lava.

0:28:210:28:22

In the last 50 years, ten new volcanic islands have been formed.

0:28:290:28:33

Young volcanic islands can be tough places to survive.

0:29:000:29:05

This is Fernandina, one of the Galapagos Islands in the Pacific.

0:29:100:29:14

It is a desolate place, but the surrounding sea is rich with life.

0:29:180:29:23

And the frontier between these two very different worlds is the home

0:29:270:29:31

of one of the strangest of reptiles.

0:29:310:29:33

Seagoing iguanas.

0:29:380:29:40

They are vegetarians,

0:29:430:29:45

but since there is little food for them on land,

0:29:450:29:48

marine iguanas graze on the sea floor.

0:29:480:29:51

A big male like this one can dive to 30 metres and hold his breath

0:29:530:29:59

for half an hour.

0:29:590:30:00

It is an incredible adaptation that allows them to survive

0:30:250:30:30

in a barren landscape.

0:30:300:30:32

And by bringing nutrients from the sea to the land,

0:30:390:30:42

the iguanas help other animals to survive here, too.

0:30:420:30:45

Crabs feed on dead skin on the iguanas' back,

0:30:490:30:52

and in turn provide a welcome exfoliation service.

0:30:520:30:56

While smaller lizards prey on the flies that pester the colony.

0:31:040:31:08

But not all the relationships on this island are so harmonious.

0:31:300:31:35

Marine iguanas lay their eggs in sand.

0:31:410:31:44

In June, when the hatchlings emerge, they are vulnerable.

0:31:470:31:50

They must join the adults at the edge of the sea,

0:31:550:31:58

but the journey will be a dangerous one.

0:31:580:32:00

Racer snakes.

0:32:260:32:27

The snakes missed their chance.

0:32:570:32:59

But more babies are hatching...

0:33:070:33:09

..and now the snakes are on the alert.

0:33:150:33:19

This is the best feeding opportunity they will get all year.

0:33:190:33:23

On flat ground, a baby iguana can outrun a racer snake...

0:33:390:33:43

..but others are waiting in ambush.

0:33:450:33:47

Another hatchling has its first glimpse of a dangerous world.

0:34:150:34:19

A snake's eyes aren't very good...

0:35:170:35:19

..but they can detect movement.

0:35:200:35:22

So if the hatchling keeps its nerve, it may just avoid detection.

0:35:240:35:28

A near-miraculous escape.

0:37:010:37:02

The lucky survivors can begin learning the unique way of life

0:37:090:37:14

demanded by this hostile island.

0:37:140:37:16

There are habitats on Earth

0:37:260:37:29

where food seems abundant.

0:37:290:37:31

One quarter of the land on Earth is covered by a single remarkable

0:37:360:37:41

type of plant.

0:37:410:37:42

Grass.

0:37:440:37:45

It can be tall enough to hide a giant...

0:37:530:37:56

..and the world it creates is unique.

0:38:040:38:06

These are the good times.

0:38:220:38:23

But in just a few months,

0:38:250:38:27

the animals will be forced to move on in search of new growth.

0:38:270:38:31

For tiny animals, the summer boom brings opportunity

0:38:360:38:41

to their doorstep.

0:38:410:38:42

An excellent time to build a tiny treehouse...

0:38:450:38:49

..for a harvest mouse.

0:38:510:38:52

During summer, European meadow lands are full of food.

0:39:060:39:10

But only for those that can reach it.

0:39:140:39:16

Climbing grass is harder than climbing trees,

0:39:350:39:38

not least because their stems just won't stay still.

0:39:380:39:41

A prehensile tail acts like a fifth limb,

0:39:490:39:52

so she's as agile as a monkey clambering around in a tree.

0:39:520:39:56

And just as well, for the best food in this tiny forest

0:40:040:40:08

is at the very top of its canopy.

0:40:080:40:10

Feeding up here, she is exposed.

0:40:210:40:23

A barn owl.

0:40:310:40:32

Not her finest move...

0:41:030:41:05

..but it did the trick.

0:41:090:41:10

Harvest mice seldom go all the way down to the ground.

0:41:120:41:15

It's a tangled and dangerous world down here.

0:41:190:41:22

But she can read the pattern of the stems overhead like a map...

0:41:350:41:39

..and so find her way home.

0:41:410:41:42

And not a minute too soon.

0:41:510:41:53

There are mouths to feed.

0:41:580:42:00

Her babies must fatten up quickly.

0:42:130:42:15

They need to harvest the summer grasses while they are still

0:42:180:42:21

rich with food.

0:42:210:42:22

On the grasslands of Africa,

0:42:310:42:34

Jackson's widowbirds seek out fresh stems

0:42:340:42:38

with a different purpose in mind.

0:42:380:42:40

This male wants a mate.

0:42:460:42:48

He has grown elaborate breeding plumage for this moment...

0:42:510:42:55

..but he needs a stage on which to show it off.

0:42:560:42:59

By carefully selecting grass blades, each trimmed to the correct length,

0:43:040:43:09

he is creating something very special.

0:43:090:43:11

He needs an even surface...

0:43:260:43:28

..and a centrepiece.

0:43:300:43:32

The stage is set.

0:43:340:43:36

His bachelor pad is sufficiently neat and tidy to attract a female.

0:43:370:43:41

The problem is, can she see it?

0:43:430:43:46

He has competition.

0:43:500:43:51

It might take more than a little gardening to impress the ladies.

0:44:020:44:06

Jumping is the right idea...

0:44:080:44:10

..but he has misjudged the height of the grass.

0:44:110:44:14

His rival makes it look easy.

0:44:240:44:26

Time to raise his game.

0:44:490:44:51

It's not only who jumps the highest,

0:45:270:45:29

but who can keep doing so the longest.

0:45:290:45:32

Unable to go the distance, his rivals drop out, one by one.

0:45:400:45:45

Stamina has won him admirers.

0:45:500:45:53

Now he can show off his courtship arena.

0:45:540:45:58

And engage in a little romantic hide and seek.

0:46:070:46:10

Finally, he's done enough.

0:46:220:46:26

The seasonality of the grassland

0:46:340:46:36

means the time of opportunity is swiftly followed

0:46:360:46:40

by times of hardship.

0:46:400:46:42

In winter, the prairies of North America freeze.

0:46:450:46:48

60 million tonnes of snow

0:46:520:46:54

now blanket this herd of bison's territory.

0:46:540:46:57

Pushing through the drifts is exhausting work,

0:47:000:47:03

and the bison are now slowly starving.

0:47:030:47:06

Just keeping warm saps huge amounts of energy.

0:47:130:47:16

Their thick coats can insulate them down to minus 20 Fahrenheit.

0:47:220:47:26

It is now minus 40.

0:47:270:47:29

The only thing that will keep them alive

0:47:320:47:35

is buried beneath three feet of snow.

0:47:350:47:38

And that's a problem shared with a surprising neighbour.

0:47:430:47:46

The food the fox seeks is also deep beneath the snow.

0:48:040:48:07

The survival of both creatures

0:48:200:48:22

depends on getting through to the ground.

0:48:220:48:25

For the bison, it will be a matter of brute strength.

0:48:300:48:33

Their lightweight neighbour needs more precision.

0:48:380:48:42

The bison have reached their goal - a mouthful of withered grass.

0:49:070:49:12

And where the bison have dug, the fox now spots an opportunity.

0:49:160:49:20

Every footstep counts.

0:49:290:49:31

But he mustn't break through...

0:49:340:49:36

..yet.

0:49:370:49:38

He listens carefully to pinpoint his target.

0:49:410:49:44

It's moving.

0:49:500:49:51

A vole.

0:50:130:50:14

Small, but 100 times more nutritious than a mouthful of dried grass.

0:50:160:50:22

To get through the winter on these prairies,

0:50:290:50:32

sometimes brain beats brawn.

0:50:320:50:35

Seasonal change brings the transformation of the landscape

0:50:410:50:46

to more than just the grasslands.

0:50:460:50:48

In America, the spring melt turns the slopes of the Rocky Mountains

0:50:490:50:54

from white to green.

0:50:540:50:55

Meadows that only a few weeks ago

0:51:180:51:20

were buried deep beneath the snow are now full of life.

0:51:200:51:24

Bears have emerged from their winter dens.

0:51:400:51:43

It's becoming warmer,

0:51:470:51:49

and they are keen to shed their thick winter coats.

0:51:490:51:52

Mothers show their cubs what to do about this.

0:51:550:51:59

They'll soon catch on.

0:52:090:52:10

Some trees, it seems, are particularly suitable for rubbing.

0:52:130:52:17

Bears have their favourites,

0:52:180:52:20

and will travel long distances to visit them.

0:52:200:52:23

Some itches just have to be scratched.

0:52:260:52:29

There are now 30 bears in this one valley.

0:52:500:52:54

As they rub, each leaves an individual and recognisable scent.

0:53:010:53:06

So the tree soon carries a list of who's around...

0:53:090:53:13

..which might help individuals to avoid a fight.

0:53:140:53:16

To best spread their scent,

0:53:180:53:21

they really have to put their back into it.

0:53:210:53:23

But the summer is short.

0:54:050:54:08

Itches satisfactorily scratched, it's time to eat.

0:54:080:54:13

Dawn in the high Andes.

0:54:210:54:24

Here, too, the sun's warmth brings rapid relief.

0:54:270:54:31

Mountain viscacha are up early

0:54:360:54:38

to claim the best places to catch the sun's first rays.

0:54:380:54:42

For others up here, the sunrise is even more welcome.

0:55:040:55:08

At over 4,000 metres,

0:55:110:55:14

this is the highest flamingo colony in the world.

0:55:140:55:17

At night, it gets so cold that even this salty water freezes over.

0:55:190:55:24

And now the flamingos are trapped in the ice.

0:55:270:55:29

Eventually, the sun thins the ice.

0:55:350:55:38

But it's still a struggle for the flamingos to break free.

0:55:390:55:42

Walking on thin ice is always risky.

0:56:030:56:05

And it's hard to retain one's dignity.

0:56:170:56:19

Especially when you're wearing stilts.

0:56:210:56:23

At these altitudes,

0:56:360:56:38

the sun's power can quickly turn from salvation to threat.

0:56:380:56:44

The atmosphere is so thin,

0:56:500:56:52

there is very little protection from ultraviolet radiation.

0:56:520:56:56

By mid-morning, it's risky to linger out in the open.

0:56:570:57:01

The viscacha are forced to head for the shade.

0:57:040:57:07

Out on the lake, there is nowhere to hide.

0:57:120:57:16

The white crust of the soda lake reflects the sun's glare,

0:57:220:57:26

and increases the impact of its ultraviolet rays.

0:57:260:57:29

By midday, uncovered human skin will burn in four minutes.

0:57:350:57:39

But this doesn't seem to bother the flamingos.

0:57:450:57:48

In fact, they are on parade.

0:57:490:57:51

During the breeding season,

0:58:210:58:23

flamingos perform these bizarre courtship dances,

0:58:230:58:26

even through the hottest time of the day.

0:58:260:58:28

They are so eager, they don't even pause to feed.

0:58:360:58:39

The rules are something of a mystery.

0:58:570:59:00

But after a month of dancing, all the birds will have paired off

0:59:000:59:04

and will be getting ready to mate.

0:59:040:59:06

Up here, there are few other creatures to bother the flamingos,

0:59:130:59:17

but then, few other creatures could even tolerate these conditions.

0:59:170:59:22

Such extreme habitats require wildlife

0:59:260:59:29

to be extraordinarily resilient.

0:59:290:59:32

And nowhere more so than in the desert.

0:59:370:59:39

With temperatures reaching almost 50 degrees Celsius,

0:59:430:59:47

there's no escape from the scorching sun,

0:59:470:59:49

the wind and the dust.

0:59:490:59:51

This is the oldest desert in the world -

1:00:141:00:18

the Namib, in south-west Africa.

1:00:181:00:20

It's been dry for 55 million years.

1:00:221:00:25

Life here, for the hunter, is as hard as it gets.

1:00:301:00:34

A pride of lions.

1:00:451:00:48

One of the very few that endures

1:00:481:00:50

this desert's scorching temperatures and lack of water.

1:00:501:00:54

These are desperate times.

1:01:181:01:21

A dry riverbed on the edge of their territory.

1:01:241:01:27

The only animals here are giraffe.

1:01:311:01:33

But these one-ton giants could kill a lion with a single kick.

1:01:341:01:39

Lions seldom tackle such formidable prey...

1:01:521:01:55

..but this pride can't go on much longer without food.

1:01:581:02:03

The whole pride must work together as a team if they're to succeed.

1:02:311:02:34

Two lionesses lead the chase.

1:03:031:03:06

Others race to cut off possible escape routes.

1:03:061:03:09

The giraffe has the speed and stamina to outrun the pride.

1:03:261:03:30

But it's being chased into a trap.

1:03:321:03:34

Up ahead, the lead female waits.

1:03:371:03:39

It's now up to her.

1:03:501:03:52

Most lion hunts end in failure.

1:04:111:04:14

But no lions fail more often than those that live in the desert.

1:04:161:04:20

In the land where food and water is so limited,

1:04:271:04:31

competition can be intense.

1:04:311:04:33

It's July in Nevada in the Western United States.

1:04:371:04:41

The hottest time of the year.

1:04:431:04:45

Bands of wild horses, mustang,

1:04:581:05:01

are converging on one of the last remaining waterholes for miles.

1:05:011:05:05

Now, water not only offers them the chance to drink.

1:05:101:05:15

It can also bring power.

1:05:151:05:17

If a stallion can control access to water,

1:05:201:05:23

he will secure mating rights to the entire herd.

1:05:231:05:26

So, stallions try to dominate these pools,

1:05:281:05:31

fighting off rivals who venture too close.

1:05:311:05:33

A stranger.

1:05:471:05:48

He has travelled ten miles to be here,

1:05:501:05:52

because the pools where he's come from have already dried up.

1:05:521:05:55

With him come his females.

1:05:591:06:02

If he can't provide them with water, they will leave him

1:06:041:06:07

for the white stallion who already dominates this pool.

1:06:071:06:11

So, he will have to fight.

1:06:221:06:24

There is everything to lose.

1:07:241:07:26

A broken leg or a shattered jaw would mean a slow and painful death.

1:07:271:07:32

A missed kick and it's all over.

1:07:531:07:56

The new arrival has won.

1:07:591:08:01

And his prize is more than just a chance to drink.

1:08:031:08:07

He has provided for his herd and, in the process,

1:08:071:08:10

stolen his rival's females.

1:08:101:08:12

The white stallion's rule is over.

1:08:141:08:17

When rain does come,

1:08:301:08:31

it has the power to bring life to even the desert.

1:08:311:08:35

And no creature exploits the greening of the land

1:08:531:08:57

more quickly or more dramatically than a locust.

1:08:571:09:02

Madagascar's arid south-west

1:09:101:09:12

has received its highest rainfall in years.

1:09:121:09:15

Now an army is on the march,

1:09:211:09:23

attracted by the smell of newly-sprouting grass.

1:09:231:09:27

Locusts are normally solitary creatures,

1:09:391:09:42

but when food becomes suddenly plentiful, they come together

1:09:421:09:46

into an unstoppable force that devours everything in its path.

1:09:461:09:50

But this devastation is about to get a lot worse.

1:10:091:10:13

The locusts now transform into winged adults.

1:10:251:10:28

And with conditions as good as this,

1:10:301:10:32

they do so three times faster than normal.

1:10:321:10:34

Now they are at their most voracious.

1:10:361:10:39

And with wings, they can take to the skies.

1:10:411:10:44

Once airborne, the locusts can travel over 60 miles a day

1:11:091:11:13

in their search for new feeding grounds.

1:11:131:11:16

A super swarm of this scale may only appear once in a decade.

1:11:301:11:34

This one extends over 200 square miles

1:11:351:11:38

and contains several billion individuals.

1:11:381:11:42

Between them, they will devour 40,000 tonnes of food in a day.

1:11:431:11:48

Nothing can strip a land of its vegetation

1:12:231:12:27

with such speed and thoroughness as a plague of locusts.

1:12:271:12:31

When the food eventually runs out, the whole army will die.

1:12:341:12:37

But not before it's devastated the land.

1:12:391:12:41

In the last 6,000 years,

1:12:531:12:55

a new habitat has appeared,

1:12:551:12:57

entirely designed and constructed by one species for its own purpose.

1:12:571:13:03

We humans create homes for ourselves, cities -

1:13:061:13:10

with consequences for wildlife, good and bad.

1:13:101:13:14

Rome in December.

1:13:171:13:20

Visitors are drawn in by the city's heat.

1:13:201:13:22

And they're leaving their mark.

1:13:241:13:26

In a single winter's day,

1:13:291:13:31

ten tonnes of its droppings rain down on the city.

1:13:311:13:35

Starlings.

1:13:421:13:43

In the evening, they come back to the warmth of the city

1:13:471:13:50

after feeding in the neighbouring countryside.

1:13:501:13:52

They must return to their roosting trees,

1:13:551:13:58

but the first to do so are

1:13:581:14:00

at the highest risk of being caught by birds of prey.

1:14:001:14:04

So they wait for others to arrive.

1:14:071:14:09

There's safety in numbers.

1:14:101:14:12

As daylight fades,

1:14:151:14:16

the sky fills with a staggering one million starlings.

1:14:161:14:21

And then follows one of Nature's great spectaculars.

1:14:231:14:28

How, or indeed why, they perform these marvellous aerobatics,

1:15:101:15:15

we still do not fully understand.

1:15:151:15:18

Eventually, en masse,

1:15:281:15:31

they brave the descent and fill the branches of their favourite trees.

1:15:311:15:35

On these cold winter nights,

1:15:401:15:42

the city's extra warmth can mean the difference between life and death.

1:15:421:15:47

For the bold, this new world can offer other opportunities.

1:16:011:16:05

But to compete with humanity takes intelligence and nerve.

1:16:111:16:17

One enterprising species of monkey

1:16:221:16:25

has moved into the city of Jaipur in India.

1:16:251:16:29

The Rhesus macaque.

1:16:321:16:33

But how to get a share of all this juicy fruit?

1:16:381:16:42

Every morning,

1:16:501:16:51

the troop make the same journey through the urban jungle,

1:16:511:16:55

just as human commuters do.

1:16:551:16:57

Sometimes, inevitably, there are traffic jams.

1:17:201:17:24

Once they get to the market, trouble begins.

1:17:481:17:51

Being both intelligent and brazen

1:18:131:18:15

is the key to beating human beings on their home turf.

1:18:151:18:18

It's daylight robbery.

1:18:561:18:58

In the city, conflict between man and animal might seem inevitable.

1:19:081:19:13

We create these cities for ourselves,

1:19:151:19:18

and some of the changes we introduce

1:19:181:19:21

can be hard for animals to cope with.

1:19:211:19:23

One of the greatest changes of recent times

1:19:271:19:30

has come from a single invention made less than 140 years ago.

1:19:301:19:35

Electric light.

1:19:401:19:41

It has become more and more powerful...

1:19:431:19:46

..filling our streets with light.

1:19:481:19:50

It is everywhere in the city.

1:20:021:20:03

It even goes underground.

1:20:061:20:07

The difference between day and night

1:20:261:20:29

has become less and less perceptible.

1:20:291:20:32

And that has a profound effect on the activities of wildlife.

1:20:411:20:46

In the wilderness, light triggers all kinds of behaviour.

1:20:511:20:55

On the night of the full moon,

1:21:011:21:03

hundreds of tiny hawksbill turtle hatchlings emerge

1:21:031:21:07

from the safety of their nest, deep in the sand.

1:21:071:21:10

Their instinct is to reach the sea as quickly as possible.

1:21:121:21:16

And their guide is the light of the full moon, reflected on the water.

1:21:181:21:23

But this young hatchling...

1:21:301:21:32

..is confused.

1:21:331:21:34

It's going in the wrong direction.

1:21:421:21:45

Bright light is coming from the land.

1:21:501:21:52

And all these hatchlings are travelling up the beach towards it.

1:21:561:22:00

Predators are ready to take advantage.

1:22:061:22:09

Crabs now make their burrows directly beneath the beach lights...

1:22:111:22:15

..and wait for their prey to come to them.

1:22:161:22:18

Even if a hatchling escapes, they're still in peril.

1:22:411:22:45

The lights become more and more bewildering.

1:22:541:22:57

80% of all hatchlings on this beach

1:23:211:23:24

are now disoriented by the lights of the town.

1:23:241:23:28

Roads bring many to their end.

1:23:481:23:51

Hundreds get trapped in storm drains every night.

1:24:061:24:09

Exhausted by the effort of travelling

1:24:241:24:26

such a distance on land...

1:24:261:24:28

..this hatchling's chances of surviving the night are slim.

1:24:301:24:34

This turtle is one of the countless species

1:24:471:24:50

that have been unable to adapt

1:24:501:24:52

to the change brought about by the urban environment.

1:24:521:24:56

Whether we choose to live in harmony with wildlife is up to us.

1:25:031:25:08

But there is one city where that idea

1:25:081:25:11

is being applied on a major scale -

1:25:111:25:14

Singapore.

1:25:171:25:18

Two million trees have been planted here in the last 45 years.

1:25:241:25:29

This city is now richer in species than any other in the world.

1:25:301:25:35

And this practice extends to all parts of the city.

1:25:391:25:42

The waterways have been cleaned up

1:25:451:25:47

and smooth-coated otters are coming back.

1:25:471:25:50

But perhaps the most spectacular example of city greening

1:25:541:25:59

is this grove of "super trees".

1:25:591:26:02

These 150-feet-high metal structures are now full of life.

1:26:071:26:13

Creepers have been planted to grow over the outermost branches.

1:26:161:26:20

This is a new urban world that we have now designed and built

1:26:241:26:30

with others in mind.

1:26:301:26:31

Create the space and the animals will come.

1:26:341:26:38

Is this a vision for our cities of the future?

1:26:471:26:50

It could be possible to see wildlife thriving

1:26:591:27:02

within our cities across the planet.

1:27:021:27:05

We, after all, are the architects of the urban world.

1:27:071:27:12

Looking down on this great metropolis,

1:27:131:27:16

the ingenuity with which we continue to reshape the surface of our planet

1:27:161:27:20

is very striking.

1:27:201:27:21

It is also sobering.

1:27:231:27:25

It reminds me of just how easy it is for us

1:27:251:27:27

to lose our connection with the natural world.

1:27:271:27:31

Yet it's on this connection that the future of both humanity

1:27:321:27:36

and the natural world will depend.

1:27:361:27:39

It's surely our responsibility to do everything within our power

1:27:401:27:45

to create a planet that provides a home, not just for us,

1:27:451:27:50

but for all life on Earth.

1:27:501:27:53