A compilation episode of the wildlife documentary series presented by David Attenborough, uncovering the secrets of animals across the globe.
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Looking down from two miles above the surface of the Earth,
it's impossible not to be impressed by the sheer grandeur and splendour
and power of the natural world.
Ten years ago, in a television series called Planet Earth,
we revealed many of those wonders.
Planet Earth II brings you even closer to the lives of animals
than ever before.
With new technology and new insight,
we can show wildlife dramas in completely new ways.
In this programme, we celebrate some of the highlights of the series.
Journeying to every corner of the globe...
..to reveal the extreme lengths animals go to in order to survive.
And we also visit the newest habitat on Earth -
Now is a crucial time for the natural world,
when our connection with nature is more important than ever before.
This is Planet Earth II.
The snow leopard.
Seldom seen, the detail of their lives has long been a mystery.
But now, at last, helped by the latest remote camera technology,
we're getting closer to them than ever before.
They are very rare - as few as four of them in 40 square miles.
In the high mountains, there is simply not enough prey
to sustain them.
They live solitary lives.
Nonetheless, they are well aware of the presence and the movements
of their neighbours,
because they leave messages in a few special places.
They rub particular rocks with their cheeks...
..and then spray them with urine.
Their two perfumes create a unique signature.
Any other leopard can know which of its neighbours passed this way
without ever making direct contact.
Life at extreme altitudes has shaped some of the toughest animals
on the planet.
In the Alps, Europe's highest peaks,
it is winter and food is desperately short.
A golden eagle has to spend every daylight hour
scanning the slopes for something, somewhere to eat.
Her seven-foot wingspan allows her to glide effortlessly
for 100 miles in a single day.
Her extraordinary eyes enable her to spot prey from two miles away.
But she is not the only one who's looking for food.
When she spots a chance, she must move fast.
She can dive at 200mph -
only a peregrine is faster.
During winter, even eagles rely almost entirely on carrion.
It's a dead fox, and it could sustain her for days.
Other scavengers must defer.
The hungry crows soon regain their courage.
They'll try any trick to steal a morsel.
And they are annoyingly persistent.
But this mob are the least of her worries.
A bigger eagle takes control.
But this kill is too important to give up.
So she must fight.
For the moment, she has won the carcass back...
..but a kill like this will attract every eagle for miles around.
As ever, the strongest wins the lion's share.
Unable to defend the carcass any longer,
the first eagle must now continue its search.
It may be many days before she feeds again.
Compared to the sparseness of the highest mountains,
the jungle is full of opportunity.
It is Eden.
It covers less than 6% of the Earth's surface,
but it's home to half of all the plants and animals on land.
The challenge here is dealing with the competition.
And that has driven animals to do a raft of ingenious things.
For some, it is about trying to stand out.
While, for others, the key to survival is blending in.
And these streams in Costa Rica are home to one of the most remarkable
masters of disguise.
A glass frog.
A male, and tiny.
No bigger than your fingernail...
..and almost entirely transparent.
As he needs to be.
Almost everything that walks past here could eat him.
Even a cricket.
His best chance is to stay absolutely still and trust
that the cricket looks right through him.
..and that's just as well.
Because he is a father...
..and he is guarding some very precious eggs.
For the last few weeks, females, one after the other,
have visited him and entrusted him with their offspring.
Some are now almost ready to hatch.
There are several clutches on the leaf, and those at the top,
the most recently laid, are barely a day old.
But, in the jungle, there is always someone out to get you.
This wasp is a specialist hunter of frogs' eggs.
It has noticed the wriggling tadpoles at the bottom of the leaf.
He mustn't move.
The youngest eggs are the most vulnerable,
and he can't guard them all.
But these tadpoles are not as helpless as they might appear.
Incredibly, the unhatched tadpoles can sense danger and the oldest
and strongest wriggle free and drop into the stream below.
The eggs at the top of the leaf, however,
are still too young to hatch...
..and now the wasps know they're there.
But the male's back looks very like the youngest cluster of eggs...
..and that seems to confuse the wasps.
Using his own body as a decoy is a huge risk.
The wasps' stings could kill him.
He has managed to save most of his young.
He'll have to remain on guard for another two weeks.
But, in the jungle, just surviving the day can count as a success.
Jungles are the richest places on Earth,
because of one remarkable fact.
They make their own weather.
Every day, water rises from the surface of the leaves as vapour.
It's as if the trees breathe out clouds.
They gather over the forest, until finally...
Rain is the lifeblood of every jungle...
..and all have to do their best to endure the daily downpour.
In some jungles, like here in Brazil,
it rains so much that, for part of the year, the trees
are almost totally submerged.
This is a mysterious world, a place few people have ever explored.
Here, 1,000 miles from the sea, are dolphins.
A newly-identified species of river dolphin found nowhere else on Earth.
At the shallow margins of the flooded jungle,
food is so abundant it supports giants.
Capybara - the biggest rodents in the world.
Giant otters, the size of a man.
And the rulers of these rivers...
They grow to 10 feet long
and kill anything they get between their jaws.
But there are more artful hunters,
drawn here from the surrounding forest.
A jaguar - the supreme jungle predator.
Capybara are strong and wary.
The key is stealth.
She needs to get within a metre if she is to pounce.
Not this time.
She's not the only female here.
Each part of this jungle's edge is ruled by a different queen.
Few places on Earth have enough food to support so many big cats.
The male hunts in a different way.
Weighing over 130 kilos, it's hard to be stealthy.
And with so many other jaguars around,
he doesn't bother with wary capybara.
He seeks a different prey.
He's become a killer...
Jaguars have the most powerful bite
of any cat.
And he knows the caiman's most vulnerable point.
The back of its skull.
For some, isolation has provided an escape from the competition.
The tiny island of Escudo, off the coast of Panama.
Home to the pygmy three-toed sloth.
This is a male, and life here suits him well.
Mangroves provide all the leaves he can eat,
and there are no predators to worry him.
Island life may seem idyllic, but it comes at a price.
There are only a few hundred pygmy sloths in existence...
..and he needs a mate.
That is an enticing call...
..from a female...
..somewhere, out there.
And this, for a sloth,
is a quick reaction.
The problem is there's deep water between them.
So what should any red-blooded sloth do?
Swim, of course.
Could this be her?
He does his best to put on a turn of speed.
But she's not the one.
She already has a baby,
and she won't mate again until it leaves her
in about six months' time.
Even life on a paradise island can have its limitations.
But at least she can't be far away.
Islands can be sanctuaries for wildlife,
but that doesn't mean that life is easy.
Some can be very challenging places indeed.
There are islands still forming today,
built by volcanoes.
Some erupt explosively.
Others pour out rivers of molten rock -
In the last 50 years, ten new volcanic islands have been formed.
Young volcanic islands can be tough places to survive.
This is Fernandina, one of the Galapagos Islands in the Pacific.
It is a desolate place, but the surrounding sea is rich with life.
And the frontier between these two very different worlds is the home
of one of the strangest of reptiles.
They are vegetarians,
but since there is little food for them on land,
marine iguanas graze on the sea floor.
A big male like this one can dive to 30 metres and hold his breath
for half an hour.
It is an incredible adaptation that allows them to survive
in a barren landscape.
And by bringing nutrients from the sea to the land,
the iguanas help other animals to survive here, too.
Crabs feed on dead skin on the iguanas' back,
and in turn provide a welcome exfoliation service.
While smaller lizards prey on the flies that pester the colony.
But not all the relationships on this island are so harmonious.
Marine iguanas lay their eggs in sand.
In June, when the hatchlings emerge, they are vulnerable.
They must join the adults at the edge of the sea,
but the journey will be a dangerous one.
The snakes missed their chance.
But more babies are hatching...
..and now the snakes are on the alert.
This is the best feeding opportunity they will get all year.
On flat ground, a baby iguana can outrun a racer snake...
..but others are waiting in ambush.
Another hatchling has its first glimpse of a dangerous world.
A snake's eyes aren't very good...
..but they can detect movement.
So if the hatchling keeps its nerve, it may just avoid detection.
A near-miraculous escape.
The lucky survivors can begin learning the unique way of life
demanded by this hostile island.
There are habitats on Earth
where food seems abundant.
One quarter of the land on Earth is covered by a single remarkable
type of plant.
It can be tall enough to hide a giant...
..and the world it creates is unique.
These are the good times.
But in just a few months,
the animals will be forced to move on in search of new growth.
For tiny animals, the summer boom brings opportunity
to their doorstep.
An excellent time to build a tiny treehouse...
..for a harvest mouse.
During summer, European meadow lands are full of food.
But only for those that can reach it.
Climbing grass is harder than climbing trees,
not least because their stems just won't stay still.
A prehensile tail acts like a fifth limb,
so she's as agile as a monkey clambering around in a tree.
And just as well, for the best food in this tiny forest
is at the very top of its canopy.
Feeding up here, she is exposed.
A barn owl.
Not her finest move...
..but it did the trick.
Harvest mice seldom go all the way down to the ground.
It's a tangled and dangerous world down here.
But she can read the pattern of the stems overhead like a map...
..and so find her way home.
And not a minute too soon.
There are mouths to feed.
Her babies must fatten up quickly.
They need to harvest the summer grasses while they are still
rich with food.
On the grasslands of Africa,
Jackson's widowbirds seek out fresh stems
with a different purpose in mind.
This male wants a mate.
He has grown elaborate breeding plumage for this moment...
..but he needs a stage on which to show it off.
By carefully selecting grass blades, each trimmed to the correct length,
he is creating something very special.
He needs an even surface...
..and a centrepiece.
The stage is set.
His bachelor pad is sufficiently neat and tidy to attract a female.
The problem is, can she see it?
He has competition.
It might take more than a little gardening to impress the ladies.
Jumping is the right idea...
..but he has misjudged the height of the grass.
His rival makes it look easy.
Time to raise his game.
It's not only who jumps the highest,
but who can keep doing so the longest.
Unable to go the distance, his rivals drop out, one by one.
Stamina has won him admirers.
Now he can show off his courtship arena.
And engage in a little romantic hide and seek.
Finally, he's done enough.
The seasonality of the grassland
means the time of opportunity is swiftly followed
by times of hardship.
In winter, the prairies of North America freeze.
60 million tonnes of snow
now blanket this herd of bison's territory.
Pushing through the drifts is exhausting work,
and the bison are now slowly starving.
Just keeping warm saps huge amounts of energy.
Their thick coats can insulate them down to minus 20 Fahrenheit.
It is now minus 40.
The only thing that will keep them alive
is buried beneath three feet of snow.
And that's a problem shared with a surprising neighbour.
The food the fox seeks is also deep beneath the snow.
The survival of both creatures
depends on getting through to the ground.
For the bison, it will be a matter of brute strength.
Their lightweight neighbour needs more precision.
The bison have reached their goal - a mouthful of withered grass.
And where the bison have dug, the fox now spots an opportunity.
Every footstep counts.
But he mustn't break through...
He listens carefully to pinpoint his target.
Small, but 100 times more nutritious than a mouthful of dried grass.
To get through the winter on these prairies,
sometimes brain beats brawn.
Seasonal change brings the transformation of the landscape
to more than just the grasslands.
In America, the spring melt turns the slopes of the Rocky Mountains
from white to green.
Meadows that only a few weeks ago
were buried deep beneath the snow are now full of life.
Bears have emerged from their winter dens.
It's becoming warmer,
and they are keen to shed their thick winter coats.
Mothers show their cubs what to do about this.
They'll soon catch on.
Some trees, it seems, are particularly suitable for rubbing.
Bears have their favourites,
and will travel long distances to visit them.
Some itches just have to be scratched.
There are now 30 bears in this one valley.
As they rub, each leaves an individual and recognisable scent.
So the tree soon carries a list of who's around...
..which might help individuals to avoid a fight.
To best spread their scent,
they really have to put their back into it.
But the summer is short.
Itches satisfactorily scratched, it's time to eat.
Dawn in the high Andes.
Here, too, the sun's warmth brings rapid relief.
Mountain viscacha are up early
to claim the best places to catch the sun's first rays.
For others up here, the sunrise is even more welcome.
At over 4,000 metres,
this is the highest flamingo colony in the world.
At night, it gets so cold that even this salty water freezes over.
And now the flamingos are trapped in the ice.
Eventually, the sun thins the ice.
But it's still a struggle for the flamingos to break free.
Walking on thin ice is always risky.
And it's hard to retain one's dignity.
Especially when you're wearing stilts.
At these altitudes,
the sun's power can quickly turn from salvation to threat.
The atmosphere is so thin,
there is very little protection from ultraviolet radiation.
By mid-morning, it's risky to linger out in the open.
The viscacha are forced to head for the shade.
Out on the lake, there is nowhere to hide.
The white crust of the soda lake reflects the sun's glare,
and increases the impact of its ultraviolet rays.
By midday, uncovered human skin will burn in four minutes.
But this doesn't seem to bother the flamingos.
In fact, they are on parade.
During the breeding season,
flamingos perform these bizarre courtship dances,
even through the hottest time of the day.
They are so eager, they don't even pause to feed.
The rules are something of a mystery.
But after a month of dancing, all the birds will have paired off
and will be getting ready to mate.
Up here, there are few other creatures to bother the flamingos,
but then, few other creatures could even tolerate these conditions.
Such extreme habitats require wildlife
to be extraordinarily resilient.
And nowhere more so than in the desert.
With temperatures reaching almost 50 degrees Celsius,
there's no escape from the scorching sun,
the wind and the dust.
This is the oldest desert in the world -
the Namib, in south-west Africa.
It's been dry for 55 million years.
Life here, for the hunter, is as hard as it gets.
A pride of lions.
One of the very few that endures
this desert's scorching temperatures and lack of water.
These are desperate times.
A dry riverbed on the edge of their territory.
The only animals here are giraffe.
But these one-ton giants could kill a lion with a single kick.
Lions seldom tackle such formidable prey...
..but this pride can't go on much longer without food.
The whole pride must work together as a team if they're to succeed.
Two lionesses lead the chase.
Others race to cut off possible escape routes.
The giraffe has the speed and stamina to outrun the pride.
But it's being chased into a trap.
Up ahead, the lead female waits.
It's now up to her.
Most lion hunts end in failure.
But no lions fail more often than those that live in the desert.
In the land where food and water is so limited,
competition can be intense.
It's July in Nevada in the Western United States.
The hottest time of the year.
Bands of wild horses, mustang,
are converging on one of the last remaining waterholes for miles.
Now, water not only offers them the chance to drink.
It can also bring power.
If a stallion can control access to water,
he will secure mating rights to the entire herd.
So, stallions try to dominate these pools,
fighting off rivals who venture too close.
He has travelled ten miles to be here,
because the pools where he's come from have already dried up.
With him come his females.
If he can't provide them with water, they will leave him
for the white stallion who already dominates this pool.
So, he will have to fight.
There is everything to lose.
A broken leg or a shattered jaw would mean a slow and painful death.
A missed kick and it's all over.
The new arrival has won.
And his prize is more than just a chance to drink.
He has provided for his herd and, in the process,
stolen his rival's females.
The white stallion's rule is over.
When rain does come,
it has the power to bring life to even the desert.
And no creature exploits the greening of the land
more quickly or more dramatically than a locust.
Madagascar's arid south-west
has received its highest rainfall in years.
Now an army is on the march,
attracted by the smell of newly-sprouting grass.
Locusts are normally solitary creatures,
but when food becomes suddenly plentiful, they come together
into an unstoppable force that devours everything in its path.
But this devastation is about to get a lot worse.
The locusts now transform into winged adults.
And with conditions as good as this,
they do so three times faster than normal.
Now they are at their most voracious.
And with wings, they can take to the skies.
Once airborne, the locusts can travel over 60 miles a day
in their search for new feeding grounds.
A super swarm of this scale may only appear once in a decade.
This one extends over 200 square miles
and contains several billion individuals.
Between them, they will devour 40,000 tonnes of food in a day.
Nothing can strip a land of its vegetation
with such speed and thoroughness as a plague of locusts.
When the food eventually runs out, the whole army will die.
But not before it's devastated the land.
In the last 6,000 years,
a new habitat has appeared,
entirely designed and constructed by one species for its own purpose.
We humans create homes for ourselves, cities -
with consequences for wildlife, good and bad.
Rome in December.
Visitors are drawn in by the city's heat.
And they're leaving their mark.
In a single winter's day,
ten tonnes of its droppings rain down on the city.
In the evening, they come back to the warmth of the city
after feeding in the neighbouring countryside.
They must return to their roosting trees,
but the first to do so are
at the highest risk of being caught by birds of prey.
So they wait for others to arrive.
There's safety in numbers.
As daylight fades,
the sky fills with a staggering one million starlings.
And then follows one of Nature's great spectaculars.
How, or indeed why, they perform these marvellous aerobatics,
we still do not fully understand.
Eventually, en masse,
they brave the descent and fill the branches of their favourite trees.
On these cold winter nights,
the city's extra warmth can mean the difference between life and death.
For the bold, this new world can offer other opportunities.
But to compete with humanity takes intelligence and nerve.
One enterprising species of monkey
has moved into the city of Jaipur in India.
The Rhesus macaque.
But how to get a share of all this juicy fruit?
the troop make the same journey through the urban jungle,
just as human commuters do.
Sometimes, inevitably, there are traffic jams.
Once they get to the market, trouble begins.
Being both intelligent and brazen
is the key to beating human beings on their home turf.
It's daylight robbery.
In the city, conflict between man and animal might seem inevitable.
We create these cities for ourselves,
and some of the changes we introduce
can be hard for animals to cope with.
One of the greatest changes of recent times
has come from a single invention made less than 140 years ago.
It has become more and more powerful...
..filling our streets with light.
It is everywhere in the city.
It even goes underground.
The difference between day and night
has become less and less perceptible.
And that has a profound effect on the activities of wildlife.
In the wilderness, light triggers all kinds of behaviour.
On the night of the full moon,
hundreds of tiny hawksbill turtle hatchlings emerge
from the safety of their nest, deep in the sand.
Their instinct is to reach the sea as quickly as possible.
And their guide is the light of the full moon, reflected on the water.
But this young hatchling...
It's going in the wrong direction.
Bright light is coming from the land.
And all these hatchlings are travelling up the beach towards it.
Predators are ready to take advantage.
Crabs now make their burrows directly beneath the beach lights...
..and wait for their prey to come to them.
Even if a hatchling escapes, they're still in peril.
The lights become more and more bewildering.
80% of all hatchlings on this beach
are now disoriented by the lights of the town.
Roads bring many to their end.
Hundreds get trapped in storm drains every night.
Exhausted by the effort of travelling
such a distance on land...
..this hatchling's chances of surviving the night are slim.
This turtle is one of the countless species
that have been unable to adapt
to the change brought about by the urban environment.
Whether we choose to live in harmony with wildlife is up to us.
But there is one city where that idea
is being applied on a major scale -
Two million trees have been planted here in the last 45 years.
This city is now richer in species than any other in the world.
And this practice extends to all parts of the city.
The waterways have been cleaned up
and smooth-coated otters are coming back.
But perhaps the most spectacular example of city greening
is this grove of "super trees".
These 150-feet-high metal structures are now full of life.
Creepers have been planted to grow over the outermost branches.
This is a new urban world that we have now designed and built
with others in mind.
Create the space and the animals will come.
Is this a vision for our cities of the future?
It could be possible to see wildlife thriving
within our cities across the planet.
We, after all, are the architects of the urban world.
Looking down on this great metropolis,
the ingenuity with which we continue to reshape the surface of our planet
is very striking.
It is also sobering.
It reminds me of just how easy it is for us
to lose our connection with the natural world.
Yet it's on this connection that the future of both humanity
and the natural world will depend.
It's surely our responsibility to do everything within our power
to create a planet that provides a home, not just for us,
but for all life on Earth.