Episode 21 University Challenge


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Episode 21

In this second-round match Christ Church, Oxford plays the University of Manchester for a place in the quarter-finals. Jeremy Paxman asks the questions.


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University Challenge!

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Asking the questions - Jeremy Paxman.

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Hello. Ahead of us lies another 30 minutes of panning for gold

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in the babbling waters of the student mind

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with a place in the quarter-finals for whichever team glitters tonight.

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The team from Christ Church, Oxford were on impressive form in Round One against the University of Bath

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whom they beat by 270 points to 105, putting them among the highest scoring teams through to this stage.

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Mathematics, physics and classical music were among their strengths

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and whatever happens tonight, they include some of the best-dressed students to appear on this programme

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since television went into colour. Let's meet them again.

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Hello. I'm Thomas Hine from Middlesex reading Ancient and Modern History.

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I'm Will Peveler from Southampton and I'm reading Chemistry.

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-Their captain.

-I'm George Scratcherd from Northumberland,

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reading for a DPhil in History.

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I'm Nimish Telang from Pittsburgh and I'm reading Mathematics.

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APPLAUSE

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The team from Manchester University also had a walk in the park in Round One

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when they defenestrated Selwyn College, Cambridge by 255 to 70.

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That was despite a lamentable ignorance of 20th century opera and not knowing much about Scotland,

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but they did know about Descartes, the history of fingerprinting and what goes into eau-de-cologne.

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Let's meet the team again.

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Hi, I'm Luke Kelly from Kent and I'm studying History.

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I'm Michael McKenna from Lancashire and I'm studying Biochemistry.

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-Their captain.

-I'm Tristan Burke from Yorkshire,

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studying English Literature.

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I'm Paul Joyce from Lancashire,

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studying for a Masters in Social Research, Methods and Statistics.

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APPLAUSE

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Usual rules. 10 points for starters, 15 for bonuses, 5-point penalties for incorrect interruptions.

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Fingers on the buzzers. Here's your first starter for 10.

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Which 19th century figure fought for the Liberal Coalition in the Uruguayan Civil War,

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during which time he adopted the red shirt associated with...

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-Garibaldi.

-Garibaldi is correct, yes.

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The first set of bonuses, Manchester, are on theatre.

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Firstly, "self-pitying snivel" is how The Evening Standard greeted the premiere

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in 1956 of which three-act play whose action takes place in a one-room flat in the Midlands?

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-Look Back In Anger.

-Correct. Which theatre critic and supporter of the play wrote,

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"I doubt if I could love anyone who did not wish to see Look Back In Anger"?

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-Kenneth Tynan.

-Correct. Described by Tynan as "the completest young pup in our literature

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"since Hamlet, Prince of Denmark," who is the protagonist of Look Back In Anger?

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-Jimmy Porter.

-Correct. Another starter question.

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What final three letters are shared by words meaning: pretence of strength or confidence to deceive,

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the end part of a sleeve,

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a yellowish-beige colour...

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-U-F-F.

-Correct.

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Your first set of bonuses are on football clubs.

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Firstly, the only Chilean side to have won the Copa Libertadores of South America,

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which Santiago club takes its name from a Mapuche chief

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who resisted the Spanish colonialists of the 16th century?

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WHISPERING

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-Boca Juniors?

-No, it's Colo Colo.

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Willem II is a club based in which Dutch city where the future monarch had his military HQ

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during the Belgian uprising of 1830?

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-Antwerp? Antwerp?

-No, Tilburg. Which Brazilian football club takes its name from the Portuguese explorer

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who was the first westerner to sail round the Cape of Good Hope to Asia?

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-Vasco da Gama.

-Correct. Another starter. Answer as soon as you buzz.

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Light from the Sun takes around 8 minutes, 20 seconds to reach Earth,

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a distance of one astronomical unit.

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How many astronomical units does light travel in a day? You can have 5 units either way.

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-30.

-No. Manchester, one of you buzz?

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-25.

-You're just making it up, aren't you?

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-Of course I am.

-It's 173. Right, ten points for this.

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Quote: "Happiness in marriage is entirely a matter of chance."

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In which novel of 1813 do those words appear?

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-Pride And Prejudice.

-Correct.

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Your bonuses, Christ Church, this time are on a ritual.

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Meaning "act of faith", what phrase is used for the burning at the stake of heretics

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condemned by the Inquisition, last carried out in Spain in 1781?

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-Auto-da-fe.

-Correct. "The burning of a few people alive by a slow fire and with great ceremony

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"is an infallible preventative of earthquakes," wrote Voltaire,

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attacking the rituals carried out after the earthquake in 1755 in which city?

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-Lisbon.

-Correct. An auto-da-fe begins at the end of the 3rd Act of which opera by Verdi,

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based on a play by Schiller, its title character being a 16th century Prince of Asturias?

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WHISPERING

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It's Don...

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- Don Giovanni? - No, it's not Don Giovanni.

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-I think we need an answer.

-Don Giovanni.

-Don Giovanni?! No, it's Don Carlos.

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Ten points for this. Listen carefully.

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In terms of postal and internet abbreviations,

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if Alabama is Albania and Georgia is Gabon, what is California?

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-Canada.

-Canada is correct, yes.

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Postal abbreviations, internet designations.

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Your bonuses this time are on mammalian blood.

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Having a kidney-shaped nucleus, what are the largest leucocytes?

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The precursors of macrophages, they are produced in bone marrow and stored mainly in the spleen.

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WHISPERING

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-Come on.

-Lymphocyte?

-No, monocytes.

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Classical monocytes carry the cell surface glycoprotein CD14.

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For what do the letters C and D stand?

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WHISPERING

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-Cytokine defence?

-No, it's cluster of differentiation gene.

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What term is applied to the process by which macrophages are able to ingest

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and destroy foreign particles such as bacteria?

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WHISPERING

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-Endocytosis?

-Yes, that's right, or phagocytosis, correct, yes.

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We'll take a picture round now. For your starter,

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you'll see the name of a country written in its state language.

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Ten points if you can name the country.

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-Kazakhstan.

-Kazakhstan is right. In Cyrillic script there.

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Your bonuses are the names of three more former Soviet republics as they appear in local script.

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In each case, I want the English name of the country. Firstly, for five points, which country is this?

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Any ideas?

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-Lithuania?

-No.

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-Any ideas at all?

-Is it Armen...? No.

-I'm going to try that.

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-Armenia.

-It was Armenia, yes. Secondly, which country is this?

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-Is that somewhere like Mongolia?

-That's not a former Soviet republic.

-Somewhere like that?

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Tajikistan, Uzbekistan? I don't know.

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Tajikistan would be a good guess.

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-Tajikistan.

-No, that's Georgia. Finally, which country is this?

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-Belarus?

-Belarus?

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-Just because it's got a B-like letter.

-Why not? Belarus.

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It is Belarus. Ten points for this.

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Noted for a dialectic between man and machine called the Biomechanical Aesthetic,

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which Swiss surrealist designed the eponymous entity and its environment for Ridley Scott's 1979 film Alien?

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-HR Giger.

-Correct.

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Your bonuses this time are on an adjective.

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"The victorious" is the meaning of the Arabic name of which African city, referring to the arrival

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in 974 of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Muizz, the city being established as the capital of the Caliphate?

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WHISPERING

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-Khartoum.

-No, it's Cairo.

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The first active mission of the aircraft carrier HMS Victorious was an air strike of May 24th, 1941,

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against which German battleship which sank three days later?

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-Bismarck.

-Correct. Which African President, who died in 2003, had awarded himself the VC,

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meaning "Victorious Cross", and had appointed himself CBE, meaning "Conqueror of the British Empire"?

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-Idi Amin.

-Correct. Another starter question now.

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What term for a blood feud between families, arising out of a killing...

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-Vendetta.

-Vendetta is correct, yes.

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Right, your bonuses are on sisters in literature.

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Both performers in a song-and-dance variety act, the twin sisters Nora and Dora Chance are characters

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in Wise Children, the final novel of which writer?

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-Angela Carter.

-Correct. Cassandra and Julia Corbett, the former an Oxford don, the latter a writer,

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appear in The Game, a novel of 1967 by which author who won the Booker Prize in 1990

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and is herself the sister of a novelist?

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-AS Byatt.

-Correct.

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What is the surname of the sisters Ursula and Gudrun

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who first appear in DH Lawrence's novel The Rainbow and are the central characters of Women In Love?

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-Brangwen.

-Correct.

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Another starter question.

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Resulting from an impairment of voice quality such as a strain of the vocal cords,

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what term describes the inability to speak normally

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and is derived from the Greek for abnormal or impaired sound?

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-Aphonia?

-Anyone like to have a go from Manchester?

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-Aphasia.

-No, it's dysphonia. Ten points for this. "The struggle itself towards the heights is enough

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"to fill a human heart. One must imagine that Sisyphus is happy." Which French literary figure...

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-Albert Camus.

-Correct. That gives you the lead.

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Your bonuses are on pairs of words that contain the same consonants in the same order, for example,

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"delta" and "adult". Give both words from the definitions. Firstly,

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"harsh, stern or severely simple"

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and "gaze intently or obtrusively"?

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Anyone?

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"Austere" and "stare"?

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-What?

-"Austere" and "stare".

-"Austere" and "stare".

-Correct.

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"Device used to assist memory" and "person pathologically obsessed with a single subject"?

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WHISPERING

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-Is it "mnemonic"?

-Does that go?

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-Yeah, and "maniac"?

-No.

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-"Mnemonic" and...?

-Yeah.

-What, and "maniac"?

-Yeah.

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-"Mnemonic" and "maniac".

-No, it's "mnemonic" and "monomaniac".

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Finally, "halogen element, atomic number 53, used in solution as an antiseptic"

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and "Norse deity known as All-Father"?

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-"Iodine" and "Odin".

-"Iodine" and "Odin".

-Correct.

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Another starter. F Scott Fitzgerald's was As Big As The Ritz. For Trollope...

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-Diamonds.

-Diamonds are correct.

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Your bonuses this time are on near-Earth objects.

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Which Italian city gives its name to a scale which communicates the risk associated with near-Earth objects,

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such as asteroids and comets?

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-Torino.

-Correct. The Torino Scale assigns near-Earth objects a number from 1 to 10 based on two factors.

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One is its kinetic energy, expressed in megatons of TNT. What is the other?

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-Size or weight or mass?

-Yeah...

-Mass?

-You wouldn't know the mass. Go for the size.

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-Size.

-No, probability of collision.

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The Torino Scale assigns a kinetic energy of one megaton of TNT,

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that is, more than 50 times that of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima,

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to objects of what approximate diameter? You can have five metres either way.

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Probably quite small.

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-What units did he say?

-Metres. Five either way.

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70?

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-70?

-No, it's 20. Ten points for this.

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"Ultimately, it was hoped to make articulate speech issue from the larynx

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"without involving the higher brain centres at all."

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These words from a work of 1949 refer to which fictional constructed language?

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-Esperanto.

-Christ Church, anyone like to buzz?

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-Newspeak.

-Newspeak is correct, yes.

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Christ Church, these bonuses are on divided islands.

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The western half of the island of New Guinea and about two-thirds of the island of Borneo belong

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to which Asian country?

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-Indonesia.

-Yes. Which South American archipelago is separated from the mainland by the Strait of Magellan

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and is divided between Chile and Argentina?

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-Tierra del Fuego.

-Correct.

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The island of Usedom or Uznam on the Baltic coast is divided between which two countries?

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WHISPERING

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-Estonia and Lithuania.

-No, it's Germany and Poland.

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We're going to take a music round. You're going to hear a section of a coronation anthem.

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10 points if you can tell me at which king's coronation the piece was first used.

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MUSIC PLAYS

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-Queen Elizabeth II?

-Christ Church, you can hear a little more.

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MUSIC RESUMES

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-George V?

-No, it was George VI. That was Crown Imperial.

0:14:500:14:55

Music bonuses in a moment or two. Here's another starter.

0:14:550:14:59

Which viral disease was deliberately released in both Britain and Australia in...

0:14:590:15:05

-Myxomatosis?

-Correct.

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So the music starter which nobody got was part of Walton's Crown Imperial,

0:15:090:15:16

first performed in 1937. Three more pieces of classical music that premiered in that year.

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In each case, I simply want you to name the composer. First, the American composer of this, please.

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MUSIC PLAYS

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-Aaron Copland?

-Yes, it is Copland.

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Secondly, the English composer of this?

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MUSIC PLAYS

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-Vaughan Williams?

-Is he still alive?

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-Vaughan Williams.

-No, Benjamin Britten, Variations on a Theme of Frank Bridge.

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-Finally, the German composer of this piece?

-MUSIC PLAYS

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-Nominate Joyce.

-Carl Orff.

-It is. The only bit of Carmina Burana anyone knows!

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Born in London of an Anglo-Irish family in 1870 and executed in the Irish Free State in 1922...

0:16:150:16:22

-Roger Casement?

-No. Lose 5 points.

0:16:230:16:26

..in 1922, which author's work includes the influential 1903 thriller The Riddle of The Sands?

0:16:260:16:33

Come on, one of you buzz, Christ Church. Right, I'll tell you.

0:16:380:16:42

Erskine Childers. What term was used from the late 14th century as an alternative for the English shilling

0:16:420:16:49

and also denotes the sloping line used when writing fractions?

0:16:490:16:53

-Solidus.

-Solidus is right, yes.

0:16:530:16:56

These bonuses are on place name elements.

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Meaning spring or stream, what place name element is found in the names of two south coast seaside resorts,

0:16:590:17:05

one in Dorset and the other close to Beachy Head?

0:17:050:17:10

-Bourne.

-Yes. As in Bournemouth and Eastbourne. Meaning a promontory, what four-letter element appears

0:17:170:17:23

in the name of a Lincolnshire seaside resort and the largest town on the Isle of Sheppey?

0:17:230:17:29

-Come on.

-Ness?

-Correct. As in Skegness and Sheerness.

0:17:350:17:39

Finally, what Old English word meaning "the church of a monastery" is found in an inner London borough

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and a Devon town noted for carpet-making?

0:17:450:17:49

-Minster.

-Correct. Another starter. "Cowards die many times before their deaths;

0:17:510:17:57

"the valiant never taste of death but once." In which Shakespeare play do those words appear?

0:17:570:18:04

-Henry V?

-Anyone like to buzz from Christ Church?

0:18:040:18:08

-Richard III?

-No, it's Julius Caesar. 10 points for this.

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Give the final two digits shared by the years that saw the battles of Ancrum Moor, Naseby and Prestonpans

0:18:140:18:20

and the start of the Irish Potato Famine.

0:18:200:18:24

-54.

-Christ Church? Somebody buzz.

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48.

0:18:290:18:31

No, it's 45. In mathematics, a tesseract is the four-dimensional equivalent...

0:18:310:18:37

-Cube.

-Of a cube, yes.

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That gives you the lead. Your bonuses are on non-political details of UK Prime Ministers,

0:18:410:18:47

according to the website of the PM's Office.

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Commemorated by a monument in the centre of Newcastle-upon-Tyne,

0:18:500:18:54

which Whig Prime Minister of the 1830s fathered seven daughters and ten sons?

0:18:540:19:00

-Earl Grey.

-Correct. Spencer Compton became the first PM to die in office

0:19:000:19:04

when, in 1743, he expired after one year and 136 days in the role. What was his title?

0:19:040:19:11

-Earl of Bute?

-No, he was the Earl of Wilmington.

0:19:160:19:20

Believed to have been the tallest in British history at six feet one,

0:19:200:19:25

who was the longest-lived former PM, dying the day before his 93rd birthday?

0:19:250:19:30

-Gladstone?

-No, James Callaghan. Mathilda, Eleanor, Eleanor, Mary de Bohun, Katherine of Valois,

0:19:350:19:42

Margaret of Anjou, Elizabeth and...

0:19:420:19:45

-Queens Consort of Plantagenet monarchs?

-Lose 5 points. ..Katharine of Aragon were the first wives

0:19:450:19:51

of English kings with what...

0:19:510:19:53

-Henry.

-Henry is correct, yes.

0:19:530:19:55

That gives you the lead again. Your bonuses are on island states of the Indian Ocean.

0:19:580:20:04

Name the country and the capital described. Firstly, the state whose capital is named after a paramour

0:20:040:20:11

of Madame de Pompadour?

0:20:110:20:14

-Mauritius?

-What's the capital?

0:20:150:20:18

-Let's have it, please.

-Sri Lanka and Colombo.

0:20:200:20:24

No, Mauritius and Port Louis. The state whose capital shares its name with the angel said to reveal

0:20:240:20:30

the Golden Plates that became the source of the Book of Mormon?

0:20:300:20:35

What's the island state called? Just give me some words!

0:20:400:20:44

Sorry, I can't think. Sorry.

0:20:460:20:49

-Let's have an answer.

-Sorry.

-Comoros and Moroni. Finally, the island state whose capital shares its name

0:20:490:20:56

with an Australian state and the capital of British Columbia?

0:20:560:21:01

-Victoria and the Seychelles.

-Correct. A picture round now.

0:21:030:21:07

You'll see a photo of the grave of a composer. 10 points if you can give me his name.

0:21:070:21:13

-Brahms?

-No. Christ Church?

0:21:180:21:21

-Wagner?

-No, it's Johann Strauss II. So another set of bonuses when someone gets the starter right.

0:21:240:21:32

10 points for this. Identify the work of 1908 in which these words appear.

0:21:320:21:37

"There is nothing - absolutely nothing - half so much worth doing as simply messing about in boats."

0:21:370:21:43

-The Wind In The Willows.

-Correct.

0:21:430:21:47

Right, so we follow on from Strauss' grave in Vienna

0:21:480:21:52

with three more graves of composers. In each case,

0:21:520:21:56

I want the composer's name and the city in which it's located.

0:21:560:22:01

Firstly...

0:22:010:22:03

-Tchaikovsky and Moscow.

-No, Chopin in Paris. Secondly...

0:22:100:22:14

20th century, do you think?

0:22:160:22:18

-Go for a Russian.

-Come on!

-Rimsky-Korsakov in St Petersburg.

-It's Tchaikovsky in St Petersburg!

0:22:210:22:27

And finally...

0:22:270:22:30

-George Frideric Handel in London.

-Correct, yes!

0:22:320:22:35

Another starter. Which EU member state gives its name, in different forms, to words meaning

0:22:350:22:41

undressed leather with a velvety nap and large, yellow-fleshed turnip?

0:22:410:22:46

-Sweden.

-Sweden is right, yes.

0:22:470:22:50

Get these bonuses to be level-pegging again. They're on words indicating great size.

0:22:500:22:56

Which common adjective, now implying great size, originally meant deviating from the ordinary type?

0:22:560:23:03

-Extraordinary?

-No, it's enormous. Which synonym for colossal comes from the Latin for unmeasurable?

0:23:110:23:18

-Inordinum?

-No, immense. Finally, which word meaning very big is derived from a title character

0:23:220:23:29

of a book published in France in 1535?

0:23:290:23:34

-Gigantic?

-No, it's gargantuan.

0:23:340:23:36

The Aranyi, the Mercur-Avery and the Joachim are individual examples of what items,

0:23:360:23:43

named after a craftsman born in 1644 in Cremona?

0:23:430:23:47

-Violins.

-Specifically?

0:23:480:23:51

-Violas?

-No, they're... Anyone like to buzz from Manchester?

0:23:510:23:55

-Stradivarius.

-Correct!

0:23:560:23:58

Your bonuses this time are on visual illusions.

0:24:000:24:04

In 1900, the Polish-born US psychologist Joseph Jastrow introduced an ambiguous figure

0:24:040:24:10

that can be seen as a rabbit and which other animal?

0:24:100:24:13

-A duck.

-Correct. In 1980, Peter Thompson illustrated the illusion of reality in a facial image

0:24:130:24:20

with eyes and mouth inverted relative to the face, using a photo of which public figure?

0:24:200:24:27

-Thatcher?

-Do you reckon? Margaret Thatcher.

-It was, yes.

0:24:270:24:32

Which Austrian physicist gives his name to an illusion of 1866 of an ambiguous line drawing

0:24:320:24:38

of a folded sheet of paper?

0:24:380:24:41

-Name me an Austrian physicist.

-Come on!

-Mobius.

-No, Ernst Mach.

0:24:410:24:46

10 points for this. How many possible opening moves are there for white in a game of chess?

0:24:460:24:53

-Twenty?

-Twenty is correct, yes.

0:24:570:25:00

Your bonuses are on dietetics. Marasmus and Kwashiorkor are childhood diseases

0:25:000:25:07

caused by deficiency of which major nutrient?

0:25:070:25:11

Come on.

0:25:110:25:14

-Go for it.

-Vitamin D.

-No, it's protein.

0:25:140:25:17

What name derives from the Sinhala for, "I can't, I can't" and is caused by thiamine deficiency?

0:25:170:25:23

-Beri-beri.

-Correct. Endemic goitre is caused by dietary deficiency of which element?

0:25:230:25:30

-Iodine.

-Correct. Another starter. The Lives of the Caesars, a series of biographies...

0:25:300:25:36

-Suetonius?

-Correct! Your bonuses are on pilgrimage.

0:25:360:25:39

The Pilgrims' Way, which runs along parts of the North Downs Way, follows the 120-mile route

0:25:390:25:45

between Canterbury and which city? Come on!

0:25:450:25:49

-Winchester?

-Yes. The second-largest site of pilgrimage in France after Lourdes

0:25:490:25:54

is the Basilica of Saint Therese in which town?

0:25:540:25:57

-Tours.

-No, Lisieux. Which so-called pilgrimage constituted a major Tudor rebellion in northern England

0:25:570:26:04

-from 1536 against the policies...

-Pilgrimage of Grace.

-Correct.

0:26:040:26:09

Over time, a fixed observer on Earth can see well over half of the Moon

0:26:090:26:14

because the Moon wobbles in a dynamic phenomenon known as what?

0:26:140:26:19

-Precession?

-No. Manchester?

0:26:200:26:24

-Procession?

-No, libration. A large bay to the west of Greenland

0:26:260:26:30

and Canada's largest island, more than twice the size of the UK,

0:26:300:26:34

both bear the name of which English navigator, born around 1584?

0:26:340:26:38

-Cabot.

-No. Anyone want to buzz from Manchester?

0:26:380:26:41

-Raleigh.

-No, it's Baffin. Answer as soon as you buzz. What is the value of sine of 30 degrees

0:26:410:26:47

plus tan of 45 degrees plus the cosine of 60 degrees?

0:26:470:26:52

-Two?

-Two is correct, yes.

0:26:520:26:54

Your bonuses, Manchester, are on words that end in the syllable "no".

0:26:560:27:01

Give the word or name from the explanation.

0:27:010:27:05

A battle of 1859 in northern Italy at which Henri Dunant witnessed

0:27:050:27:09

-the suffering that led him to found the International Committee of the Red Cross?

-Pass.

0:27:090:27:16

Solferino. A clear liqueur made from black Dalmatian cherries and associated with Zadar in Croatia?

0:27:160:27:23

-Come on.

-Sorry.

-Maraschino. Finally, a city in central Japan, venue of the 1998 Winter Olympics?

0:27:250:27:32

-Nominate Kelly.

-Nagano.

-Correct. What body of water links the cities of Batumi, Samsun,

0:27:320:27:38

Sochi, Varna and Odessa?

0:27:380:27:41

-The Black Sea.

-Correct. Here are your bonuses on literature. In...

-GONG

0:27:420:27:47

Well, they just got away from you towards the end, Christ Church, but you were on pretty level terms.

0:27:580:28:05

Thank you for taking part and being so well-dressed.

0:28:050:28:10

Manchester, many congratulations. It's a terrific performance, 215. Well done.

0:28:100:28:16

I hope you can join us next time for another of these matches.

0:28:160:28:21

Until then it's goodbye from Christ Church, goodbye from Manchester

0:28:210:28:25

and goodbye from me. Goodbye.

0:28:250:28:29

Subtitles by Subtext for Red Bee Media Ltd - 2011

0:28:440:28:48

Email [email protected]

0:28:490:28:51