Episode 4 University Challenge


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Episode 4

The students from Queen's University Belfast fight it out with the University of Newcastle in a bid to get through to the second round. Jeremy Paxman asks the questions.


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Asking the questions, Jeremy Paxman.

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Hello. Tonight, eight more young people making the great sacrifice

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of appearing on national television and risking their all.

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Queen's University, Belfast, was the first in Northern Ireland.

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Its origins lie in the Belfast Academical Institution and it was founded by Queen Victoria in 1845

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at the same time as similar institutions in Cork and Galway

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as a non-denominational counterpart to Trinity College, Dublin.

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Tonight's team tell us they've been incentivised to chuck their hats into the ring

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by this being the 30th anniversary of Queen's one and only title.

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Alumni include actors Liam Neeson and Simon Callow and the President of Ireland, Mary McAleese.

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Representing 19,000 undergraduates, tonight's team have an average age of 21. Let's meet them.

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Hello. I'm Niall McDonald from Lurgan and I study Genetics.

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Hi. My name's Joshua Greenwood, originally from North Yorkshire, I'm studying English Literature.

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-And their captain...

-I'm Thomas Haverty from Armagh studying Maths.

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I'm Ronan Kernan from Downpatrick, studying Mechanical Engineering.

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APPLAUSE

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Newcastle University began life in 1834 as a school of medicine and surgery

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and was formerly a federal arm of the University of Durham.

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To celebrate liberation from Durham in 1963, mortarboards were flung in the river

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and haven't been worn there since.

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Sir Liam Donaldson, former Chief Medical Officer, was appointed Chancellor in 2009

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and alumni include Bryan Ferry, Rowan Atkinson and Kate Adie.

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Playing on behalf of around 14,000 undergraduates and with an average age of 23, let's meet the team.

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Hi. My name's Ben Dunbar, from Heywood, and I'm studying for a Master's Degree in Public Health.

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Hello, I'm Ross Dent, from Chester-le-Street, and I study Economics.

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-And their captain...

-Hello. My name's Eleanor Turner, from London, and I'm studying Medicine.

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Hello. My name's Nicholas Pang, originally from Malaysia, and I'm also studying Medicine.

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APPLAUSE

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OK, the rules never change. 10 for starters, 15 for bonuses, 5-point penalty if you buzz in incorrectly.

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Fingers on the buzzers. Here's your first starter for 10.

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What short adjective links a pre-enclosured farming system in England,

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a steel-making process developed by Charles Siemens and others in the mid-19th century

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and a university whose headquarters are at Milton Keynes?

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-Open?

-Open is correct, yes.

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The first bonuses go to you, Queen's, on a Latin term.

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What two-word Latin expression was originally an epithet applied to Roman goddesses?

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In medieval Christianity, it was applied to the Virgin Mary

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and is now used for one's former school or university?

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-Alma Mater.

-Correct. A statue representing Alma Mater stands at which Ivy League university,

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founded in 1752 by Royal Charter, making it the oldest in New York State?

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-Princeton.

-No, it's Columbia. Alma Mater Studiorum is the motto

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of which university, thought to have been founded in 1088 and therefore the oldest in Europe?

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-I think we need an answer, please.

-Genoa?

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No, Bologna.

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Both World Heritage sites, the Jongmyo Shrine and Changdeok Palace are in which major capital?

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Situated on the Han River, it is less than 100km south of the world's most militarised border.

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-South Korea.

-No, I'm afraid that's incorrect. Anyone from Newcastle?

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One of you may buzz.

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-Seoul?

-Seoul is right, yes. I wanted the name of the capital.

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Your first bonuses are on naval bases. In 1865, the HQ of the Prussian Baltic Fleet

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was relocated from Danzig to which former Hanseatic port?

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It later gave its name to a canal which speeded access to the North Sea from the Baltic.

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-Kiel?

-Right. In which present-day country is Mers-el-Kebir,

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where, in 1940, the Royal Navy sank several French warships to prevent them falling into German hands?

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Let's have an answer, please.

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-Libya?

-No, Algeria. Which anchorage at the entrance to Portsmouth Harbour is the traditional venue

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for Royal Navy reviews?

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Er...

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-The Solent?

-No, it's Spithead. 10 points for this.

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"In English, a note of aspiration sounded only by a strong emission of the breath

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"without any conformation of the organs of speech

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"and, therefore, by many grammarians accounted no letter." Which letter did Dr Johnson define thus?

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-H?

-H is correct, yes.

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Bonuses on a German philosopher.

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Author of the 1966 work Negative Dialectics, which Marxist critical theorist argued

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that a "culture industry" had negated freedom and working-class resistance was all but extinguished?

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Let's have an answer, please.

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-Sorry? Chomsky?

-No, it was Theodor Adorno.

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He was one of the authors of The Authoritarian Personality which introduced the F Scale,

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designed to identify certain political tendencies. For what does the letter F stand?

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-Fascist?

-Fascism is correct, yes. With Max Horkheimer and Herbert Macuse,

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he was a leading member of a school associated with the Institute for Social Research,

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founded in which city in 1923?

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-Bonn?

-No, it's Frankfurt. We're going to take a picture round.

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You'll see the outline of a route taken by an historical explorer.

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10 points if you can give me the name of the explorer who commanded the first expedition on this route.

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-Cook?

-Anyone from Newcastle?

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-Magellan?

-Magellan is correct, yes.

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Following on from Magellan, three more maps showing the outline of routes undertaken for the first time

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by European explorers. 5 points for each you can name.

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Firstly...

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-Cortes?

-Correct. Secondly...

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-Vasco da Gama?

-No, Bartolomeu Dias.

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And, finally...

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-Marco Polo.

-Marco Polo, yes.

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Right, 10 points for this.

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In the 1591 work In Artem Analyticam Isagoge,

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Francois Viete, a code-breaker in the service of Henry III and IV of France,

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introduced the first systematic notation for what branch of mathematics?

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Calculus?

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Anyone like to buzz from Queen's? I'll tell you. It's algebra.

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Describing the dominant motion of the universe,

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what is the name of the equation V = H0D, where V is the observed velocity of a galaxy,

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H0 is a constant expansion...

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-The Hubble equation.

-Hubble's Law, correct, yes.

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Your bonuses are on the art world in 1911.

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1911 saw the formation of a group of artists including Walter Sickert,

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Augustus John and Wyndham Lewis, taking its name from which area of London, where Sickert had a studio?

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-Vauxhall?

-No, it's the Camden Town group.

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1911 saw the birth in Paris of which artist, who died in 2010 aged 98

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and whose works include a sculpture Maman in the form of a large spider, described as "an ode to my mother"?

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-Sorry, we don't know.

-Louise Bourgeois. 1911 saw the placing in Pere Lachaise cemetery

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of Jacob Epstein's memorial to which writer, who had died 11 years earlier?

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-Oscar Wilde?

-Yes. Another starter.

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Angela Carter, Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Salman Rushdie are among the exponents of what genre of...

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-Magical Realism.

-Magic Realism is correct. Your bonuses this time are on astronomy.

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Launched in February 2010 on a five-year mission to observe the Sun and its magnetic field,

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for what do the letters SDO stand?

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-Solar Dependent Orbit?

-No, Solar Dynamics Observatory. Bad luck.

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What two-word term describes the massive explosions in the Sun's atmosphere,

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as seen in the first-light images from the SDO?

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-Solar flares.

-Solar flare activity is associated with regions of intense magnetic activity

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but reduced temperature on the surface of the Sun. How are these regions known?

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-Sun spots?

-Correct. Another starter question. Listen carefully.

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Words meaning "Hasidic leader of extraordinary piety", "form of divorce in Islamic law"

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and "Arab marketplace or bazaar" may all end in what letter, in a game of Scrabble worth 10 points?

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K?

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Anyone like to have a go from Queen's?

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-Q?

-Q is correct, yes.

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Your bonuses this time are on poetry, Queen's.

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In each case I'll give you a series of words from a well-known poem in the order in which they appear.

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Identify the poem and its author. First, from a poem of 1816 -

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river, caverns, sea, rills, forests,

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hills, chasm, fountain and ocean.

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-Come on.

-Wordsworth, The Prelude?

-No, Kubla Khan by Coleridge.

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From a poem dated 1917 now: toast, tea,

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coffee, tea, cake, ices,

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marmalade, tea and peach.

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-No, sorry.

-That's Eliot's Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock.

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And, finally, from a work of 1751: parting, lowing,

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glimmering, droning, moping,

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mouldering, twittering, blazing and fleeting.

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-Nominate Greenwood.

-The Rape of the Lock by Alexander Pope?

-How on Earth did you get that?!

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No, it's Gray's Elegy. Included on a Times Literary Supplement list

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of the most influential books published since 1945,

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A Study Of Economics As If People Mattered is the subtitle of which 1973 work

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by the German-born British economist EF Schumacher?

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-Small Is Beautiful.

-Yes, correct!

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Your bonuses are on cheese making.

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What enzyme, traditionally derived from the stomach of a mammal,

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is used to coagulate casein in the initial stage of making hard cheese?

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-Rennet?

-Correct. Species of which genus of fungi are responsible

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for the veins in blue cheeses such as Stilton and Roquefort?

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-Yeah? That's not a fungi...

-Come on.

-Bacillus?

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No, penicillium. The production of carbon dioxide by proprioni bacterium freudenreichii

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is responsible for a characteristic of the appearance of which Swiss cheese?

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-Emmental.

-Emmental is right. It's the holes therein. We're going to take a music round now.

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Your starter is a song sung in English that won the Eurovision Song Contest.

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10 points for the country the artist was representing and the year in which they won.

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# Love, oh, love I gotta tell you how I feel about you

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# Cos I, oh, I can't go a minute without your love

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# Like a satellite

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# I'm in orbit all the way around you

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# And I would fall down... #

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Macedonia, 2005?

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No. Queen's, you can't, please, want to hear any more of it. No, you've no idea...

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-Turkey, 2008?

-No. It was Germany, 2010. There's more of this rubbish coming up,

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when someone gets the bonuses. In the meantime, someone's got to get a starter right.

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Denoting a movable platform for a coffin, which short word is an anagram of a French soft cheese

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and a homophone of an alcoholic beverage?

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-Bier?

-Bier is right!

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You have the pleasure of listening to some more Eurovision winners, singing in English,

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though not necessarily an English act. You have to tell me the country each was representing

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and the decade in which they won. Firstly...

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# Take me to your heaven

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# Hold on to the dream

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# Take me to your heaven

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# When my nights are cold and lonely

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# Riding high together

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# On a journey to the stars Take me to your heaven... #

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Is it Sweden, '70s?

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It is Sweden, but the '90s. Time stood still in Sweden. So you don't get that. Secondly...

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# Hold me now

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# Don't cry Don't say a word

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# Just hold me now

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# And try to understand... #

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Switzerland in the '80s?

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That was Ireland. It was the '80s. You don't get those points either. There's no shame in not getting it.

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Finally...

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# Kisses for me Save all your kisses for me

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# Bye-bye, baby, bye-bye

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# Don't cry, honey, don't cry... #

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-Is it the UK in the '80s?

-Thank heavens you didn't get it. It was the UK in the 1970s.

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Thank you for saving us from any more.

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What surname links the supermarket chain Tesco, Ben and Jerry's ice cream, the album Stars Of Love...

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-Cohen?

-Cohen is right, yes.

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Your bonuses are on Russian literature.

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Which Russian poet created the fictional poet Vladimir Lensky,

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who was killed in a duel? The poet himself died after a duel in 1837 over an affair.

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-Pushkin?

-Correct. The elegy for Pushkin known in English as The Death of a Poet

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was the work of which younger writer, who was killed in a duel in 1841?

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I don't know any more.

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-Can we have an answer, please?

-Oh, Dostoevsky.

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No, it was Lermontov. The short story The Duel, published in 1891, is by which author and playwright?

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-Chekhov.

-Yes. 10 points for this.

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Operas by Massenet and Puccini and a three-act ballet by Kenneth MacMillan were all inspired

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by which novel of 1731 by Abbe Prevost? It tells the story of a young girl and her lover Des Grieux.

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That's Manon Lescaut. Big Ben, the great bell of Westminster that sounds the hour in the clock tower,

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has, since its crack was repaired in 1862, imperfectly struck which note to which it was originally tuned?

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-D?

-Anyone like to have a go from Queen's?

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-C sharp?

-No, it's E. Another starter question.

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In Greek tragedy, which daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra

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incited her brother Orestes to kill their mother in revenge for her murder of their father?

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-Electra.

-Electra is right, yes.

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Your bonuses are on chemistry. What term describes a compound such as aluminium hydroxide

0:19:140:19:21

that can act as both an acid and a base?

0:19:210:19:24

-Amphoteric?

-Correct. When aluminium hydroxide reacts with an acid,

0:19:280:19:33

it produces an aluminium salt. What is the product when it reacts with a base?

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Come on.

0:19:480:19:50

-No, sorry.

-An aluminate. Finally, which weak di-basic acid

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is produced when carbon dioxide dissolves in water?

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-Carbonic acid.

-Correct.

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A second picture round now.

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You'll see a painting of a scene from a Shakespeare play. 10 points for identifying the two characters.

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-Romeo and Juliet?

-Yes, of course. By Ford Madox Brown.

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Your picture bonuses are three more 19th-century paintings of couples in Shakespeare's plays.

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In each case, give me both characters and the title of the play. Firstly...

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-Nominate Greenwood.

-Is it Oberon and Titania from Midsummer Night's Dream?

0:20:450:20:49

No, Hermia and Lysander from Midsummer Night's Dream. Secondly...

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-Hamlet and Ophelia from Hamlet?

-No, it's Orsino and Viola from Twelfth Night. And finally...

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-Nominate Greenwood.

-The Merchant of Venice...

-No, Ferdinand and Miranda in The Tempest.

0:21:100:21:16

Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881, George Biddell Airy used a sphero-cylindrical lens

0:21:160:21:23

to correct what type of defect in his own vision, characterised by uneven curvature of the cornea?

0:21:230:21:29

-Astigmatism.

-Correct.

0:21:290:21:32

Your bonuses, Newcastle, are on US cities.

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Identify the states in which the two cities are located

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and make a word from those states' postal abbreviation. For example,

0:21:410:21:45

Denver and Chicago are in Colorado and Illinois. That's CO and IL.

0:21:450:21:52

So the word "coil" would be the answer. OK?

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First, Boston and Buffalo.

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-Many?

-Yes, Massachusetts and New York. Secondly, New Orleans and Norfolk.

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Louisiana and Virginia.

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-Love.

-No, it's lava. Louisiana and Virginia.

0:22:110:22:15

Finally, Milwaukee and Omaha.

0:22:150:22:18

-Nebraska!

-And...?

0:22:210:22:23

Milwaukee is...Wisconsin. Wine!

0:22:230:22:26

-Wine.

-Wine is right. 10 points for this.

0:22:260:22:31

From the Italian meaning "flank",

0:22:310:22:33

the chess term "fianchetto" is used for the development of which piece

0:22:330:22:37

by moving it one square onto a long diagonal?

0:22:370:22:41

-Bishop?

-Bishop is right, yes.

0:22:430:22:46

This set of bonuses, Newcastle, are on sport.

0:22:460:22:50

Named after an area of Islington, the White Conduit Club was a forerunner of which sporting entity,

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whose foundation in 1787 is marked by a plaque in Dorset Square?

0:22:560:23:00

-Marylebone Cricket Club.

-Marylebone Cricket Club?

-The MCC, right.

0:23:000:23:05

An attempt to produce standard rules at the Freemason's Tavern in London in 1863 led to the formation

0:23:050:23:11

of which sporting body? The knockout competition that bears its name began eight years later.

0:23:110:23:17

-The FA.

-The FA?

-It is the Football Association.

0:23:170:23:21

Which sport's governing body came into being at a meeting of northern clubs in Huddersfield in 1895?

0:23:210:23:28

-Rugby league.

-Rugby league.

0:23:280:23:31

Right. 10 points for this starter. Four minutes to go.

0:23:310:23:35

Shallow enough to fit under a stereo-microscope and often filled with agar, the glass or plastic...

0:23:350:23:42

-Petri?

-Petri is right, yes. Another set of bonuses for you, Newcastle. They're on history.

0:23:430:23:50

I want the century which began with the following on the thrones of their countries.

0:23:500:23:55

Firstly, Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark, Otto III of the Holy Roman Empire and Ethelred the Unready of England.

0:23:550:24:02

-10th?

-No, it was the 11th. Ahuitzotl of the Aztecs,

0:24:040:24:10

Ferdinand II of Aragon and James IV of Scotland.

0:24:100:24:14

-16th?

-Correct. Abdulhamid II of the Ottoman Empire,

0:24:230:24:26

Leopold II of the Belgians and Wilhelmina of the Netherlands.

0:24:260:24:32

-20th?

-20th century is right.

0:24:400:24:43

When it adopted a new constitution in 1999, which country added the word "Bolivarian" to its full name,

0:24:430:24:50

in honour of Simon Bolivar?

0:24:500:24:52

-Venezuela.

-Correct. Another set of bonuses, on European languages.

0:24:520:24:58

Branches of which major language family include Hellenic, Germanic and Romance?

0:24:580:25:03

I need an answer. Come on.

0:25:050:25:07

-Come on.

-Indo-European?

-Correct.

0:25:080:25:11

The official language of a West Asian republic, which Indo-European language has 7 million speakers

0:25:110:25:18

and is known to them as Hayeren?

0:25:180:25:21

-Come on.

-Armenian.

-Armenian?

-Correct.

0:25:250:25:29

To which branch of the Indo-European family do Serbian, Bulgarian and Ukrainian belong?

0:25:290:25:35

-Slavic?

-Correct. 10 points for this. Answer as soon as you buzz.

0:25:350:25:39

If a nine-volt battery has a fixed internal resistance of 0.25 Ohms,

0:25:390:25:44

what is the maximum current it can supply?

0:25:440:25:48

-36 amps?

-Correct!

0:25:490:25:52

Here are your bonuses. They're on scientific terms beginning with the prefix "chloro".

0:25:530:25:59

In each case, give the word from the definition. In chemistry,

0:25:590:26:03

a volatile, colourless liquid, formula CHCl3, used as an anaesthetic or solvent?

0:26:030:26:11

-Chloroform?

-Correct. In medicine, a drug used in the prevention of malaria and as an anti-rheumatic?

0:26:120:26:19

-Chloroquinine.

-Chloroquine, yes.

0:26:190:26:21

In biology, a membrane-bound organelle containing chlorophyll?

0:26:210:26:26

-Chloroplast.

-Correct. What regnal number links the only Englishman to be Pope,

0:26:260:26:31

the British monarch nicknamed The Sailor King and the tsar known as Ivan the Terrible?

0:26:310:26:37

-Six?

-No. Queen's, anyone?

0:26:370:26:39

-The Second.

-No, it's Fourth. 10 points for this.

0:26:410:26:44

Man and Boy, played by Viggo Mortensen and Kodi Smit-McPhee,

0:26:440:26:49

are the two main characters in...

0:26:490:26:51

-The Road.

-Correct, yes.

0:26:510:26:54

Your bonuses are on volcanic islands. Which Pacific island,

0:26:550:26:59

the largest of a chain and known as Big Island, is formed by five volcanoes,

0:26:590:27:05

one of which is often claimed to be the world's most active?

0:27:050:27:09

-Oahu?

-No, it's Hawaii.

0:27:100:27:12

The US territory of Guam is part of which volcanic island arc named after a Spanish queen?

0:27:120:27:19

-Marianas?

-Correct. Which chain of volcanic islands are the westernmost part of the United States

0:27:260:27:33

-and are in the northern end of the Pacific "Ring of Fire"?

-GONG

0:27:330:27:37

You're a very democratic team! You spent too long conferring.

0:27:470:27:52

Thank you very much for taking part, Queen's. We have to say goodbye.

0:27:520:27:56

Well done, Newcastle. Terrific score. We'll see you again.

0:27:560:28:01

I hope you can join us next time, but until then it's goodbye from Queen's University, Belfast,

0:28:010:28:07

goodbye from Newcastle University, and it's goodbye from me. Goodbye.

0:28:070:28:12

Subtitles by Subtext for Red Bee Media Ltd - 2011

0:28:300:28:34

Email [email protected]

0:28:360:28:38

In another first-round match, the students from Queen's University Belfast fight it out with the University of Newcastle in a bid to get through to the second round.

Jeremy Paxman asks the questions.