Rhaglen 4 Perthyn.


Rhaglen 4

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-Tracing the family tree

-is an obsession for Welsh people.

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-We like to ask where are you from

-and to whom are you related?

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-At the National Library

-in Aberystwyth...

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-..the Perthyn team is investigating

-some of your stories.

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-They've found some colourful

-characters. Welcome to Perthyn.

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-888

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-All families have interesting

-stories from their past.

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-Stories about interesting ancestors,

-the occasional scandal...

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-..and many mysteries.

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-Here at the National Library...

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-..our team of experts are intrigued

-by one story in particular.

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-It's linked to one of the most

-famous names in Welsh history.

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-This week's family

-is in for quite a surprise.

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-But it was a different story...

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-..that prompted Olive Corner

-from Porthcawl to seek our help.

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-She wants to find out more

-about her grandparents...

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-..whose origins are in the old

-county of Cardiganshire.

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-What inspired you...

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-..to begin researching

-your family tree, Olive?

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-As a child, I'd been told

-that Mam was born in London.

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-I'd ask her

-why she was born there...

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-..and found out my grandparents

-lived there too and had businesses.

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-I found out snippets

-over the years.

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-Unfortunately,

-I did nothing about it.

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-Now that I'm older,

-it's become more important.

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-I really want to know

-about Mam-gu and Tad-cu's history.

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-Why they went to London,

-why they came back.

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-I wanted to do something about it

-while my relatives were alive.

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-So your grandparents on both sides

-were in London?

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-Yes, Tad-cu and his two brothers

-farmed Darren Fawr near Pontsian.

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-All three of them left

-to work in London.

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-Mam-gu

-was from the Aberystwyth area...

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-..from a farm near Comins-coch.

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-She went with her sisters to London.

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-Mam-gu and Tad-cu met through

-the Welsh society in London.

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-What would you like to know and are

-there questions you'd like to ask?

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-Fifteen of us cousins would like

-to know more about London.

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-Mam didn't take enough interest

-at the time...

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-..to be able to tell us

-about their history.

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-It's as if one generation

-has been lost.

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-Mam's generation

-didn't pay enough attention...

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-..to their parents' history.

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-Our generation

-has a genuine interest.

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-Olive's grandfather, Evan Daniel,

-or Ianto Darren, was born in 1907...

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-..the second of nine children

-of Evan Thomas Evans...

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-..from Darren Fawr farm, Pontsian.

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-With two sisters and two brothers,

-he went to London in the 1920s.

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-This is where he met

-Olive's grandmother.

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-I'd like to know why they decided

-to go to London in the first place.

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-I'd also like to find out more

-about the life they led in London.

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-I used to watch Y Palmant Aur.

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-That's how I imagined

-their lives in London.

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-I'd watch the programme...

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-..and think that's how

-Mam-gu and Tad-cu were.

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-Olive is on her way to meet

-Beryl Evans from the Perthyn team.

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-She has uncovered more information

-about the family in London.

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-This is the Post Office's

-London Directory.

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-It lists businesses and residences.

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-We've discovered that your family

-lived in the East End in 1932...

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-..at 13 Calvert Avenue.

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-You can see Evan Daniel Evans

-listed as a dairyman.

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-By 1934...

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-..they had moved to 7 Nugent Terrace

-in St John's Wood.

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-How long did they live there?

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-They lived there

-for about four years.

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-Later, in 1939,

-we can locate the family...

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-..at 104 Gibraltar Walk.

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-They went back to the East End

-until 1941.

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-It's nice that I have evidence...

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-..of them living at these three

-addresses and they're listed.

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-When I go to London...

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-..at least I know

-where I'm going...

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-..or where I'm trying to find.

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-Olive's grandparents

-ran three dairies in London...

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-..between 1932 and 1941.

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-Olive wants to know more

-about their time there.

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-Her mother was born in London,

-but was too young to remember much.

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-She has never mentioned

-her parents' history.

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-But an interesting document

-has surfaced.

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-Mam has given me

-a copy of a diary...

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-..that belonged to Auntie Glen,

-Tad-cu's sister.

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-She was also in service in London

-with my grandparents...

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-..until she started

-her own business.

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-From reading it, I've discovered

-that Tad-cu's mother...

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-..died at a young age,

-giving birth to her ninth child.

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-There were other reasons...

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-..why the children wanted to move

-to London and start businesses.

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-"I lived at Darren Fawr farm.

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-"I don't remember Mam.

-She died when I was three.

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-"But my father was a hard worker.

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-"I was one of nine children

-and he did well to look after us.

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-"I remember my older brothers

-leaving Darren Fawr...

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-"..and going to work at a dairy

-in Elephant and Castle.

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-"Many Welsh people went to London

-to work in the dairy business."

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-The Great Depression of 1929...

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-..had a destructive effect

-on agriculture in Wales.

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-Hundreds of people flocked

-to London from rural Wales...

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-..to set up businesses.

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-But dairies were already being

-established a century earlier.

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-According to the 1851 census,

-over 15,000 of London's residents...

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-..were born in Wales, almost 2,000

-of them in the old Cardiganshire.

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-The Cardis' dairies

-were dotted around the streets.

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-Among them

-was Olive's grandparents' business.

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-We've arranged for Olive to go

-to London to meet Rhian Medi.

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-She has an interest

-in London Welsh history.

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-Hello, how are you?

-It's nice to meet you.

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-You too.

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-Olive meets up with Rhian in one

-of the few original dairies...

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-..that still exists in the East End.

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-Isn't it lovely?

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-Everything here is original,

-apart from the fridges.

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-Is this shop similar to the one

-my grandparents would have owned?

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-Yes, your family's dairy

-would have looked like this.

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-Your family's dairy

-was down the street from this one.

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-There is a record from the 1930s...

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-..listing more than 1,700 dairies

-in London.

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-Over 1,000 of them

-were run by Welsh people...

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-..with names like Evans,

-Lewis and Jones.

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-I can imagine Mam-gu here.

-She'd have loved it.

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-They would have sold eggs...

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-..some from Holland,

-some from England.

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-Home-made butter and margarine,

-of course.

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-In the shop window, they'd have

-a pyramid of tinned peas...

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-..or something similar...

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-..to catch the eye

-of customers walking past.

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-We're in the East End here.

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-What was it like

-when my grandparents lived here?

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-This area of London

-was densely populated.

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-It was also full of immigrants,

-especially Jews.

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-At many of these dairies

-in the East End...

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-..a rabbi would call by every day...

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-..and bless the milk

-before it was sold.

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-The milk was warm...

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-..because it was fresh from the cow.

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-The milk would be blessed

-because it was kosher.

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-It goes to show

-how important Welsh people were...

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-..in providing and serving...

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-..a poor community

-during a very difficult time.

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-Then the Second World War broke out.

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-Much of this area was destroyed.

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-"My brother persuaded me

-to move to London.

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-"My sister often wrote to me,

-telling me of her enjoyment.

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-"I went as a maid to help my brother

-in the shop and at home.

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-"His dairy was in the East End.

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-"I earned 15 shillings a week.

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-"It was a very happy time."

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-Calvert Avenue,

-the location of the first dairy...

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-..has completely changed.

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-But Rhian has painted

-a vivid picture...

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-..of what life would have been like

-for them here.

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-From the research at the library,

-I know they left Calvert Avenue...

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-..to run a dairy in Nugent Terrace

-in the affluent St John's Wood area.

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-There were many relatives

-on both sides living in London.

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-Everybody helped each other

-with their dairies.

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-My grandparents left Nugent Terrace

-after four years...

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-..and moved back to the area

-where they started out.

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-We've come back to the East End...

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-..to Gibraltar Walk...

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-..where your grandparents

-ran their third dairy.

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-This area was completely destroyed

-in the Second World War.

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-Most of Gibraltar Walk

-was bombed to such an extent...

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-..that only a few houses remain.

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-I have a photograph...

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-..of Gibraltar Walk

-before it was bombed.

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-You can see the street

-as it was back then.

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-It was more or less completely

-destroyed during the Blitz.

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-The Blitz was the strategic bombing

-of London and other major cities...

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-..by the Germans during WWII.

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-"Saturday, 10 May, 1941.

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-"The enemy has mercilessly bombed

-the entire area.

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-"We couldn't believe what we saw.

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-"Our home and shop were gone.

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-"Some of our customers were in tears

-after losing loved ones.

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-"Seeing their grief helped us

-come to terms with our loss."

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-.

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-888

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-888

-

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-Olive Corner

-has been visiting the dairies...

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-..owned by her grandparents

-in London.

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-The last dairy

-was destroyed in WWII...

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-..and the family

-returned to Ceredigion.

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-But Olive needs more answers.

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-I'd like to know why my grandparents

-moved around so much in London...

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-..and what kind of life

-they had there.

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-I'm visiting Auntie Betty.

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-She lived in London

-until the end of the 1950s.

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-I've never asked her

-about her time there.

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-Hello.

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-Hello.

-

-It's nice to see you, Olive.

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-How are you?

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-How are you?

-

-Fine, thanks. Come in.

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-Do you know how Mam-gu and Tad-cu

-met in London?

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-They went to Hyde Park to sing

-after being in chapel or church.

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-I think that's where they met.

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-The London Welsh went to Hyde Park

-every Sunday evening.

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-The people from the chapels

-and the churches...

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-..organized plays and eisteddfodau.

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-They used to hold large concerts

-at Westminster Hall.

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-We had David Lloyd

-and Welsh singers.

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-David Lloyd was in his army uniform

-at the time.

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-What was Nugent Terrace like?

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-It was a very nice place.

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-St John's Wood

-was the place to live.

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-Was it posh?

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-Yes.

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-So why did they move back

-to the East End?

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-Your grandfather

-wanted to keep cattle.

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-There were cattle in Gibraltar Walk.

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-That was the last place

-to have cattle in London.

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-That's where they were

-until they came down to Wales.

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-Because of the bombing,

-they came back down.

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-Going to Gibraltar Walk, he was

-on his way back to the animals!

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-Olive's grandparents

-returned to Ceredigion in 1941.

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-They farmed Darren Fawr, Pontsian,

-where her grandfather was raised.

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-They raised five children and the

-farm was at the heart of the family.

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-Olive's mother and Uncle Dick...

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-..haven't been back

-since the farm was sold in 1964.

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-It wasn't easy for Mam

-and Uncle Dick to accompany me...

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-..because the farm

-holds so many memories for them.

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-Mam's generation has taken

-all their history for granted.

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-They were very young leaving London.

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-After being there and hearing

-Auntie Betty's stories...

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-..the whole thing has come alive.

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-I'm looking forward to sharing

-the stories with my family.

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-But back in Aberystwyth...

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-..Perthyn has found

-something unexpected...

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-..in Olive's family tree.

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-While tracing

-Olive's grandfather's history...

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-..Evan Daniel Evans, Darren Fawr...

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-..we've come across some names...

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-..that have caused quite a stir

-for the Perthyn team.

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-These names mean we can trace

-the family's history...

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-..further back than we thought.

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-I have a record of Olive's great-

-great-great-great-grandfather...

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-..Thomas Thomas.

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-He was among

-the wealthiest farmers in Llanina.

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-He's referred to here

-as a gentleman.

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-As we go back even further...

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-..we come across Thomas Thomas's

-grandfather, Thomas Abraham.

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-By consulting parish registers

-and wills...

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-..we can confirm that his father

-was called Abraham Herbert.

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-He was the illegitimate son

-of Llewelyn Herbert.

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-Hearing the name Herbert

-rang a bell.

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-We know there was

-an important family of Herberts...

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-..living at Rhiwbren mansion

-in Llanarth.

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-They were related to the Earl of

-Pembroke, who was from a noble line.

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-Perthyn has confirmed that Olive

-is related to the Herberts.

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-During the Middle Ages, the Herberts

-were the first Welsh family...

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-..to be accepted

-by the English aristocracy.

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-As well as their standing,

-they could trace their lineage...

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-..back to Wales's royal families.

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-It's rather exciting

-for Olive and her family.

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-Not many of us can say...

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-..that we can trace our family tree

-as far back as that.

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-During the Middle Ages, Wales

-was divided into minor kingdoms.

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-Gwynedd, Powys...

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-..Glamorgan, Gwent,

-Brycheiniog and Deheubarth.

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-Every kingdom was independent

-and governed by its own ruler.

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-Huge emphasis was placed

-on heirdom, lineage and blood...

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-..in order to retain their legacies.

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-Perthyn is trying to prove

-whether Olive is of royal descent.

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-The team has called Olive

-back to the library.

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-She has no idea why.

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-We've come to the conclusion...

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-..through Ianto Darren's grandmother

-and your grandparents...

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-..that you're related

-to the Herbert family.

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-They were an influential family

-in Pembrokeshire.

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-That brings us to these documents.

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-These scrolls

-that are laid out on the table.

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-Such items can only mean

-that you're related to nobility.

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-Through the Herberts,

-you're related to Sir David Gam.

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-That takes us back

-a little further...

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-..to here, to Bleddyn ap Maenarch.

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-Remember that name.

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-Bleddyn ap Maenarch.

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-He was the last lord of Brycheiniog.

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-But that's not the end of the story.

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-Bleddyn ap Maenarch...

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-..married a woman called Elinor.

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-Elinor was the daughter

-of Tewdwr Mawr.

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-It's another interesting name...

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-..that takes us

-to somewhere very special.

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-This chart...

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-..shows us that you...

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-..through this family line

-and that line...

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-..are related to an important man.

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-One of the most influential men

-in the history of Wales.

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-The king, Hywel Dda.

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-Gosh.

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-I don't know

-if you're familiar with Hywel Dda.

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-I feel quite excited now.

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-And emotional too.

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-I feel like I should be bowing

-to you!

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-My heart's pounding.

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-We're going back

-over a thousand years to AD 950...

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-..when Hywel Dda created laws that

-were different from English law.

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-He's remembered

-as a very fair and just king.

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-The laws of Hywel Dda...

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-..formed the backbone of Welsh law

-for 500 years after his death.

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-His influence continued

-for half a millennium...

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-..after his death.

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-Not everyone can say

-they had a relative...

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-..living more than 1,000 years ago

-and of whom they have a picture.

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-If you come with me...

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-..I will show you

-a very special manuscript.

0:21:070:21:11

-It's called Peniarth 28.

0:21:110:21:13

-This is the most famous copy

-of Hywel Dda's laws.

0:21:130:21:19

-Here's the king himself.

0:21:190:21:22

-This gentleman here...

0:21:230:21:25

-..is your great-grandfather

-many times removed.

0:21:260:21:30

-Hywel, this is Olive.

0:21:300:21:32

-Fantastic.

0:21:320:21:34

-Hywel Dda united all the kingdoms

-of Wales except Morgannwg.

0:21:350:21:41

-By his death, Wales had Welsh

-as its official language...

0:21:410:21:45

-..one religion in Christianity...

0:21:450:21:48

-..and one of the fairest

-system of laws in history.

0:21:480:21:52

-It's fantastic.

0:21:530:21:55

-It's strange to think

-that I'm related to David Gam...

0:21:550:22:00

-..and go all the way back...

0:22:000:22:02

-..to the time of Hywel Dda.

0:22:020:22:05

-I should have paid more attention...

0:22:060:22:09

-..in my history lessons at school.

0:22:100:22:13

-I need to go back now and research

-a bit more of the history...

0:22:140:22:18

-..to investigate further.

0:22:180:22:20

-It's fantastic.

0:22:200:22:22

-I'm afraid to touch them

-because they're so fragile.

0:22:220:22:26

-The shops were all bombed

-so they've been replaced by flats.

0:22:530:22:57

-I'm sure many relatives never

-discuss their family's history.

0:22:570:23:01

-Mam's generation certainly didn't.

0:23:020:23:05

-But time passes.

0:23:050:23:07

-I'm so glad

-that I've done something about it.

0:23:100:23:14

-This journey has brought

-all the family together...

0:23:150:23:18

-..to talk about our history.

0:23:190:23:21

-Finding out that we're descendants

-of King Hywel Dda...

0:23:240:23:28

-..was the icing on the cake.

0:23:290:23:32

-Tad-cu would have been thrilled.

0:23:320:23:34

-S4C Subtitles by Adnod Cyf.

0:23:550:23:57

-.

0:23:570:23:57

Taith Olive Corner i ddarganfod mwy am hanes ei theulu a'u busnesau llaeth yn Llundain yn y 1930au. Olive Corner from Porthcawl learns more about her family who went to London in the 1930s.


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