01/10/2016 Click


01/10/2016

Click looks at a new process that could revolutionise the solar energy industry, before getting up close and personal with the Megabots.


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Transcript


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Coming up next it's time for Click.

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This week, big sun, big rain - and massive robots!

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It's a huge ball of energy just waiting to be tapped.

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Banks of solar cells are springing up all over the place,

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absorbing the sunlight and turning it into electricity.

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I've come to Oxford University to meet Professor Henry Snaith,

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who's trying to squeeze more and more energy out of the sun.

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Current technology based on silicon is fundamentally limited in terms

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of the efficiency it can deliver.

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Silicon can only absorb a fixed band of light,

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a fixed spectrum of light - it absorbs all the visible

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and the infrared light and then converts that into electricity.

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They've been developed for about the last 60 years,

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and the maximum efficiency is about 25%.

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The trick is to use different materials, alongside silicon,

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to absorb more of the sun's energy.

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Henry's team are investing ways of coating the silicon cells

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with a crystalline structure called perovskite, which can convert more

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energy from different wavelengths of light and can generate

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electricity at a surprisingly high voltage.

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At the moment, we're right on the cusp in most places,

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or lots of places in the world, where we can produce electricity

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from solar cells as cheaply as we can from coal.

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So if we now increase the efficiency, it will become

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cheaper and cheaper and cheaper to produce electricity

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from solar cells.

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Solar energy could deliver the sort of transformative change in society

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as we saw at the turn of the 20th century with the discovery

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of liquid fuels.

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Henry and his team are still near the beginning of that journey.

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His perovskite-coated solar cells are still climbing

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towards an efficiency of 25%, which will match the current

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best silicon-only cells.

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It doesn't sound like much, but efficiency in the high 20%s is

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a big deal for the solar industry.

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And it doesn't end there.

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There is a group of young researchers in Switzerland

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who are pushing solar technology even further.

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And Dan Simmons has been to meet them.

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The modern-day magnificent seven.

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Maybe.

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These guys want to change the world by shaping light.

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You see, their plan is to make a solar panel that doesn't just

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offer a tiny bit more energy than the last one -

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that's been happening for decades - but one that can deliver a seismic

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leap and push out almost twice the energy of

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standard rooftop panels.

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The trick is not about coming up with better photovoltaic materials -

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they exist already.

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They're focusing on the light itself.

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So we are using a lens which is basically a magnifying

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glass, but with a very particular shape, so that we can track the sun

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throughout the day with minuscule displacements, so the stroke of it.

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We are just moving laterally by a couple of millimetres per day,

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so it's a very slow movement, and it doesn't consume any energy,

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or very little energy.

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Now, the guys have set this up moving a little bit quicker

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than it normally would.

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In fact, the whole panel would move about one centimetre in a day,

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tracking the sun across the sky.

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And to do that, it would use less than 1% of the actual

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energy it produces.

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The other advantage of this system is, because the movement

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is so small, it can be housed in a normal solar-panel frame,

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so you can put it up on rooftops with minimal maintenance.

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Which is kind of unusual for a tracking solar-panel system.

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The first independent lab test earlier this month measured

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an efficiency rating that would be off the charts for residential solar

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panels - over 36%.

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We realised that this might be the most efficient flat panel

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in the world, and we realised the importance of keeping,

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managing to reproduce these mini modules at wide scale.

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That is what we need to do now.

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If it works the way it works in prototype, it's a great product,

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so it's really scaling up, that is not so easy to do,

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but that is what we'll focus on for the next few months.

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As well as the optics, the other trick these guys

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are using is to make use of the most expensive and efficient

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photovoltaics in the world.

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Satellites get their power from the sun, and these panels cost

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around $30,000 per square metre.

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That is far too expensive to use down here.

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It would take decades to get your money back.

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But because the system concentrates the incoming light,

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just look at how big an area now needs to be covered.

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It's just those seven tiny black dots on this panel.

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With world-class materials and low-cost maintenance,

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the guys are aiming for the system to pay for itself

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inside of five years.

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So what's not to like?

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I asked a solar expert who's been in the industry for over 20 years.

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Many pundits are saying that even with the kind of incremental

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increases in efficiency that we've in recent years, solar

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is heading for a place in the mainstream of global energy,

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even as a backbone of global energy, possibly, you know, in as short

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a period as a couple of decades from now.

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When you have moving parts, you have a large number of other

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things that could go wrong.

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I very much hope that they solve it and come up with the first

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concentrator, moving concentrator, and do deliver this step function,

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because that would be very much the icing on the cake.

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It seems the solar revolution is coming.

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Battery and panel prices have been tumbling, while consumers

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are warming to electric vehicles that could be used

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to store the energy.

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Fossil fuels could finally be facing extinction, and this focus -

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from the Magnificent Seven - could serve to speed that up.

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Hello and welcome to the week in tech.

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It was the week that BlackBerry announced they would no longer

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make their own phones.

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The one-time market leader has struggled to keep pace

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with the serious sales of Apple and Samsung handsets.

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A spoof video got people doing something seriously daft.

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Drilling into your iPhone 7 will not bring back the old headphones jack.

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And Amazon, Google, Facebook, IBM and Microsoft announced

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they will collaborate to create some serious artificial intelligence.

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The Partnership on AI hopes to create the best ways of dealing

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with issues like privacy, transparency, and how man

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and machine work together.

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In other news, US Girl Scouts can earn a new badge

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for developing video games.

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Brownies' honour!

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Is that how you do it?

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Women in Games International have teamed up with the Girl Scouts

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of Los Angeles to hold sessions at PlayStation's

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Santa Monica Studio.

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It'll teach them how to develop their video-gaming

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talents in the hope more girls will seek opportunities

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in the industry.

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And, finally, you can't teach an old robot new tricks.

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Hang on, that doesn't sound right.

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Pepper the robot has been learning to catch a ball in a cup.

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It may have taken a while, but after 100 tries it achieved

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a 100% success rate.

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It is hoped that the principles applied here could be

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used to teach other agility-type motions.

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Cocktail waiters and netball players beware!

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The distant future!

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A devastating war leaves machines ruling the world.

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One man stands against the technological tyranny

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of the planet's robot overlords.

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He's ready to bash those bots and destroy the droids.

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This might be a bit easier than I expected.

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Marc Cieslak, on the other hand, might have a bigger bit of bother

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with a burly bot in America.

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Televised robotic combat usually requires small,

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remotely controlled robots which are fitted with tools

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and things that you might find in your garden shed being used

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as offensive weapons.

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Well, I've come to a workshop just outside San Francisco to meet a team

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of engineers who are planning a robotic rumble on a much,

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much grander scale.

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Say hello to the MegaBot Mark II.

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It stands 15 feet tall and weighs nearly six tonnes.

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It moves around on five tracks on the front of it.

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It's not particularly nimble, but it doesn't need to be,

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because when this robot engages in combat, it makes use

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of a giant paintball cannon.

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MegaBots was founded in 2014 by engineers

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Gui Cavalcanti and Matt Oehrlein.

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So how long was the design process for this fella?

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Realistically, it got put together over the course of maybe a year.

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Lots of the components on this robot are taken from the construction

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industry, parts that you would normally see

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on an excavator or skid-steer.

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So in terms of what it can do, the fact that it's got

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these weapons on it, all that type of stuff -

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did you figure that out before you started building it?

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The pneumatic weapons were always part of the original plan.

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This is a six-inch diameter paint cannonball cannon.

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It shoots 3lb paint cannonballs at speeds of over 130 mph.

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This is a 20 pack, we call it a missile launcher,

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but essentially it's 20 smaller pneumatic cannons stacked

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next to each other.

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So, originally, these shot foam missiles.

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Enough talk!

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Time for a robotic test-drive.

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Now, as I don't have my giant fighting robot licence,

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I'm sitting in the gunner's position while Matt is doing all the heavy

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lifting actually driving the robot around.

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But don't worry, I'll have something to do in just a minute.

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You see, I'd quite like to use a vehicle like this

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on the commute in London.

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I've got a feeling that black cabs would react very differently

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when they look in the rear view mirror and saw this behind them.

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Normally, the cannon fires specially made giant paintballs.

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However, it should be just as adept at firing fruit -

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in this case, a watermelon.

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Here we go.

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Oh, my God!

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Unfortunately, our chosen fruit isn't tough enough to hit our

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target, vaporising in midair.

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We've reloaded, and it's time for shot number two.

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Oh-ho!

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That is how you absolutely decimate a cantaloupe.

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OK, Matt, let's inspect our handiwork.

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Wow, we've got damage two layers back even.

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Wow. That was extremely powerful.

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It's pretty impressive for a piece of fruit.

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Cantaloupe carnage, ladies and gentlemen!

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The long-term vision of MegaBots is to have eight, ten robots

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drive into a stadium and, you know, attack each other.

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It's kind of like a monster-truck rally.

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Yeah.

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The problem for this league idea, though, is that giant fighting

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robots aren't exactly commonplace.

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So there was one other piloted robot in the world that we knew of,

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the Kuratas robot in Japan, but they said, "If we do this fight,

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we want it to be more than just air cannons - we want melee combat."

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"So we'll fight you, but it's got to be hand to hand

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in the battle."

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And so now we are creating a new robot that has melee-weapon

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capability to be able to have this fight.

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You're going to be going toe-to-toe and slugging it out.

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Isn't that quite a bit more dangerous than just shooting things

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with a giant air cannon?

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In the ideal situation, the pilot remains protected,

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but all of the rest of the robot can be attacked and torn off and get

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crumpled up and destroyed.

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The pilots remain relatively safe.

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MegaBots' next robot is being kept under wraps for now,

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while it's being built.

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However, they still need to find a venue to host their robotic

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rumble with the Japanese.

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They're hoping this giant-bot boxing bout will take place next year.

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Smart clothes and accessories are coming in from the cold,

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moving from geeky to good-looking, so I've been testing

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a few of the latest to check it's not just style over substance.

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It's getting a bit chilly, so I was quite pleased to receive

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this prototype, and it's quite smart.

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In fact, its makers call it a smart coat, which could be

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slightly over-egging it, but it does warm up,

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and the finished product will also be able to charge your mobile phone.

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Coats that heat up are far from new, but this brings them

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to the high-end fashion market.

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It uses a type of infrared that claims, instead of simply heating

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the skin, to be absorbed by the body to help relax muscles and increase

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blood flow, as well as keep you snug.

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So am I walking around in more than just a luxury electric blanket?

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The biggest concentration of the polymer is on the kidneys,

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because that's where all your circulation runs through,

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and once your kidneys are warmed up, all your blood warms up,

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your circulation warms up, and it makes you feel warm all over.

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But then we have two other parts at the front, smaller parts,

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which give you the feeling of, you know, getting this warm hug

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and having the warmth all around.

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This technology wasn't created to make you feel,

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you know, boiling hot.

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With this, the idea is that you can regulate it depending

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what the weather is, so if you are in the Tube and it

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gets warm, you can just switch it off.

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Whilst it felt luxurious and cosy to wear, seeing as I wasn't

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overheating with it on full on a mild September day,

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I'm just not convinced the actual coat is as thick as I

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would like it to be.

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Thank you.

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Oh, four buzzes!

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That will be a phone call.

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This smart ring is part of a range of jewellery offering

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customised smartphone alerts.

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You select what alerts you would like by going into

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the app, choosing notifications, and then selecting the categories

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that you want to know about.

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So it could be to tell you that your taxi's arrived,

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get a phone call, a calendar alert, and then once you've chosen,

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you select the number of buzzes that represent each thing.

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This colour may not have been to my taste, but there are others.

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The bracelets track activity too, and I actually rather

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enjoyed its functionality, particularly as you could subtly

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wait for a phone call.

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And if you'd like to be subtly smart, then here is the latest way

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of turning a regular watch into a smartwatch.

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It's not the first we've seen on Click, but this strap aims

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to provide notifications, activity tracking, heart-rate

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monitoring and be waterproof, which is obviously only any use

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if your watch is too.

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Sadly, this prototype isn't fully functional,

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so I couldn't test its show-stopping feature of directional push

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navigation, where vibrations in the corresponding corner

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of the device aim to point you in the right direction.

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Its claimed seven-day battery life and traditional style might sway

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some put off the current crop of smart watches.

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And after Apple scrapped the standard headphone socket

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on its iPhone, Bluetooth headphones may be the future.

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If you've decided that's so, then you won't want them

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to cramp your style.

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There's more to this rather chunky bracelet than meets the eye.

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Inside are a pair of Bluetooth earbuds.

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Taking them in and out of the bracelet was pretty slick,

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and the sound quality was good, but they didn't stay in my ears

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as easily as the sportier buds I usually wear.

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And when it comes to style, well, when you're wearing them,

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the bracelet is left with a bit of a funny gap.

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So, while some of the prototypes may still need perfecting,

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the appetite for functional fashion is growing, so the stakes -

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and not just the price tags - may be high.

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Great stuff!

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Now, after all that sunshine earlier on, we now bring you a bit of rain -

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and not measly British rain either, we're talking hardcore Indian rain.

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Here comes David Reid.

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It's the end of India's monsoon season.

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In the four months between June and late September, the country

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receives 80% of its annual rainfall.

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But if you think the monsoon is a relentless deluge

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everywhere, think again.

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For farmers in Andhra Pradesh on India's south-east coast,

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the rains can be unreliable and cause a lot of problems.

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Farmers need to know when and how much rain is coming to decide

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when to sow and how to treat their crops.

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Scientists want to help them out but can only garner very

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little from staring at Andhra Pradesh's fleecy skies.

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For researchers hunting for clues as to how to better

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predict the monsoons, they're finding answers

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in the middle of the sea, in the Bay of Bengal.

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This summer, an Indian-led team of 24 international researchers

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took to the high seas.

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The scientists believe that the key to unlocking the mystery

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of the monsoon lay offshore.

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All the clouds that brings rain to the land over India actually

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originate in the ocean.

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It's the ocean that is the engine which provides the water

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for all these clouds.

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The power of that engine depends on the temperature

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at the sea's surface.

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Where it's warm, the monsoon is strong - where cold, much weaker.

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Large cumbersome instruments permit researchers only to study the waters

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in the vicinity of the ship, but this seaglider, brought

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to the operation by British researchers on the team,

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can take measurements all over the bay of Bengal, sending

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results back to base instantaneously via satellite.

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When we deploy gliders, we can get simultaneous measurements

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over a set of locations within the same span of one month.

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Likewise, how energy from the land drives the monsoon is measured

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by towers like this one of the Indian Institute

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of Science in Bangalore.

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Others are dotted in arid, semiarid and wet locations around India.

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The objective of this experiment is to understand the basic

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physics of the monsoon.

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Right now, we are making certain assumptions, saying that this

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is the way that atmosphere and the land, they interact,

0:20:530:20:55

but if that assumption is not right, then obviously water

0:20:550:20:58

will not be held properly.

0:20:580:21:00

Real-time data and climate models demand processing power.

0:21:010:21:03

India's Meteorological Department has found statistics better

0:21:030:21:09

for long-term and local predictions, but next year will start running

0:21:090:21:12

models on a supercomputer.

0:21:120:21:13

This is partly because climate change has added another layer

0:21:130:21:16

of complexity to their calculations.

0:21:160:21:20

Any forecast can never be perfect.

0:21:220:21:25

When the climate is changing, the relationship which

0:21:260:21:29

the meteorologists have understood so far are also on the change,

0:21:290:21:32

and therefore we need to invest a lot of money

0:21:320:21:35

on research and development.

0:21:350:21:43

Back in Andhra Pradesh, farmers are getting some guidance,

0:21:430:21:45

partly thanks to the new data, but also because of a new

0:21:450:21:48

crop-sowing app developed by Microsoft and the India-based

0:21:480:21:51

crop-research organisation Incrisat.

0:21:510:21:59

The app gives farmers a heads-up on what's predicted

0:21:590:22:01

for their locality and then drops in advice on how to react.

0:22:010:22:07

If the crop is sown at the proper time, almost half the battle is won.

0:22:070:22:11

Using the sowing app, what we are trying to do is to send

0:22:110:22:15

advisers to the farmers, then they can start the land

0:22:150:22:17

preparation, sowing, and run various management practices

0:22:170:22:19

based on the weather.

0:22:190:22:24

Sowing on the right day can increase crop yields considerably.

0:22:240:22:27

That means more money for small-scale farmers and more

0:22:270:22:29

crops to feed India.

0:22:290:22:33

Accurate forecasting helps farmers anticipate monsoon's capricious mood

0:22:330:22:35

and make the most of their hard work.

0:22:350:22:37

That was David Reid, and that's it for this week.

0:22:370:22:47

Next week, we have something very special for you,

0:22:470:22:50

because we are off to Japan.

0:22:500:22:56

Come with us on a technological voyage of wonder and beauty.

0:22:590:23:05

We'll find out whether Japan's alternative approach

0:23:060:23:11

to autonomous cars might get them into the fast lane faster.

0:23:110:23:14

And we'll meet the people who will stop at nothing

0:23:140:23:17

in their quest for sonic perfection.

0:23:170:23:27

It's going to be brilliant, I promise you.

0:23:270:23:29

You can follow our exploits, as usual, on Twitter @BBCClick.

0:23:290:23:31

You can follow our exploits, as usual, on Twitter @BBCClick.

0:23:310:23:32

Thanks for watching, and we'll see you there.

0:23:320:23:34

Hello.

0:23:580:23:58

Friday's mixed bag of weather offered our Weather Watchers

0:23:580:24:01

a number of opportunities to get out and capture all the faces

0:24:010:24:04

of late autumn.

0:24:040:24:06

Some glorious scenes, there's no doubt about it.

0:24:060:24:14

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