Pre-Crime Click


Pre-Crime

A guide to all the latest gadgets and computer industry news. Click is in Chicago where the police are using tech to predict the location and perpetrators of future crimes.


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Transcript


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This week, fighting crime before it happens.

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We are now more surveilled than we have ever been.

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Authorities are gathering data on its citizens.

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It would be all too easy to confuse the real world

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Mr Marks, my mandate of the District of Columbia Pre-Crime Division.

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I'm placing you under arrest for the future murder

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of Sarah Marks and Donald Dubin, that was due to take

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place today, April 22, at 0800 hrs and four minutes.

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In the movie Minority Report, the Pre-crimes Unit race to arrest

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would-be offenders before they have a chance to

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Now, they use psychics but it turns out, something similar

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In Chicago, where the violent crime rate has exploded,

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law enforcement has been forced to try out unconventional

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Authorities are attempting to combine various technologies

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in an effort to predict where and when violent

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Marc Cieslak went to Chicago to find out more.

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Violent crime in Chicago has seen a dramatic increase.

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RADIO: A 15-year-old male, shot in the neck.

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We need a wagon with a body bag also.

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The drug industry is what helps them fuel the violence,

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by being able to pay for their activity.

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In 2016, 726 murders were committed in the city, a 19-year high.

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That's more than the number of murders committed in New York

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Chicago is a city most famously known as the Windy City.

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More recently, it has earned a nickname that few residents

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That's because gun crime is so extreme in some

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neighbourhoods, they are comparing them to war zones.

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The issue has received increasingly negative attention in the US,

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with President Trump tweeting, "If Chicago doesn't fix

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the horrible carnage going on, I will send in the Feds".

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But many believe that to fight crime in the city, first,

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the authorities must understand its causes.

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Eddie Bocanegra has for years worked to help young people surrounded

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Now a director of the YMCA, he also serves on the mayor's

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So this space here that you've got, what do you use this for?

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So we use this space for a lot of our kids,

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Many of them who are on probation or parole.

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More importantly, kids who experience a lot

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When you see the front page of a paper, saying a 15-year-old

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person killed someone else, these are the kids.

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The response from Chicago's Police Department is a new initiative,

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driven by technology, which aims to predict where crimes

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The University of Chicago's Urban Labs are assisting the police

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in its efforts to integrate this technology into its operations.

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We have a lot of expertise in analysing crime patterns

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and trends in the city, from years of working with data

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And so we are leveraging that expertise to really help

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the Police Department think about where it should be

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allocating its resources to be most effective.

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So what kind of data or information is it that the police are providing

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We have a number of datasets that we work with from them,

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including data on crime patterns, actual crime incidents,

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A number of different methods of analysis are used,

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including machine learning and predictive analytics.

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This is software which takes large volumes of data and tries

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These trends can then help predict where a crime might occur next.

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This is a heat map of homicides in District 7.

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And we are looking at this year over year, from 2011 to 2016.

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And basically, what you see on the map is the darker the red,

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the more concentrated homicides were in a given area.

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What sort of factors are you finding are influencing crime in these

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Yeah, so, most of the prediction that we're doing is space-based.

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So, yeah, it's locations that are nearby that

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are high-risk locations, like a 24-hour liquor

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store, a gas station, where people tend to congregate.

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The weather seems to be playing a very big role in the data.

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You know, we've just had a beautiful weekend and we just had

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significantly worse amount of shootings than we had

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The police are using these predictive tools to inform

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the deployment of officers and resources to areas

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where they think crimes are likely to occur.

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Neighbourhoods in Chicago's West and South Side are some

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It is these neighbourhoods which have been chosen to test

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We are just driving through Chicago's South Side now.

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Now, this is one of the areas which has experienced the highest

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incidence of violent crime, mainly gun and drug related.

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To see how all of this different kit works,

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I'm on my way to a police station which acts as a command

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centre, bringing all of the technologies together.

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Heading up the project is Deputy Chief Jonathan Lewen

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So this is our Strategic Decision Support Center.

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So this is where you bring all of your different

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This is the first time that this level of technology

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integration has been done, not only here, I think,

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So what can we see on the screens we have got around us?

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So, all around us are various sensor inputs, cameras, gunshot detection.

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The screen behind you is something called Hunch Lab,

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which is a geographic prediction tool that brings a lot of data

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into a model to predict risk for future violence.

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So what you are seeing on these little boxes here are areas

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where the model is recommending that we deploy resources

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and implement strategies to fight some of the violence

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And then it is telling us that we should deploy resources,

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visit businesses, do foot patrol, various tactics.

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Shot Spotter just very quickly triangulates possible gunshot events

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using acoustic sensors that are located throughout the district,

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and it shows the officer exactly where, accurate to within 25 yards,

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And you can actually play the audio of the gunshot event,

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So here's an event with nine rounds fired.

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And in this case, you can see the location is actually

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the back yard of a house, so that's going to be very accurate.

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So this is the decision support system and this

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is where everything comes together in one place.

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It will soon be available in the hands of officers on smartphones.

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So in this case, we are looking at a 911 call of a robbery that just

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There are four cameras within a 300 foot radius of that call.

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Here is the real-time video from those cameras.

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These guys here, these are possible suspects, or...

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These are people that might possibly be involved?

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How do we know that this is identifying the right people?

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We find when we test and measure them, that the model's

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recommendations, because we can backdate it, we can look

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at a known outcome period and see how it performs.

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And we know that it's picking the right people because we know

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But some of this technology is proving to be controversial,

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It's called the Strategic Subjects List.

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and locations, this list is concerned with predicting crimes

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Just like Hunch Lab is a place-based risk model, this is a person-based

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risk model that is looking at variables such as arrest

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activity, so have you been arrested for a gun offence in the past?

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So it's using some crime victim data.

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Is your trend line in criminal activity increasing or decreasing?

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What was your age at the time you were last arrested?

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Nothing about race, nothing about gender,

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It is using objective measures to determine risk

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It's basically telling us that this person is 500 times more likely

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than a member of the general population to be involved

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in a shooting, either as a victim or an offender.

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So in here, we can see his affiliations, his gang affiliations.

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We can see also his, is this his arrest record

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You can see that he has a weapons arrest.

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He was arrested here for aggravated battery.

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So here's a first-degree murder charge.

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Here's another arrest, this is a narcotics arrest.

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So the score estimates how much more likely an individual is to be

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the victim or the perpetrator of a violent crime.

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The police use this score to inform what they call

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This is not designed to be a punitive tool.

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This is used to drive what we call a custom notification process,

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which is literally a site visit to this subject, to say,

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"You've come to our attention for these reasons.

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We want to get you out of the cycle of violence.

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We can offer you the following social services".

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Maybe if they have children at home, it would be childcare services.

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"But also, if you don't leave the cycle of violence

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and you keep committing crimes, you're going to be subject

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to enhanced criminal penalties", because you're a repeat gun

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And can you see why, if police officers go and visit

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somebody out of the blue, it might seem like they are being

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Everybody who has a risk score has committed a crime in the past.

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Otherwise they wouldn't even be in the model.

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Groups like the American Civil Liberties Union, though, disagree.

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They aren't happy about the use of some of these technologies.

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The police showed us a database of people who have been involved

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in violent crime in the past, and an algorithm which suggests

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if and when they might again be involved in a violent crime.

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Oftentimes in large numbers, along with a number

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But what they won't say is what social services are offering.

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Is it just them or is it their entire family?

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What is the success rate once that occurs?

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The fact is, is that most of the people who are charged for...

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You know, if you take two people who are arrested

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for a simple drug possession, if one is white and one

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is African-American, the African-American is far more

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likely to be charged, maybe even convicted.

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We have seen that there has been, you know, in essence,

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a "once convicted, always guilty" sort of theme that

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While there might be disagreements about the use of this technology,

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everybody I spoke to had similar ideas about an ultimate

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solution to tackling violent crime in Chicago.

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It's got to be every, everybody that's a stakeholder

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in this coming together to solve the problem.

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What is really needed across this city is a commitment

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I think a lot of it has to do with preventing, with healing,

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and creating a space where individuals can civically

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Well, that was Marc and this is Marc.

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The police said that the list is composed from people that have

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committed violent crimes in the entire State of Illinois.

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That is the prerequisite for getting on?

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They only consider people who have previously committed crimes?

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Yeah, if you've already committed a crime, especially a violent

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crime, you might end up on the Strategic Subjects List.

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Well, interestingly, earlier this week I spoke to DJ Patil.

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Now, until recently, he was President Obama's

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I asked him about this and this is what he said.

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Many, many deep concerns about the presence of these things.

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The fundamental one is the transparency of the algorithm.

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Very recently in the US, we had a case that was

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What was being used was a number of variables that

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And specifically, your race, your background,

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You know, these datasets of offenders, we also know,

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have oftentimes have an increased bias because of the way police

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enforcement happens, or is it happening in one

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neighbourhood versus another neighbourhood?

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Now, do I think there is merit in the use of this data?

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The way we saw it, and one of the reasons why we created

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the White House Data-Driven Justice Initiative, is that we realised

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that, hey, a huge amount of these people have other problems

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It was the week in which we learned that Disney has filed a patent

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Minecraft said it would allow content creators

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And Amazon promised to refund up to $70 million to parents whose

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children made in-app purchases without their consent.

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It seems some hackers like waking up Texans in the middle of the night.

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All 156 tornado warning sirens in Dallas were turned on at once.

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Officials haven't yet tracked down the person responsible

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for the midnight hoo-ha but say they were activated via radio

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An oceangoing robotic snake has popped up in Southampton.

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The Eelume has cameras and sensors so it can perform maintenance

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Could the boys in blue be about to go green?

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Behold, the Ford Police Responder hybrid sedan.

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The eco-friendly car features anti-stab plates in the front seat.

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But hang on, it's slower than the petrol model

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And finally this week, little green people in your living room.

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Globacore has released HoloLens, a virtual reality homage

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Guide your green-haired friends to safety across your worldly goods.

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Just don't expect a refund for either in-app or

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And for three days, home to four fundraising friends.

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They will traverse 100 kilometres over mountains and frozen lakes

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in temperatures as low as -30 Celsius.

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Group leader James' daughter suffers from mitochondrial disease,

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and this trek is to raise money for a charity that helps

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children with the condition and their families.

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These guys are all senior tech geeks by day, so to help

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them on their quest, we've equipped them with some

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Here we have all our technical equipment.

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Some people think this is a lunchbox, but it's not.

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But which of these extreme weather gubbins will actually do the job

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Suited, booted and sufficiently powered up, they head off

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One of the most vital gadgets we're using is this satellite

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So it's going to send Connor's wife, my wife, John's wife,

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Tuka's girlfriend a text message to say everything's OK.

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That's going to keep some of our tech kit that we've got

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in here from freezing up, particularly a load of battery

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We've armed ourselves with a whole load of different battery packs.

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This one here is the RAVPower, and it's designed to be worn.

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Here we have the ZeroLemon power bank.

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It is a little bit heavy but then again, it packs 30,000 milliamps.

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I'm going to hide the Nomad Tile trackable battery pack from James,

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Wow, maybe I should have hidden it better.

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Tuka, I think we made it just in time, my friend.

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Very happy to be at this wilderness hut that we just got to.

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I'm trying out the heated insoles today.

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We've got the GoPro mounted to the skis.

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We're headed off in that direction, about 34K, I think, today.

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The little GoPro Hero5 Session was left out overnight.

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I thought we'd killed it and I went and kind of scraped the ice

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off it in the morning, pressed the button, boom,

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So it's like, OK, that's seriously cool.

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I've been wearing a Finnish smart watch that's been

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As well as tracking your location, dropping a breadcrumb of GPS

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coordinates as you move, so once you've done something,

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I'm just going to save that up on the touchscreen.

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The biggest thing I've found was that it gives

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you so much encouragement, you know, when you're

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wrecked and you're about to die after 12 hours.

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The heated soles in the boot are working quite nicely,

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So here we have the Blaze Spark infrared lens.

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Keen to capture the Northern Lights, Connor's got a smartphone

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You download a app called Blaze Spark.

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Very simple to load, and once you connect the camera,

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the app automatically starts and your phone becomes

:19:34.:19:35.

OK, because we had to lug quite a lot of stuff across the Arctic,

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there's some bits of kit we didn't take with us.

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It's got a fan inside it, so as you light the fire,

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it blows air through the bottom, causes it to really combust quickly.

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It's also got an integrated battery pack.

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And it actually converts heat into electricity and keeps

:19:56.:19:58.

So this thing has got a USB slot and the phone is on charge.

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This hand has got a heated glove on it.

:20:06.:20:17.

It's quite a lot of weight you're carrying and you can only charge

:20:18.:20:28.

them up from the mains, so if, like us, you're trekking

:20:29.:20:31.

out in the wilderness for a few days, they are not

:20:32.:20:33.

The gloves or the socks, I'll take the gloves.

:20:34.:20:43.

Invent a great glove, because that would, I'd buy

:20:44.:20:45.

Filling our water bucket for boiling.

:20:46.:20:53.

We don't want to go and fall in there because

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Sadly, Connor didn't manage to capture the Northern Lights

:20:57.:21:03.

on his night-vision cam but he did take these beautiful

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My activity levels, even though I've been trekking

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for two days solidly, it only gives me 83 out of 100!

:21:23.:21:25.

It keeps you on your toes, knowing how much sleep you need.

:21:26.:21:31.

It tells you how much REM sleep you had, how much light sleep

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you had and how much deep sleep you had.

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And it records, therefore, on the basis of that

:21:38.:21:39.

and the day's activities, the previous day's activities

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When you know you've got that measurement happening all the time,

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it reminds you to look after yourself and

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I've been wearing thermic heated insoles now for a couple of days.

:21:51.:21:56.

The cable coming out the back of the boot gave me horrendous

:21:57.:21:59.

So I cut the cable off and just turned them into normal insoles.

:22:00.:22:06.

This is the Snow Lizard, fully waterproof, solar

:22:07.:22:08.

Even though your phone is very precious and this

:22:09.:22:16.

one is to me, for sure, you can do that.

:22:17.:22:18.

And they are diving around in the snow.

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We still have 21 kilometres to go on day three.

:22:27.:22:34.

So far, the crew has been really jolly and talkative.

:22:35.:22:44.

For some reason, there seems to be a little less talking now

:22:45.:22:49.

Blistered and bloody-toed, we approach the finishing line.

:22:50.:22:58.

That was the hardest thing I've ever done.

:22:59.:23:05.

You don't do this to feel warm and comfortable and cosy, actually.

:23:06.:23:13.

You get out to do something like this to raise the money

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that we have been trying to raise for the Lilly Foundation but also,

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And tech can take you so far, but ultimately, it's your brain

:23:21.:23:24.

and your endurance and so on that can take you all the way.

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But I would still like some heated gloves.

:23:29.:23:37.

Wow, what a great bunch of guys and what a great story, too,

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especially considering they filmed that all themselves.

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The good news is that so far, they've raised over ?17,000

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for the Lilly Foundation and we wish them and James' daughter,

:23:48.:23:50.

For more information on their story and everything else you've seen

:23:51.:23:54.

in this week's programme, check out Twitter.

:23:55.:23:57.

Time to get up to date with how we will see the rest of the day

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unfolding across the British Isles. In mixture of sunny spells and

:24:34.:24:34.

Click is in Chicago where the police are using tech to predict the location and perpetrators of future crimes.

And tough tech gets tested at the Arctic Circle.


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