Episode 20 Landward


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Episode 20

Dougie Vipond looks at the importance of mackerel stocks to the Scottish fishing industry and Euan McIlwraith meets the baker who still uses a traditional watermill.


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Hello and a very warm welcome to Landward, bringing you the best of

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life from the Scottish countryside. In a moment, Sarah will be finding

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out why hunting, shooting and fishing are not just for the landed

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gentry. But first, here's what else is coming up on the programme.

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Securing the future of mackerel stocks.

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We know as Scottish fishermen that the out-take from the stock can't

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go on indefinitely without having an effect and that's extremely

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worrying. Milling flour the old- fashioned way. How does it look?

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looks not bad. I'm quite happy with it. Very sweet. Yes. You can't get

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better than that. And on Armistice Day, we tell the story of the 51st

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Highland Division. The warfare in the trenches, the deprivation, it

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is hard to envisage just how horrid the First World War was.

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Scottish country sports are amongst the most famous in the world, but

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sometimes they are seen as elitist and expensive. Last year an

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initiative was set up to change this perception. Sarah donned her

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plus-fours to find out just how easy it is to go hunting, shooting

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High up in the Perthshire Hills a rather strange animal has made

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itself at home and is one that might just be here to stay. These

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cardboard creatures might just become a more common sight in the

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Scottish hills as it's hoped they of the answer to retaining an

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industry worth an estimated �200 Pull. Country sports are big

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business for Scotland's economy, but unless participants are

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encouraged to come forward, there are concerns that some of these

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long-standing traditions may die out. That's the thinking behind the

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Scottish Country Sports Experience, a series of courses aimed at

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complete beginners. The Scottish Country Sports Tourism Group

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developed the Scottish Country Sports Experience as part of their

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remit to introduce newcomers to country sports. It's aimed purely

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at beginners, so we're trying to encourage newcomers into the sport.

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They are taster sessions, fun taster sessions that cost just �50.

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So it's a very cheap way to actually come along and have a go

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and try out the experience, whether After their classroom session, the

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novice deerstalkers are taken up into the hills in search of deer,

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or in this case, deer with a difference. Do you want to take

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that stick? That's lovely. Thank you. I've closed the rifle on an

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empty chamber and I applied the safety catch. Never done anything

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like this before, so very excited. What about you, Fraser? Some clay

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pigeon shooting in the past, but this is a first for out on the

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range. What we've done is we've glassed this area and we've

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identified there's a couple of deer out on the hill. So what I want you

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to do now is have a look through and see which one's the male, which

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one's female. Laura and Fraser are in the capable hands of Kenny, an

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experienced stalker and gamekeeper. Stalking is not just about going

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for a walk in the woods. There is a lot of field craft involved.

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There's a lot of knowledge that the stalker themselves have to gain and

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that comes with time and spending time in the woods. Anything that's

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in front and directly in line with the wind from us now, they are

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going to spook and they are going to head off. The perception is that

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it is an elitist sport, it's wealthy people that do it, but is

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that always the case? No, no. I think anybody can do this sport,

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which can start of at around about �50. But yes, there is the top end

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as well. Shut the bolt. Do I have a volunteer? With a whole new range

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of skills under their belts, the session ends with a chance for

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Fraser and Laura to test their skills on the firing range with a

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real rifle. Once you are comfortable on the targets, take a

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couple of good breaths, second one just half way out. OK. Did I hit

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her? I don't know. Fraser and Laura both get several shots at the

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target, but they won't know how they've got on until they go down

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and take a look. How rewarding is it to see people going away with

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smiles on their faces? Well I wouldn't be sitting out here in the

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rain with you today if I didn't think it was important. Of course

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it's very important. Very often it's the only wy that people can

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get into a sport. So it's these kinds of opportunities that are

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very important. OK, guys. How did you get on. Better than expected,

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actually. Let's see, Fraser. That is almost a bull's eye. Look at

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that. What about you, Laura? Not as good as Fraser, unfortunately. A

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little bit of practice and I might get there. You were in the square

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though. Exactly. At least I managed to get some near. So how much have

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you enjoy today? It's been excellent. Really, really good fun.

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Just so different from what I expected. I learned so much today.

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It's been absolutely fantastic. I just want to do it all again!

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far, this course has been a big success and there are already plans

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to start a similar one in the Cairngorms next year. Hopefully

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schemes like this are the answer to keeping interest in uur country

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sports alive. Today is Armistice Day and this

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Sunday at 11 o'clock the nation's focus will be on the Cenotaph in

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London as we remember the soldiers who lost their lives in two world

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wars. The regiments of Scotland, past and present, have lost

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thousands of men in battle and this week we'll be finding out about the

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contribution made by the 51st The image of Scottish regiments

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marching to victory playing their pipes is an enduring symbol of

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British military might. When allies fought their way into Germany in

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1945, the 51st Highland Division The division deployed to join the

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British expeditionary force and found itself almost immediately in

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action. It is hard to envisage just how horrid the First World War was.

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The warfare in the trenches, the deprivation, the gruesome hand-to-

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Despite the deprivation and uncertainty of the trenches the

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soldiers of the 51st soon created a unique identity, which would stay

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with them when they were called upon to serve in the Second World

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War. The 51st Highland identity was a particularly strong one. So much

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so that during the Second World War in North Africa the 51st Highland

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Division identity almost transcended that of the individual

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regiments - the Black Watch, the Argylls, the Cameron Seaforths and

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Gordons. It became very much the pride to be part of the fighting

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51st. The 51st Highland Division complete the full cycle of a

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magnificent battle career. From the heroic losing fight of St Valery in

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1940, they have fought their way to this triumphal march. I suppose you

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could say that as far as Scotland and the Highlanders are concerned,

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the 51st Highland Division became and is a symbol of victory. But it

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was victory at a price and the 51st Highland Division paid dearly. The

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51st Highland Division, from El Alamein all the way through to the

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end of the war, lost over 15,000 officers and men, either dead or

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For nearly three centuries, the Highland regiments have been a

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constant threat which has been central to the history of Scotland.

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Today, they have been disbanded, but the traditions of the 51st live

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on in the Royal Regiment of Scotland. The Highlanders have been

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important to the British Army as a whole through history. It even

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survives to the present day in some of the names of The battalions of

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the Royal Regiment of Scotland. We still have three regular battalions

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and a territorial battalion that maintain that Highland link within

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their names even, within the new regiment and indeed the 51 Scottish

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Brigade that I'm part of, that takes its name back to the 51st

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Brigade and indeed the 51st Highland Division, who fought with

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Montgomerie in the battle of El Alamein. And young men will still

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join battalions that look back within the Royal Regiment of

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Scotland that look back to the old Highland regiments. Young men find

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it very much easier to look to a regiment or a battalion to give

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that their strength and loyalty because they see it as looking

:10:03.:10:13.
:10:13.:10:13.

The Highland soldier who we have demonstrated fought so well

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throughout the first and second world wars is simply be forebearers

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of those who fight today. The Royal Regiment of Scotland, the Highland

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battalions, the territorial soldiers are all the same people,

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whether they are in Afghanistan or Iraq, who fought on the Somme or in

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North Africa. It is absolutely a central part of the Highland

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fighting tradition that we produce Still to come - we go apple picking

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with a Dumfries and Galloway cider maker. We realise that there was no

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commercial craft cider maker within the county. People had apple trees,

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weren't using them and still buying apples from supermarkets. And the

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bread maker still milling his flower the old- fashioned way.

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That's the final product. You can see the wholemeal. This is

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The British seem to be having a love affair with a mackerel. It's

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widely regarded as an extremely healthy food source and despite

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recent European wrangling over how much fish can be caught, the

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mackerel fishing fleet is hugely important to the whole industry, as

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Peterhead, one of the busiest fishing ports in Europe and home to

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the UK's pelagic sector, fish like The market for mackerel took off

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after the herring industry crashed in the 1970s. An enterprising group

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of fishermen took advantage of this new market and set about

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modernising the fleet. These elegant, multi-million-pound

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vessels are symbolic of their success. There are only 27 in the

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Scottish fleet, but with nets up to a mile long, their catches are huge.

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Very impressive, isn't it? Wow, look at this! I'm going to sit in

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the captain's chair, definitely. In order to catch their agreed quota,

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the mackerel fishermen need only go out to sea for a few weeks each

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year. This well-managed fishery has provided over 20 years of

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sustainable stock and proved the most valuable assets to the

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Scottish industry. But there's trouble brewing. In recent years,

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Icelandic and Faroes Ways fishermen have substantially increased their

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catches way beyond any agreement. In fact, they are catching so much

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just now, they're tipping the scales on what scientists say is

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sustainable. The situation is completely out of hand as far as

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we're concerned and the ironic thing is the pelagic fleets in both

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of those countries have not benefited from this. When the fish

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is at its best quality is when stock is in our waters. So in

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economic terms for them, they are fishing stock when it's a very poor,

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the fish are soft, they're full of oil and it's a very limited market.

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We are not saying that Iceland and Faroes shouldn't have a share in

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fishery. The absolute opposite. They should have a share in fishery,

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but it's at what level? Mackerel is the lifeblood of the Scottish

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pelagic fleet. This fishery provides 90% of its income and it's

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not just the catching sector that benefits. A whole network of

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support industries and processers, like this one at Peterhead, all

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In recent years, have you seen In recent years, have you seen

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mackerel increasing in popularity? They is a tremendous demand for

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seafood in general, particularly for mackerel.

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Why is that, do you think? Well, it's healthy, and I think the

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markets have developed a lot in the last 20 years.

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More and more people are aware of the health benefits of mackerel.

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And what are your markets? The main markets are Eastern

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Europeans, France, Germany, Holland, Israel, Spain - there's not a

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country in the world which buys mackerel that doesn't have Scottish

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fish. You can see the quality of the

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fishing vessels, they are a very high standard of vessel, which

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obviously demands a very high standard product. So, we have

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developed over the years a very good reputation for Scottish

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For Scotland to continue providing first-class mackerel to the world,

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it needs to know if it's fish stocks are secure. In an attempt to

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settle the dispute over quotas, all the relevant parties met in London

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a few weeks ago. But, as yet, no agreement is on the horizon. If we

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look at the situation with blue whiting, it was exactly the same -

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a migratory and international stock and fishery, the same situation,

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disputes over shares. And it actually took - somebody

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told me, I was not involved at the time - but somewhere in the region

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of 30 meetings to resolve that one, and I think we are that 12 with

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mackerel, so this may run a while yet. The one thing we have in our

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favour is that the stock is very healthy, but we know, as Scottish

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fishermen, that the outtake from the stock from what is going on in

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Iceland and the Faroes can't go on indefinitely without having an

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effect, and that's extremely If you have a comment about

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anything you see on the programme or have a wonderful story to share

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with us, drop us an e-mail. Now, the weather here at Castle

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Campbell is absolutely glorious. What about the prospect for this

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weekend and beyond? To find out, here is the Landward weather

:16:22.:16:32.
:16:32.:16:35.

Good evening. We have seen some unseasonably mild weather over the

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last few days and it is said to continue during this weekend.

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Tomorrow will be largely dry but some bright and sunny spells. We

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have a band of rain pushing across the country over right tonight, but

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it will clear quite quickly. Tomorrow morning at the rain will

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be largely confined to Shetland. Starting off quite cloudy with

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scattered showers around the north- west, these will die out through

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the day. For the large part it will be a dry day with some bright and

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sunny spells. Temperature wise, highs will be around 11 or 12

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Celsius, a little cooler than today. The exception is the north-east

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where we will see the best of the sunshine and temperatures, around

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14 Celsius, and there has not been that much sunshine over the last

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few days or so. Towards the east of the country, temperatures on the

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summits will be around five Celsius, largely dry with winds 30-35 mph in

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a south-westerly direction. Towards the south-west, again around five

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Celsius, largely dry with some showers around the Argyll hills and

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:17:58.:18:08.

Lucky Bar. -- Lochaber. Winds will tend to ease down during

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the second part of the day. Tonight and tomorrow night it will

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be largely dry, a little colder and it has been over the last few

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nights lows around three or four Celsius and a chance of frost.

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We have high pressure firmly in charge dragging mild air from the

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south-east, which means Sunday will be a mild day, highs of 16 or 17

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Celsius in the north-west, very mild for the time of year. That is

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the theme for the next few days, mild with some bright and sunny

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spells. In the new week, we still have high pressure in charge so it

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will be largely settled with dry weather and bright and sunny spells.

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However, winds will ease on Monday so it will be a little cooler than

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it has been, highs closer to 10 or 11 Celsius for most. End to Tuesday,

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we still have the area of high pressure building above us, are

:19:07.:19:12.

largely dry and settled with sunny spells, but a little cooler because

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the winds will not be quite as strong. That is the theme for much

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of next week, too. Into Wednesday, largely dry but sunny spells, a

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little cooler, around ten Celsius, still above average for this time

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On Landward, we love to celebrate great Scottish food producers, and

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the rolling hills of Dumfries & Galloway have a rich history of

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producing quality food, from Galloway beef to wonderful dairy

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produce. Over the next few weeks, Sarah will be finding out how the

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region plans to build on that tradition by adding to the range of

:19:50.:19:59.
:20:00.:20:01.

With a relatively mild climate, high rainfall and lush pasture, it

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is little wonder that Dumfries & Galloway has a reputation for

:20:03.:20:12.

But this area is also home to some innovative food and drinks

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producers, and over the next few And what better place to start than

:20:22.:20:29.

Chris Harrison produces cider purely from unwanted apples he

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collects from gardens and orchards collects from gardens and orchards

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in Dumfries & Galloway. Most ciders are made from imported apple

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Chris, two bags, we are ready to go. Is there a technique to apple

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picking? Yes, there is. We don't want to

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damage the tree, so from where the truss is, if you put your thumb

:20:53.:20:58.

there, you snip it away from there. OK, I'll give it a go.

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This orchard looks fantastic, but a lot of orchards are neglected, why

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is that? Very much so. Basically, over the

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years the commercial side of apple picking in the UK has declined

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because of foreign imports, and that is basically down to back in

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that is basically down to back in the 80s the supermarkets were

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looking for a different type of apple, big and rosy, very similar

:21:14.:21:24.
:21:24.:21:24.

to one I've got here. Basically, if you compare the two apples that is

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a vast difference. This is a supermarket apple.

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Yes, and this is a Scottish grown apple.

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And now you have decided to revive the traditional art of cider

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making? We have in Dumfries & Galloway, basically because we

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realised there is no commercial craft cider maker within the county.

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People had apple trees, were not using them and were still buying

:21:46.:21:49.

apples from supermarkets, so we decided there was a resource that

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was going to waste that we could turn into a product.

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So, do you think we have enough? Yes, we have enough here to make

:21:55.:21:58.

some produce today, so we can take these back to the press.

:21:58.:22:02.

Fantastic. Chris and I are going back to base and he is going to

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make the cider, and hopefully I will get a taste. Of course you can.

:22:05.:22:15.
:22:15.:22:20.

Chris Mills the apples and then Then it is time to try last lear's

:22:20.:22:30.
:22:30.:22:31.

batch. -- last year's batch. It looks lovely. So, from picking

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and pressing, 12 months to being cider.

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Very dry, and the only cider I remember is from university and it

:22:40.:22:50.
:22:50.:22:54.

certainly did not taste as good as In days gone by, water mills were a

:22:54.:22:58.

common sight across the countryside. The power of water was used to turn

:22:58.:23:03.

huge millstones to grind wheat into flour. Nowadays, most bakers by the

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flour from industrial-sized bags, but one Perthshire baker prefers

:23:05.:23:15.
:23:15.:23:23.

There has been a mill on this site since the 1590s, and it is one of

:23:23.:23:32.

just 11 operational water mills The mill is run by Rami Cohen and

:23:32.:23:36.

his wife. They use the mill to produce bread that is sold in the

:23:36.:23:39.

tearoom during the tourist season, and at farmers' markets in the

:23:39.:23:43.

winter. Rami is going to show me how the mill works, and the first

:23:43.:23:53.
:23:53.:23:59.

thing you need for a water mill is So, this is your dam? What have you

:23:59.:24:02.

to do to make it work? Well, at the moment we have got

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plenty of water in the river, but not much coming down through here.

:24:05.:24:08.

This is blocked? Yes. We try to clear all the leaves

:24:08.:24:12.

and whatever is stuck over there. All the way down and then lift it

:24:12.:24:15.

This is obviously an ancient Scottish mill, but you are

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obviously not Scottish. No, I'm not, you can get that from my accent,

:24:20.:24:22.

probably. I am from Israel. I met my wife in

:24:22.:24:25.

Australia, and, unfortunately, her father had a water mill, so we

:24:25.:24:34.

ended up coming to help him for one year - 11 years ago. At the moment,

:24:34.:24:37.

all of the wheat Rami mills is imported from England, but today we

:24:37.:24:44.

are going to mill a batch of wheat We are having a scientific

:24:44.:24:47.

experiment, and we are going to mill Scandinavian wheat that grew

:24:47.:24:53.

around here. So, this was grown locally? Yes, it

:24:53.:25:01.

It is Scandinavian wheat, and it has been growing above Pitlochry.

:25:01.:25:04.

The idea is, instead of trying to bring in wheat from down south,

:25:04.:25:08.

maybe we should bring it from the North.

:25:08.:25:11.

The problem with UK milling wheat varieties is that they were

:25:11.:25:14.

developed for the big farms in the south of England. They just don't

:25:14.:25:18.

go well up North. It was the Orkney Institute of Agronomy that

:25:18.:25:20.

approached Rami and the local farmer to try the Scandinavian

:25:20.:25:27.

The North of Scotland has a very different growing season, growing

:25:27.:25:30.

climate, to other parts of the UK, in particular temperatures are

:25:30.:25:35.

lower during the growing season and lower during the growing season and

:25:35.:25:39.

the growing season is shorter. North European cereal varieties

:25:39.:25:42.

have been bred for a shorter and cooler growing season than more

:25:42.:25:45.

southerly parts of Britain, and this means they tend to mature

:25:45.:25:48.

earlier in the north of Scotland than our UK varieties, which makes

:25:48.:25:58.
:25:58.:26:07.

them better suited for certain So, we have heard about the science,

:26:07.:26:10.

we have seen the wheat, it is time to fire her up.

:26:10.:26:20.
:26:20.:26:33.

This is fantastic. So this is the finished product?

:26:33.:26:37.

Yes, that is the final product, 100% wholemeal.

:26:37.:26:43.

I am quite happy with it. Very sweet.

:26:43.:26:46.

Yes, you cannot get fresher than that.

:26:46.:26:49.

Now what? Now the final proof we go and bake

:26:49.:26:56.

with it. Let's bake.

:26:56.:26:59.

The aim of all this experimentation is, of course, to create a tasty

:26:59.:27:08.

local bread that is low in food It has not risen that much.

:27:08.:27:12.

It could have done better, but it is not about volume, it is about

:27:12.:27:15.

flavour, nutrition. Never mind how it looks. The only

:27:15.:27:25.
:27:25.:27:25.

real way to do it is to try it. It looks quite good. Very nice. I

:27:25.:27:30.

am happy. And it is as simple as that. You

:27:30.:27:33.

take a baker from Israel, a scientist from Orkney, wheat from

:27:33.:27:36.

Scandinavia and bring it all together at a Scottish water mill.

:27:36.:27:45.

And it is well worth it. Yes, wonderful to see old

:27:45.:27:49.

technology still being used to produce great tasting bread. Now, I

:27:49.:27:53.

have just time to tell you what is have just time to tell you what is

:27:53.:27:58.

coming up on the menu next week. I will meet the unique ponies of

:27:58.:28:00.

Rum... They're extremely hardy, so they

:28:00.:28:03.

can live out in all conditions, we don't bring them in at night, they

:28:03.:28:06.

don't get pampered or anything. We will meet the Argyll hill farmers

:28:06.:28:09.

finding local markets for their lamb...

:28:09.:28:12.

Because we are so far out in the sticks from the central belt, which

:28:12.:28:15.

is the main market, it hadn't been done this way before.

:28:15.:28:20.

And we hear about a revolution in the Galloway dairy industry.

:28:20.:28:24.

Our neighbours think we are crazy, but now we've come to work it

:28:24.:28:32.

through, it seems it might actually So, please join us for that and so

:28:32.:28:35.

Dougie Vipond looks at the importance of mackerel stocks to the Scottish fishing industry.

Euan McIlwraith meets the baker who still uses a traditional watermill, and Sarah Mack discovers it's not just the landed gentry who can enjoy country sports.