The team head to the Isles of Scilly. Ellie Harrison looks at the problem of rats on the islands, while Matt Baker helps transport 50 ducklings to a duck farm.
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Where the warm rays of the spring sun first hit our countryside,
where puffins and other sea birds make their homes -
this breathtaking group of islands are the Isles of Scilly...
attracting thousands of visitors a year,
but not all of those visitors are most welcome.
I'm talking about brown rats.
They're thought to be partly responsible for the decline
in sea bird numbers but on St Agnes, they think they've eradicated them.
I'll be finding out how.
Matt's on his way here from the mainland.
And I'm hoping to be one of those welcome visitors,
as are my VIP travelling companions.
But to be honest with you, they're not the kind of passenger
that you'd normally expect to sit next to on a plane...
..especially as they have wings of their own.
Come on, then, let's get you on board.
Tom's down on the farm.
Hardly a week goes by without someone
being killed or seriously injured on our farms.
A couple of the culprits,
things cut can spear you or things that can kick you.
Why is farming quite such a dangerous business
and how can we make it safer?
I'll be investigating.
And Adam's visiting a dairy farm
where cows aren't the order of the day.
Now goat's milk and cheese is very popular,
and to get goats milking, they have to give birth to kids.
Finding a home for the billy kids, up until now,
has been a bit of a problem.
One farmer may have the solution.
Oi! Get off my ear!
White sands, sparkling seas,
and bursting hedgerows,
a gentle place,
A paradise they call the Isles of Scilly.
The Isles of Scilly sit about 30 miles southwest of Cornwall.
The biggest of the five inhabited islands is St Mary's,
where I'm about to embark on a sea bird adventure.
20,000 sea birds will soon be returning here to breed,
amongst them, some of our rarest -
endangered species like the Manx shearwater and the storm petrel.
I'm hitching a ride with the children of the Five Islands School,
hoping to catch a glimpse of some of these rare sea birds.
What have we got there? Let's have a look.
We've got some kittiwakes!
It may be a bit early in the season
for the shearwaters and storm petrels,
but the kittiwakes are already here in good numbers.
This is the first good day that teacher Lucy Greenlaw
has been able to take the pupils out.
There's that seal. Can you see?
Lucy, do you find that they learn better out here
-than they do in the classroom?
We've been learning about sea birds for a couple of weeks now
and just having this trip has really engaged them
and really inspired them. They just love it.
Why do you think they learn better in this environment?
-It's first-hand experience, isn't it? Rather than looking in books.
Just being out in the open air is just a fantastic opportunity.
I've been really impressed by their sea bird knowledge.
We've got to teach these children about the sea birds
so they can look after the future.
And that's important, because the sea birds here need protecting.
Numbers have declined drastically in recent years.
Brown rats - a legacy of
the hundreds of shipwrecks in the waters down the centuries.
Literally leaving the sinking ships, the rats scurried ashore,
colonising all of the islands and threatening the native sea birds.
But now, something is being done about it.
Jacqueline Pearson heads up the Seabird Recovery Project,
a project set up especially to save the sea birds
by culling the brown rats.
The reason they're such a problem is we've got really special sea birds.
Particularly the burrow-nesting ones - the Manx shearwaters
and the storm petrels, and the brown rats are the greatest threat
to them on land because they eat their chicks and their eggs.
What makes Manx shearwater and storm petrels so vulnerable
is that they nest in burrows in the ground -
easy for rats to get into and steal the eggs.
We do have evidence of none of the chicks fledging
on St Agnes and Gugh because they're predated by the rats.
-So, there's been no fledging at all?
Not for a long time.
I mean, it's nearly in living memory we've had no chicks
fledge on these islands.
So right now, we're excited because
if we're keeping these islands rat-free now,
we should have the chicks fledging.
As far as they can tell, the rats have gone from St Agnes.
It's looking good for the sea birds.
One species' loss is another's gain.
What about the thorny question
of the ethics of killing one animal to protect others?
To put it in perspective, the Manx shearwater only breeds
in one more place in England,
which is on the Isle of Lundy in the Bristol Channel.
And the storm petrel, this is the only place it breeds in England.
So, these are incredibly special places for these sea birds.
Now, the rats were accidentally introduced and ethically,
it's a challenge for the RSPB
and their partners every day to make these decisions,
but we need to in order to safeguard and protect our important sea birds.
The community on St Agnes
have played a big part in ridding the island of rats - 3,300 in total.
Even though it looks like the rats have gone,
islanders like Rosie Felton remain vigilant.
Now the island has been rat-free since December
and now we have a monitoring system.
-So, these are stationed...
-Can we look at inside?
They're stationed around the island.
Ooh, what's that? That's really odd, it looks like a tea light.
-It's chocolate wax.
-I see. How does it work, then?
Well, the rats really like the flavour of these,
so they'll start gnawing away at these.
And it's just evidence that they've been there.
We have the Scilly shrew, which is native to Scilly,
and the difference is they have a much smaller bite,
so you can tell whether it's the shrew or the rat.
So, fingers crossed, we'll just have little pinprick holes
from the shrew and no big teeth marks from rats coming back.
St Agnes is just the start -
the bigger challenge remains,
ridding the rest of the islands of their brown rats.
But there's a problem -
the thing about rats is that they're excellent swimmers
and can easily cover two kilometres of open water.
Because these islands are so tightly packed together,
they can island hop.
To stop this happening,
you have to take out the rats from their outlying strongholds.
My next stop is Samson Island -
uninhabited, and beautiful.
And I'm here to do my bit...
..even if it means wading through freezing water little bit.
'The island has its share of brown rats.
'Up ahead, the orange hats are the Seabird Recovery team,
'already hard at work.'
-So, what's going on here, then? What's this?
-This is an ink trap.
Basically, it's biodegradable ink
on a bit of card,
and this we'll put into the tube.
The rat enters one side and he'll walk into the tube,
walk across the ink,
and then we get his footprints on the other side as he comes out.
We have them placed around.
We can basically pull out the bits of card, examine it,
-and see exactly what's passing in and out.
'Only once they're sure it is rats they're dealing with,
'then it's time to lay the traps.
'New Zealander Elizabeth Bell
'has done this kind of work all over the world.
'She's going to show me how to bait a trap.'
-Do I get one of those orange hats?
-I'm now part of the orange hat team.
-You're now part of the team.
So, as you can see, we've got quite a lot of rat sign here,
so we're going to put one of our bait stations here
to be able to target the rats.
So, you've kindly brought over the rodenticide.
Also, because it's Easter, I've brought some choccy eggs
-as I know they like chocolate.
-They love chocolate.
I know it's not going to fit in that square gap, though.
You're the expert. How would I do this?
The easiest thing to do is put the piece of chocolate
onto the wire and if they don't eat the whole thing,
they'll leave teeth marks on it,
so you can detect a rat has been in the station.
'Each station gets baited up with a bit of my chocolate egg -
'a seasonal touch for a serious problem.
'Maybe one day the rats will be gone forever.'
Jacqueline, do you think there will ever be a time
when the Isles of Scilly are completely free from rats?
That's the hope.
That is the dream for these islands, to protect our sea birds.
-And this is actually a global first, isn't it?
-Yes, if we could do this.
I mean, so far, it's the largest community rat removal project
that's happening right now on St Agnes.
So, if we can move to the inhabited islands
and work as a team to do it all,
we'll be literally leading the way for the rest of the world,
protecting our amazing sea birds.
I'm hoping Matt's own little flock are ready
to make the short journey over to Scilly from Cornwall.
MUSIC: "Three Little Birds" by Bob Marley
Forget the Caribbean.
Warmed by the Gulf stream,
the Isles of Scilly are our very own exotic island paradise.
And just a short hop from Cornwall, they're the perfect getaway.
But amongst the jet set today are a new breed of high-flyers.
# Don't worry
# About a thing
# Cos every little thing... #
All right, my little lovelies. Are you all right in there?
We'll be getting ready for take-off.
# Singing don't worry
# About a thing... #
Once a fortnight, the "cheep" seats on board the Newquay flight
are fully booked for VIDs - very important ducklings -
travelling in style to the Isles of Scilly's largest island
and main hub, St Mary's.
28 miles to go. Doing well.
If anyone's feeling a little airsick, just give me a quack
and I'll hand in the bag.
The journey for these flying ducklings began
just a few hours earlier on the Cornish peninsula.
Come on! Come on, slowcoach!
Tanya Olver is a rare breed among duck farmers.
She does everything herself
at her free-range duck farm near St Austell -
rearing, processing, and even hatching.
The majority hatch within 48 hours of each other,
but you'll get one or two that take longer.
Sometimes they need a bit of a hand.
Luckily, the membrane... Oh, wow, look!
Luckily the membrane is still pliable. So, he'll unfurl his head.
But I won't take him all the way out of the shell.
I don't like to do that.
I let them do that for themselves.
And I'll put him in the drawer with the others.
Tanya has spent the last seven years developing her own breed,
the renowned Terras duck.
It's a cross of traditional breeds that gives it good growth,
good flavour and a really good fat-to-meat ratio.
Sorry, there's one running around on the floor there!
Come here, you little devil.
See you later.
Tanya's Terras duck meat is flying out the door to chefs
in all quarters of the British Isles.
But she's recently hatched a plan
to export some of her hours-old ducklings
to be reared on the Isles of Scilly.
# Singing, don't worry
# About a thing... #
'And it doesn't matter how cute you are,
'there's no ducking out of airport security.'
-Good morning, good morning!
-Hello, Matt. Here are my ducklings for you.
-Yes, please go after them for me.
-How many are in here?
-There's 30 in there.
-Is there? OK.
-Well, say goodbye.
-Cheerio! Safe flying.
-Don't worry, I've got loads of travel games sorted out.
I can feel them all kind of puddling around inside.
This one's nibbling on my finger.
Morning! Do I just walk straight through?
Yes, come straight through.
SECURITY SCANNER BEEPS
Here we are.
-Right, and now, do we just reveal the cargo?
-Oh, look at them! Hello, guys!
Oh, you're absolutely beautiful.
Such a gorgeous, gorgeous golden yellow.
Just got to check that there's nothing in the box
that shouldn't be there.
There we are.
Can you just lift your little wing up and we'll have a look underneath?
There we are, that's all fine.
Just mind your little heads.
# Every little thing's Gonna be all right
# Singing, don't worry
# About a thing... #
Back up in the sky, we're making our descent
towards Britain's most southwesterly point,
the Isles of Scilly.
# Rose up this morning
# Smiled at the rising sun
# Three little birds
# Each by my doorstep
# Singing sweet songs
# Melodies pure and true
# Singing... #
Welcome to your new home.
Gosh, it's sunny!
-Right, here we are. Morning!
-How are you doing, all right?
-All right, Matt. You all right?
Now, you're not just here for the luggage, are you?
-Not just for the luggage.
-These are yours.
-Lovely, thank you very much.
Now, where is the farm from here?
It's just past that hangar there, and down through the gap, and we're home.
-Great, so we can walk?
-Yeah, we can walk.
-Perfect, let's go.
Part-time baggage handler and fireman Dave
and his partner Kylie run Salakee Farm on St Mary's,
the final destination for this precious cargo.
Right, so you work here at the airport, then, and you farm?
Yeah, I do three days up here.
It frees me up to do four days down the farm, so it works quite well.
-This is a great little route home, this.
-And this is your place, is it?
-This is our place here now.
It's beautiful with all the daffodils.
It's idyllic, Dave.
Not so nice when it's blowing a gale, but it's not bad today.
-Kylie, all right?
-This is Matt.
-Hi, nice to meet you.
-How are you doing?
They are just the most delightful things to hold.
They're all right at this age.
There, you can stretch your little wings now, and your little legs.
So, how did this all start for you? Where did the idea come from?
We looked into milking cows, we looked into veg.
You name it, we looked into it, really.
But this seemed to be the only manageable one
we could fit in around work, really.
And also this is something that's not done on the Isles of Scilly,
-so it's a real niche thing.
-What do you do with them, then?
You receive them here. What happens from this stage?
Once they kind of grow up, they go outside and live a nice
-free-range life, taking in the lovely views for eight weeks...
..which is two weeks longer than commercial ducks.
Commercial ducks have six weeks.
They then go to a big processing room and then they get delivered
to the general public or restaurants,
so they stay on the islands. So, nothing leaves the island.
Which is very different if you are, let's say, a cattle farmer?
A few people send animals away.
They go to the abattoir, they get processed on the mainland,
packaged, and then come back. But I just think you lose your control.
I mean, it's fine, but doing it this way,
we've got complete control of what happens to the meat.
And I presume you've had quite a bit of feedback from your customers?
Yeah, some really, really good feedback.
-On a winner here, then, Dave?
-Hopefully, yeah. I better had!
It's proving a real plus for the inhabitants of these islands
to be able to get their hands on meat reared
and readied for the table right here on the Isles of Scilly.
But it's not just the self-sufficiency
of these Cornish expats that's proving an attractive proposition.
Their taste is making waves among the island's foodie circles.
The moment of truth...
Just seems slightly weird, having just dropped off the latest batch...
-Don't think of it like that.
-Yeah, yeah, I know!
I mean, if you like duck, it doesn't come much better than this.
-Dave, do you have tea like this every night?
-Get a couple from the cold store and...
-We can't eat the profits.
Oh, my word. Thank you for a lovely, lovely time.
-I've thoroughly enjoyed myself.
-Thank you for coming.
But as Tom has been finding out, it's all too easy to forget
the potential dangers of working in the business of agriculture.
For many of us, farms are a picture of rural tranquillity.
But this picturesque scene masks a disturbing truth -
that agriculture is Britain's most hazardous industry.
In the last ten years, on average,
almost one farmer a week has died at work
and thousands have been seriously injured.
One of those was Darren Taylor.
Last October he was working on a farm in Yorkshire when the worst happened.
A farm worker's got caught in a potato harvester machine.
Initially we were told he'd been caught by his arm
but the crew's got to the scene now
and we've been told he's actually been caught by an arm and both legs.
The man on the ground that day was paramedic
Graham Pemberton from the Yorkshire Air Ambulance Service.
When we landed and approached the harvester, it was a bit graphic.
We could see Darren's leg protruding through the machinery underneath.
-Has that leg been in there since 6.30?
'It was fairly obvious we needed to give him
'some good painkillers straightaway.'
Hi, Darren, I'm Graham. We're going to get you out of here.
Everything's going to be good.
'We got his pain under control.'
We need some more oxygen, please.
'And then we started the process of getting him out of the machinery.
'It took about an hour.
'Darren's injuries were probably the most serious I've ever seen.'
I don't think I've ever seen anybody
who was as badly injured as Darren was who's survived.
Walk either side of the stretcher, yeah? Walk down. Just walk down.
'He's got life-changing injuries there.
'He's almost certainly going to lose two, maybe three limbs there'
of varying degrees. It's shocking, really, but these things happen.
Darren spent several weeks in hospital.
He lost one leg, the lower part of the other and half his left arm.
You work on them machines all the time so it's second nature,
but this particular day I just slipped, and it got me.
I mean, at the end of the day, I'm here.
It could have been a lot worse.
Six months on, Darren is still being treated for his injuries.
It's going to be a long road to recovery.
But the events of that day have stayed with everyone involved.
I think for every paramedic,
there are a number of jobs that accumulate over the years
that live with you and you'll never forget, and he's one of mine.
The Yorkshire Air Ambulance and paramedics like Graham
deal with at least one incident like this every month.
Farming accidents represent a reasonable proportion
of the work that we do, because of the nature of farm accidents.
The injuries tend to be quite severe,
so air ambulances are more likely to get sent.
The plant machinery they use is quite heavy,
so if you get caught up in it, it's going to inflict serious injuries.
Farmers work in places like barns and that,
which are very big, tall buildings
and so they fall off them fairly regularly.
When you go to a farming incident, you know you're almost certainly
going to somebody who's been quite seriously injured.
It's not just machinery that can kill or maim.
Farmers face a variety of dangers
from toxic chemicals to unpredictable livestock,
and all these add up to some horrifying statistics.
Agriculture employs less than 2% of Britain's labour force,
yet farming accounts for almost 20% of all workplace deaths each year.
The problem isn't getting worse, but it's not getting any better either.
And whilst death rates in other industries like construction
have fallen in recent years,
in the last decade,
the number of fatalities in farming has remained pretty much the same.
So, just what is the problem with farming?
The National Farmers' Union is extremely concerned
about the safety record of the industry.
Ben Ellis is their policy adviser.
We, as the NFU, think that the accident rate is too high
and we're doing our best to try and tackle the issue.
We see that a low accident record
is an indication of a professional and modern industry.
Why do you think it is that accident rates in farming are so high?
Well, it's a combination of factors, really.
Certainly, farmers are doing an inherently hazardous task -
be it handling livestock, using machinery,
doing maintenance on high roofs or moving heavy objects around.
And also, using chemicals as well.
So, there's a range of different tasks that they're doing
which are inherently dangerous.
Is there something also about the culture of farmers and farming
that they're quite sort of independent,
can-do, self-reliant types?
I think farmers, certainly, there's not a culture
of being reckless to health and safety by any means,
but there's certainly a can-do attitude.
Sometimes that can mean that they try to get the job done at any cost.
What we're trying to do is make sure that they don't do that
at a risk to themselves or others.
For the NFU, this is a problem that the industry
must urgently get to grips with.
But with no significant improvement in the last ten years,
the question is, can things change?
That's what I'll be finding out later.
I'm at one of the farthest-flung corners of Britain,
an archipelago of sand and rock, encircled by a turquoise sea.
28 miles adrift of the rest of the country,
the Isles of Scilly are further from the British mainland
than the coast of France.
Blissfully secluded they may be, but how do the islanders
cast away on these remote outcrops make a living?
Just 73 people call the Isles of Scilly's
least populated island, St Agnes, home.
Among them are Tim and Sam Hicks.
Their 14 acres, or around five and half acres,
make up the only dairy farm on the whole of the Isles of Scilly.
So, you've got Jerseys, then?
Yep, six Jerseys around on the farm and a couple of Ayrshires.
-The Ayrshire's give us a nice creamy whole milk,
that's the blue top we sell.
The Jerseys' is pretty rich
and the people that don't like the rich Jersey milk buy a pot of cream.
In their miniature parlour, with room for two,
Sam and Tim's small herd produce just enough milk
to meet the demand for everyone on St Agnes,
with a few pints to spare.
And have you always been a dairy farmer?
No, I started off the farm 30 years ago
doing early potatoes and narcissi.
The potato market died off, so we were down to just the narcissi.
But then the demand for dairy came in
and I've now given over completely to the dairy side of things.
And what a spot you've got here!
I mean, this is just extraordinary, isn't it?
Every day is different.
You've either got a rough sea or it's beautiful blue or whatever,
and it's changing all the time.
I don't get fed up with it.
'It may look idyllic,
'but being a dairy farmer on an island like this
'doesn't come without its challenges.
'It requires a fair bit of multitasking.'
-Am I doing your job here, Sam?
-Mostly this is Mum's domain, really.
Wow, now that is the definition of full cream.
It's extraordinary, isn't it,
that your family do absolutely everything.
No tanker that's going to come and collect the milk
and take it off to a big central dairy.
So in the fact that we've got the cows,
we've got to take it all the way through
and pasteurise it, bottle it,
and then distribute it out to whoever wants it.
Sometimes there's not much left over for the pigs.
There's pigs involved as well? Hang on, where do they come into it all?
Yeah, through the winter we do have a surplus on the milk,
because there's less people around on this little island
and so what we do is we get some pigs in
and fatten them up on the surplus,
and then they're sausages for summer when our tourist market kicks in.
-So, nothing goes to waste.
-We try not to.
-It's great. What a system!
The dairy industry is part of what makes the British countryside tick.
The sight of cattle grazing happily on spring grass
is a reminder of where our milk comes from.
But this week, Adam's at a dairy with a difference.
It's producing milk from another four-legged friend.
Goats are one of our oldest domesticated breeds of livestock.
They're farmed all over the world because they're versatile
and can cope in a variety of conditions.
Not only that, they're a dual-purpose animal,
which means they produce milk and meat.
In fact, almost three-quarters of the world's population eat goat meat.
So in places like Nigeria, China and India,
it's part of their staple diet.
But it's not so commonly eaten here in the UK,
although that might be about to change.
'Will Frost farms 2,500 goats for both milk and meat
'on this farm near Thorncombe in Dorset.'
What a lovely sight, all these goats.
Yes, it's one of the larger ones in the country,
-one of the larger herds.
-And why goats, not cows?
We were milking cows, actually,
and in 1996 we decided to go into goat milk production.
And how common is that in Britain?
How many people are milking goats now?
What we produce in a year in the UK,
it's about half of the cow's milk production in a day.
What are their temperaments like?
-Do you have to manage them very differently?
-We do a little bit.
They do get stressed quite easily,
so everyone's got to be quite quiet with them and gentle.
But if you handle them well, then they're lovely animals to work with.
Goats are sociable animals and like living together.
Will keeps his herd indoors all year round.
But wouldn't they prefer to spend some of their time outdoors?
They hate the rain, actually.
They're a sort of goat which traditionally comes from
more of an arid sort of background and warmer climates.
-Can we go and see them in the parlour?
-That would be great, yeah.
Will has an amazing rotary parlour
that can milk an astonishing 800-900 goats an hour.
But even with all this technology, it's still hard work.
They milk three times a day at 5am, 1pm and 9pm.
This is pretty impressive, Will.
This is the main milking parlour.
This is an 80 point rotary milking parlour.
How many minutes to get the goats all the way around the rotary?
It takes about a minute and a half to go right the way round.
How many litres of milk would you get from a goat in a day?
-About 3.5 litres.
-We're aiming for four at peak.
And what are they eating in the trough, here?
Yeah, well, they're eating just some pellets.
So they get a little enticer, just helps them come on every milking.
But they seem to enjoy it. It's not like they have to be forced on.
No, absolutely. It wouldn't go very well
if they didn't enjoy it because they need to flow well.
And it's part of their daily routine, I suppose.
Yeah, absolutely. They love their daily routine.
The goats know exactly what to do in this rotary parlour.
The idea is to keep things moving.
The nannies enter the system just like on a theme park ride.
And while they're happily munching on some nuts,
Will and his team harvest the milk.
So, unlike a cow, a goat is like a sheep. It only has two teats.
So they've got these cups or clusters to put on
and you can see the teat is getting squeezed by a plastic sleeve
and the milk is running down the tube, into a central pipe
and then it goes into a cool fridge tank out the back.
'It's this milk that's turned into a range of products
'and Will's invited me into his house to taste some.'
Right, we've got a test for you here.
We've got goat's milk in one of those glasses,
the other's got cow's milk.
-So see if you can tell the difference.
That tastes like cow's.
Mm! This tastes very similar, but a slight difference.
I'd guess that this one is goat's milk,
but there's not a lot of difference.
Well done. You got it right, actually.
A lot of people can't tell the difference,
but, I mean, the great thing about goat's milk,
it's fantastic for kids with eczema or allergies.
-Try some cheese.
-It's probably about 12 months old.
-That's got a good flavour. It's lovely, isn't it?
-Not too strong. Delicious.
-And this is a softer one.
-Eight weeks' old.
Mm! This is really creamy. It's delicious, isn't it?
With all these goats producing milk, presumably they have to give birth,
so half of the kids born will be male.
-What do you do with them?
-Well, we're finding a home for all the males now
into the meat market, actually. So we rear those on another site.
-Come and have a look at them.
-OK. A bit of cheese for the road.
'The kids are raised in a kind of goat creche.
'First I'm going to see the nanny kids,
'the young females that'll be used
to replenish the older milking stock.'
-How do you feed these, then? With a little bit of these pellets.
So they sort of have a little bit of pellets ad lib all the time.
And they're on these milk machines.
I see. It's mixed in the machine and comes out of the teat?
-Yeah, that's right.
-Oh, there we go.
And how difficult is it to teach them how to use that?
You have to train them. They'll get the hang of it in 48 hours.
-Really? So quite quickly.
So these are the female kids to replace the nannies in the herd.
What about the male kids?
That's been a bit of a problem finding a home for them, hasn't it?
It has done in the past, but it's fantastic now.
We're using a guy called James Whetlor, who's actually here today,
but we found a really good meat market for the billy kids.
'Former chef James Whetlor is a kind of middleman.
'And he's here to check out the latest billy stock.
'He buys goat meat from farms like Will's
'to supply top-end restaurants.'
So, what are you doing here?
We're just weighing them to see they're up to 35 kilos,
which is about what we want for slaughter weight.
-And how old are these goats?
-About five or six months.
How did the goat meat thing come about?
I moved back to Devon after being a chef in London for 12 years
and I got a job working for Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall.
We had four goats of our own, the time came to slaughter them,
I thought, "I'll put them on the menu at Hugh's
"and see what happens." And they flew out of the door.
And suddenly, a light went off in my head,
maybe I can bring the two together and I can sell goat meat in London.
Now, goat meat doesn't have a great reputation.
You think it can only be curried.
Yeah, well, we're not selling goat, we're selling kid.
Some of the people that use it say it is just like using a spring lamb.
They're much more versatile.
I understand you've got some deliveries.
Actually, I'm doing one this afternoon if you want to come along.
-Brilliant. Will we get to try some?
-Yes, you will.
'It's a nearby delivery to a restaurant in Bristol.
'Chef Matthew Williamson is going to be preparing some special dishes.'
-So, goat on the menu.
-Yeah. We love having goat on the menu.
It cooks really well and it's really versatile.
And how would you break this down? What sort of cuts do you use?
Well, from the foot to the head there,
we've got the shanks there which we'll cook traditionally.
The legs, we sort of barbecue those.
The loins on the other side, we sometimes like to cure them,
make a sort of ham-type product, which is really popular.
The breast, we tend to either roast or braise, a bit slower.
And then there's... The neck, we really love.
It's got really succulent meat.
And the shoulder, as well, we'll tend to slow cook.
-I'll prepare some of this and you guys can have some.
Here we've got some of the goat leg that's been seared off
and some of the breast that's been roasted.
Thank you very much.
Now, it's not as strong as I thought it was going to be.
I've eaten goat before, but it must have been adult goat
because I always tell people, "If you like strong lamb, you'll like goat."
-But actually, this is quite subtle in flavour.
-It's really light.
I think that reflects the young animal.
-This is a little bit of breast.
-That's some of the breast,
which has got quite a lot of fat on it. But it's not greasy fat.
That's lovely. That's got lots of flavour, hasn't it?
Congratulations, guys. It's just fantastic, isn't it?
Finding a use for an animal that is otherwise going to waste,
which is a travesty.
And here you are, creating a delicious, wonderful dish.
Luckily, Adam's never suffered a serious injury on his farm,
but as we heard earlier,
farming is one of the most hazardous industries to work in.
So, can anything be done to change that?
'Beautiful though they are, farms can be dangerous.
'In recent years, accident rates on British farms
'have remained stubbornly high.
'On average, someone is seriously injured every day.
'And last year, 29 people lost their lives.
'So, what can be done to make the industry safer?
'James Chapman is a young farmer
'who knows exactly how easily things can go wrong.
'At just 23 years old, he lost his arm while operating a slurry tanker.'
Without turning it off, I went straight in to check
the machine was running the right direction.
This bit here was unguarded.
As I leaned over it, it grabbed hold of my jumper
and it sucked me into the rotating shaft.
-It tore your arm off there and then?
-Yeah, ripped it straight off.
You must have been aware before and since
that this is a very dangerous business.
Like all these things, you think it'll happen to other people,
that it doesn't actually happen to you.
Unfortunately, it did happen to me.
'For James, one of the main reasons why farming is dangerous
'is the culture itself.'
In farming, there's a lot of people that are quite rufty-tufty.
There is that culture of, "Yeah, I work in a dangerous industry,
"but I quite like the fact I work in a dangerous industry.
"I like people to think of me
"as quite a masculine chap, if you like."
'Today, he's talking about his accident
'with students from Warwickshire College.'
Look at the machinery you're going to use
or the livestock you're going to be working with
and think, "Is this the safest it can be? Can I...?"
'Thanks to James and the focus on safety here,
'the message is getting through.'
It's a huge part. And it doesn't feel like it's a chore
because you're just told to do it from day one.
Last year, we had a full set of lessons all about it
and we watched videos of tractors falling down hills and stuff,
which was all quite scary and made you think a lot about it.
Usually, during the summer when you're busy,
you haven't got time to think as much because you're out working.
But it pays dividends to make the effort to ensure what you're doing
is done safely, because you may make a decision you may regret
for the rest of your life.
'These future farmers seem to have no illusions about potential dangers.'
But what about those who've spent their lives in the business?
The average farmer is in their mid 50s
and their attitude to health and safety
can be very different to students like these.
'The Health and Safety Executive is the regulatory body
'that monitors safety in the workplace.'
I gather you're advising on a way
-of stopping people being killed so much by these.
A remarkable number of people are injured by their own tractors.
'Rick Brunt is their Head of Agriculture.'
Why do you think farming is such a dangerous business?
I don't think it's dangerous,
I think it's an industry where the risk isn't well managed.
And people are so familiar with what they're doing every day,
they do it the way they've always done it and don't think about it.
So you think there no reason why it has to be inherently dangerous,
given the variety of risks we're talking about?
The variety of risks is there, but the ways people end up being killed
are exactly the same as they've been for decades.
They fall off roofs, they get run over by vehicles.
There's nothing difficult about tackling those problems
-other than attitude.
-You say, "other than attitude" -
-that is a difficult thing to change.
And all we're doing, everything we're geared up to do
is to inform farmers and support them and help them
so that they can understand those risks and deal with them.
'But have they got their approach right?
'18 months ago, the HSE began to charge for investigations
'where faults are found. That's led to concerns that
'people are less likely to report accidents, or even seek advice.'
One of the reasons farmers have told us they're not reporting
is that they fear you will come and fine them
or make them have to pay a lot of money,
so they'd rather not report it.
There's a multitude of reasons people don't report.
A belief they don't have to, that it doesn't apply to them,
or, as you say, a fear.
From our point of view,
if what they've been doing is complying with the law,
then there's not going to be any prosecution.
What they get is an honest view of what went wrong.
'The National Farmers' Union
'feels that this is a policy that isn't working.
'But they do agree with the HSE that high accident rates are mainly
'a cultural problem and something that still needs to be addressed.'
The fact is, the number of fatalities on farms has remained
stubbornly high for the last decade. How frustrated are you by that?
And certainly, the number of accidents needs to come down.
That's what we're working towards.
But we are looking at a culture change
which will take time to feed through.
Is this a culture change you want to see happen or something you can
actually see evidence that things are beginning to change?
Certainly, health and safety profile
has been raised a lot with our members.
And we're hearing more and more of farmers
wanting to improve safety on their farm.
We're giving a lot more guidance out to members.
I think we are starting to see the green shoots of a culture change.
But I think it will take time for that to be seen in the statistics.
There is a lot of agreement that the attitude of farmers
is a key stumbling block to making this a safer business.
So in a farming industry that's so steeped in heritage
and history, this is surely one tradition that has to change.
We've seen that for the younger generation, safety is a priority,
but for the hundreds of thousands of people
already working on British farms,
a significant cultural transformation could be some time coming.
I'm in the Isles of Scilly, where earlier, I heard how the island
of St Agnes had dealt with its brown rat problem once and for all.
Here on Tresco, it's all about a quite different animal.
Not one they're trying to get rid of,
but one they're trying to encourage.
'These are the world-famous Abbey Gardens on Tresco.
'All sorts of weird and wonderful plants thrive here.
'As habitats go, it's about the last place you'd expect to find
'one of our best-loved animals.
'Gardener Dave Hamilton has promised me a sighting.'
Oooh, it's empty. They're hungry.
'These nuts are a bit of a clue as to who's going to be stopping by.'
-Right, there you go, Dave. How long now, then?
-Not very long.
I reckon they'll be pretty hungry by now, so it's just a case of waiting.
'And waiting a bit more.
There's something up there! Right in the background. Can you see?
'A red squirrel.
'One of our most beloved creatures,
'right here in the most exotic setting imaginable.'
Right there! Oh, in the sunlight. What a beaut!
'Red squirrels are not native to the Isles of Scilly.
'These were brought from the mainland.
'The first red squirrels ever to set a furry foot on the islands.'
What was the thinking behind bringing them in?
We know the red squirrel is threatened on the mainland
by the more aggressive grey squirrel,
so these islands could become a nice safe haven for the red squirrel.
We've got no predators, an abundance of food on the island.
So we can offer these squirrels a safe haven
and the plan really is for the numbers to increase here,
then the success story would be one day to introduce them
back to the mainland.
They tend to get them from the feeder
and bury the nut underneath the pine needles.
And how do they cope with all the flora here?
There are these firs, which is wonderful, but it's quite tropical.
There are some very unusual plants here.
We have got these plants from the southern hemisphere
and I'm sure a lot of them
would become a food source for the red squirrels.
We've got the proteas here and they're full of sugary sap,
so it's possible the squirrels might have a bit of a sugary tooth
-and perhaps start having a go at the proteas.
'Sweet tooth or no, hazelnuts will do for now.
'Here's an unwelcome visitor.'
-There's a rat there now, there.
'A brown rat -
'scourge of the island's sea bird populations,
'as I found out earlier.
'Does this spell trouble for the squirrels?'
On this thorny issue of getting rid of rats using the rodenticide,
how would that impact the squirrels?
There are ideas. One idea, for instance
we could try with the bait boxes,
is to lengthen the actual piping that leads to the bait box.
The red squirrel might be reluctant to enter that dark hole,
purely because natively, that's where its predators are hiding.
Another idea would be to perhaps introduce
humane traps over parts of the island.
But I'm positive there's always solutions to any problem.
'This must be like paradise to the reds.
'The gardens at Tresco are unlike anywhere else they'll have seen.
'There's all sorts here - plants, trees and shrubs
'from all over the world.'
The climate is mild.
There is hardly ever snow and even frost is pretty unheard of.
There are plants here that would fail in Cornwall,
just 30 miles that way.
'And the colour doesn't stop with the plants.'
These are beautiful golden pheasants.
I don't think I've ever seen a more beautiful plumage on any bird.
'Keeping everything in tip-top condition
'is head gardener Andy Lawson.
'It's a varied job and you've got to have a head for heights.'
What a view, I'm telling you!
'It's a good workout, too.'
Oh, yeah, that was good!
So you've clearly got your work cut out here, then, Andy.
Yeah. We don't try to do this too often.
It's one of the less common jobs. But the garden grows so fast,
even new year, this year, 234 different species in flower.
-At new year?
That must keep you cheery at that dark time of year.
It makes it feel like spring is always here.
I've got a favour to ask you.
I know these are all very special plants, but I wondered
if I could take a very particular Tresco bouquet as a gift for Easter.
We'll find you some from different parts of the world.
Perhaps a bit of Madeira, a bit of South Africa, a bit of New Zealand.
That's gorgeous. Thank you so much. I really appreciate it.
-No problem at all.
The flowers are my contribution to a special Easter garden
on the nearby island of St Agnes.
These are the children of St Agnes School
also gathering bits and pieces for their Easter garden -
a quiet little corner outside the church.
Can I have a look at this garden? Wow, look at this!
What is it about the garden that means it's all about Easter?
It's about around the time when Jesus was crucified.
What's the stones all about? Who knows what they're for?
That's the tomb where Jesus was put into after he died.
And some ladies who were following him
came to have one last look at him
and the stone was already rolled back and he was gone.
And the angel said that he's risen from the dead.
I've got one thing to add to it that I got from nearby...
Let me go and get it. It's not small, I'm afraid.
I've got a giant bouquet from the gardens at Tresco.
-Can I put this down in here?
-Who's going to have one of these at their house?
-Are you going to have chocolate eggs in it?
-Can I come to your house?
Chocolate eggs or not, you've got to admire the children's handiwork.
The Easter story told in sticks and stones
and shells from this picture-perfect island.
'We're being treated to the Isles of Scilly -
'a dazzling collection of gem-like islands
'at Britain's southwest extremity.
'I've already delivered some high-fliers
'from the Cornish peninsula
'to the island's main hub, St Mary's,
'to be reared from farm to fork on the archipelago.
'Now I'm on the diminutive island of St Agnes, population, 73,
'with the Isles of Scilly's only dairy farmer, Sam Hicks,
'for a milk round with a difference.'
Now, as a young lad, I used to do a milk round.
It was my first paid job.
I have to say, it was quite different to this.
-I used to deliver a lot more crates.
-Ah, right. In a place like this?
Not in a place like this, no. Didn't have the scenery.
-Mind you, I did used to get a fiver a morning.
-And my rates have gone up since then.
LAUGHTER I'm still on a fiver.
-Come on, I'll give you a hand.
-Let's get these on.
# In the street just after dawn when you can't hear a sound
# With me milk cart every morn I go upon me round... #
-Right, some whole milk for these guys.
-These are the people who run the boat service.
-Got to look after these people, then.
-Yeah, one large.
Your milk's here!
-Do you need anything else?
-No, I'm fine, thank you.
-Are you the milkman today?
-Well... Yes, if that's all right with you.
-Yeah, all set.
The good thing with plastic bottles, you don't have to get the empties.
No glass either.
OK, so there's two big greens here
and two big blues around the corner, OK?
-I'll pick you up there.
# In the streets just after dawn when you can't hear a sound
# With me milk cart every morn I go upon me round... #
It's just like the good old days.
-What do we need for the lighthouse?
-Two pints of semi-skimmed.
'With St Agnes' deliveries done, there's one last drop-off to go.'
So, I grab the whole crate and take the whole crate?
-Yeah, the whole crate on board, please.
Onwards. We'll see you when we do.
OK. Cheers, Matt.
How are you doing, all right?
-Good. And you? Shall I have that?
This brings a whole new meaning to the term "milk float".
'The smallest populated Scillonian island of Bryher
'measures in at a mere mile and a half long
'by half a mile wide at its widest point.
'This is the most westerly inhabited place in England.'
I see a sign that says, "Here." That'll do me.
End of the milk round. Oh!
-Is this for you?
-Oh, it is! Fantastic!
-All of it?
It's not just for me to have. It's for making fudge.
MUSIC: "Pure Imagination"
'Issy Taylor runs, unsurprisingly,
'Brier's only fudge kitchen, with her mum, Kristine.
'They make the fudge to a secret family recipe
'that they refuse to divulge.'
It's milk, butter and clotted cream,
sugar, condensed milk, syrup,
but there's another ingredient you haven't seen.
I won't tell anyone the recipe.
Not even my son-in-laws.
'Issy discovered the recipe in an old family cookbook
'when she was just 11 years old.
'She made the fudge to earn some pocket money,
'selling it from a table at the farm gate.
'20 years on and believe it or not,
'there's still an honesty stall here.
Scilly sea salt. That looks delicious!
Well, that's my rounds done and dusted. And it's been a real treat.
-That's a good manoeuvre.
-How are you doing?
That's a really good manoeuvre.
-Permission to come aboard, my dear.
-There you go. How are you doing?
-Good. What have you been doing?
-All sorts of things!
But look, happy Easter to you!
I've remembered to bring you something, too.
There you are. This is...
-Well, it's Scilly sea salt, but it's fudge.
-I can't wait for it.
What a wonderful way to end the programme.
That is all we've got time for from the Isles of Scilly.
Next week, we're going to be in the Yorkshire Dales,
celebrating what has been voted as 75 icons of Yorkshire.
-And I will be both in Whitby and on the Moors.
-And I'll be in the Dales, no doubt wearing a flat cap.
-Course you will.
-Hope you can join us then.
-See you then.
-Do you want half of this egg?
-I want all of it!
Because I definitely want to try some of that fudge.
Salt and sweet. What a mix!
The team head to the Isles of Scilly. Ellie Harrison looks at the problem of rats on the islands and the devastating effect they have had on the local seabird population. On one island, St Agnes, they have been running a seabird recovery programme which is the biggest island community project in the world - with all 72 residents on the island taking part. They believe that in 12 weeks they have killed 3,300 rats, so the birds will now be safe from predation.
At Penzance, Matt Baker boards a plane containing 50 ducklings, aiming to get them to the only duck farm on the islands. Matt also visits the only dairy farm on the islands, which supplies the only local milk. The farmer has ten dairy cows, but again it is a good way of keeping an income coming into the farm when the flowers have finished.
Ellie Harrison visits the beautiful, privately owned island of Tresco, where the signs of spring are all around and they have recently imported some red squirrels. The plan is to implement the rat eradication programme on Tresco, so Ellie finds out how they are going to protect the squirrels whilst they do this.
Tom Heap finds out why farming is one of the most dangerous British industries and looks at ways that we could make it safer.
Adam Henson visits a dairy farm where cows are not the order of the day. In this milking parlour, 2,500 ladies produce goats' milk every day. But what makes this farm special is that the farmer here has come up with an outlet for the billy goats too.